DIN 31635 is a Deutsches Institut für Normung (DIN) standard for the transliteration of the Arabic alphabet adopted in 1982. It is based on the rules of the Deutsche Morgenländische Gesellschaft (DMG) as modified by the International Orientalist Congress 1935 in Rome. The most important differences from English-based systems were doing away with j, because it stood for in the English-speaking world and for in the German-speaking world and the entire absence of digraphs like th, dh, kh, gh, sh. Its acceptance relies less on its official status than on its elegance (one sign for each Arabic letter) and the Geschichte der arabischen Literatur manuscript catalogue of Carl Brockelmann and the dictionary of Hans Wehr. Today it is used in most German-language publications of Arabic and Islamic studies.
|Arabic letters||? / ?||?||?||?||?||?||?||?||?||?||?||?||?||?||?||?||?||?||?||?||?||?||?||?||?||?||?||? / ?|
|DIN 31635||? / ?||b||t||?||?||?||?||d||?||r||z||s||?||?||?||?||?||?||?||f||q||k||l||m||n||h||w / ?||y / ?|
|ALA-LC||' / ?||th||j||kh||dh||sh||?||gh|
|IPA (MSA)||?, a:||b||t||?||d?
|?||?||f||q||k||l||m||n||h||w, u:||j, i:|
Hamzah has many variants, ? ? ? ? ?; depending on its position, all of them are transliterated as ⟨?⟩. The initial ?alif (?) without a hamzah isn't transliterated using ? initially, only the initial vowel is transliterated (if pronounced): i-.
(?) ?alif maqrah appears as ?, transliterating it indistinguishable from ?alif. Long vowels /i:/ and /u:/ are transliterated as ? and ?. The nisbah suffix /ij(j), ijja/ appears as -iyy, -iyyah although the former is normally transliterated as -?, and nunation is ignored in transliteration. A hyphen - is used to separate clitics (the article, the prepositions and the conjunction) from words to which they are attached.