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Debuccalization or deoralization[1] is a sound change or alternation in which an oral consonant loses its original place of articulation and moves it to the glottis (usually , , or ).[2] The pronunciation of a consonant as [h] is sometimes called aspiration, but in phonetics, aspiration is the burst of air accompanying a stop. The word comes from Latin bucca, meaning "cheek" or "mouth".

Debuccalization is usually seen as a subtype of lenition, which is often defined as a sound change involving the weakening of a consonant by progressive shifts in pronunciation. As with other forms of lenition, debuccalization may be synchronic or diachronic (i.e. it may involve alternations within a language depending on context or sound changes across time).

Debuccalization processes occur in many different types of environments such as the following:[3]

  • word-initially, as in Kannada
  • word-finally, as in Burmese
  • intervocalically, as in a number of English varieties (e.g. litter ['l]), or in Tuscan (the house /la kasa/ -> [la 'ha:sa])

Glottal stop


/q/ is debuccalized to /?/ in several Arabic varieties, such as northern Egyptian, Lebanese, western Syrian, and urban Palestinian dialects, partially also in Jordanian Arabic (especially by female speakers).[4] The Maltese language, which was originally an Arabic dialect, also shows this feature.

British and American English

Most English-speakers in England and many speakers of American English debuccalize /t/ to a glottal stop [?] in two environments: in word-final position before another consonant (American English IPA)

  • get ready [''i]
  • not much ['n'm?t?]
  • not good ['n'd?]
  • it says ['s?z]

Before a syllabic [n?] following /l/, /r/, or /n/ or a vowel. The /t/ may then also be nasally released. (American English IPA)

  • Milton ['m?l?n?]
  • Martin ['mn?]
  • mountain ['mæ?n?n?]
  • cotton ['kn?]
  • Latin ['læ?n?]

Cockney English

In Cockney English, /t/ is often realized as a glottal stop [?] between vowels, liquids and nasals (notably in the word bottle), a process called t-glottalization.


In German, voiceless stops are commonly debuccalized before syllabic nasals in the following clusters: /mpm?, ltn?, ntn?, ?k/, which thus become [m?m?, l?n?, n?n?, ?]. For example, Lumpen ('rags') is pronounced [l?m?m?]. In some dialects, debuccalization may also occur before syllabic [l?], but this is less common.

Voiced stops are not usually debuccalized. However, many Upper German and East Central German dialects merge voiced and unvoiced stops at least word-internally, and the merged consonants are debuccalized. For example, Bavarian, Anten ('ducks') and Anden ('Andes') are both pronounced ['?n?n?]. Speakers are often unaware of this.

Glottal fricative


All coda consonants in Slavey must be glottal. When a non-glottal consonant would otherwise be positioned in a syllable coda, it debuccalizes to [h]:[5]

  • /ts'ad/ -> [ts'ah] ('hat')
  • /xaz/ -> [xah] ('scar')
  • /tl'u?/ -> [tl'uh] ('rope')

Scots and Scottish English

In some varieties of Scots and Scottish English, particularly on the West Coast, a non word-final /?/ th shifted to [h], a process called th-debuccalization. For example, /n/ is realized as [h?n].


In Proto-Greek, /s/ shifted to [h] initially and between sonorants (vowels, liquids and nasals).

Intervocalic /h/ had been lost by the time of Ancient Greek, and vowels in hiatus were contracted in the Attic dialect.

  • post-PIE *?énesos -> Proto-Greek *génehos -> Ionic géneos () : Attic génous () "of a race"

Before a liquid or nasal, an /h/ was assimilated to the preceding vowel in Attic-Ionic and Doric and to the following nasal in Aeolic. The process is also described as the loss of /h/ and the subsequent lengthening of a vowel or consonant, which kept the syllable the same length (compensatory lengthening).

  • PIE *h?ésmi -> Proto-Greek *ehmi -> Attic-Ionic ?mí (?) : Aeolic émmi (?) "I am"


In Sanskrit, /s/ becomes [h] (written ? in transliteration) before a pause: e.g. kmas ('erotic love') becomes kma?.

Additionally, the Indo-European aspirated voiced palato-velar *- became [?]: e.g. *b?ehús "arm" becomes Sanskrit b?hú?.

West Iberian


A number of Spanish dialects debuccalize /s/ at the end of a syllable to [h] or .


In many varieties of Galician, as well as in Galician-influenced Spanish, the phoneme /?/ may debuccalize (gheada) to in most or all instances; and are also possible realizations. There is also an inverse hypercorrection process of older or less educated Galician speakers replacing the phoneme of the Spanish language with [?], which is called gueada.


Portuguese is much less affected by debuccalization, but it is especially notable in its Brazilian variety.

Throughout Brazil, the phoneme /?/ (historically an alveolar trill /r/ that moved to an uvular position) has a rather long inventory of allophones: [r ç x ? ? ? ? ? h ?]. Only is uncommon. Few dialects, such as sulista and fluminense, give preference to voiced allophones; elsewhere, they are common only as coda, before voiced consonants.

In such dialects, especially among people speaking an educated variety of Portuguese, it is usual for the rhotic coda in the syllable rhyme to be an alveolar tap, as in European Portuguese and many registers of Spanish, or to be realized as or . In the rest of the country, it is generally realized as , even by speakers who either do not normally use that allophone or delete it entirely, as is common in the vernacular.

However, in some mineiro- and mineiro-influenced fluminense rural registers, [h] is used but as an allophone of (rhotic consonants are most often deleted), a mar-mal merger, instead of the much more common and less-stigmatized mau-mal merger characteristic of all Brazilian urban centers except for those bordering Mercosur countries, where coda was preserved, and the entire North and Northeast regions. Its origin is the replacement of indigenous languages and línguas gerais by Portuguese,[] which created , and r-colored vowel as allophones of both /?/ (now mostly /?/) and /l/ (now mostly [u? ~ ]) phonemes in the coda since Native Brazilians could not easily pronounce them (caipira dialect).[] The later Portuguese influence from other regions made those allophones become rarer in some areas, but the mar-mal merger remained in a few isolated villages and towns.

Finally, many fluminense registers, especially those of the poor and of the youth, most northern and northeastern dialects, and, to a much minor degree, all other Brazilian dialects, debuccalize /s/ (that is, [? ~ ?]) but less so than in Spanish. However, a mar-mas merger or even a mar-mais merger occurs: mas mesmo assim "but even so" or mas mesma, sim "though, right, the same (f) one" [m 'me?m? 's?]; mais light "lighter, more slim", or also "less caloric/fatty" ['ma? 'lajt?]; mas de mim, não "but from me, no" or mais de mim, não "not more from me" ['ma? d?i 'm? 'nw]. A coda rhotic in the Brazilian dialects in the Centro-Sul area is hardly ever glottal, and the debuccalized /s/ is unlikely to be confused with it.


In the Moldavian dialect of Romanian, is debuccalised to [h] and so, for example, s? fie becomes s? hie. The same occurred in Old Spanish, Old Gascon, and Old Japanese and still occurs in Sylheti.

Goidelic languages

In Scottish and Irish Gaelic, s and t changed by lenition to [h], spelled sh and th.


Debuccalization can be a feature of loanword phonology. For example, Korean allows certain coda obstruents, unlike Japanese. The consonants realized in Korean as unreleased voiceless stops ([p? t? k?]) may be realized in Japanese as glottal stops:[6]

  • [t?uk?] -> [t?u?] ('porridge')
  • [mok?] -> [mo?] ('neck')
  • [mat?] -> [ma?] ('flavor')
  • [tap?]-> [ta?] ('tower')

Similarly, debuccalization can be seen in Indonesian loanwords into Selayar.[7]


  1. ^ Trask, R. L. (1996), A Dictionary of Phonetics and Phonology, London and New York: Routledge, p. 106
  2. ^ O'Brien (2012:2)
  3. ^ O'Brien (2012:8-10)
  4. ^ Bassiouney, Reem (2009). Arabic Sociolinguistics. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press. pp. 158-161. ISBN 978-1-58901-573-9.
  5. ^ Rice (1989:144,150)
  6. ^ Whang (2012:2)
  7. ^ O'Brien (2012:28)


External links

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