|Born||30 June 1911|
?eteniai, Kovno Governorate, Russian Empire
|Died||14 August 2004 (aged 93)|
|Notable works||Rescue (1945)|
The Captive Mind (1953)
A Treatise on Poetry (1957)
|Notable awards||Neustadt International Prize for Literature (1978)|
Nobel Prize in Literature (1980)
National Medal of Arts (1989)
Order of the White Eagle (1994)
Nike Award (1998)
(m. 1956; died 1986)
(m. 1992; died 2002)
|Children||Anthony (born 1947)|
John Peter (born 1951)
Czes?aw Mi?osz (, also ,[e] Polish: ['tswaf 'miw] ; 30 June 1911 - 14 August 2004) was a Polish-American poet, prose writer, translator, and diplomat. Regarded as one of the great poets of the 20th century, he won the 1980 Nobel Prize in Literature. In its citation, the Swedish Academy called Mi?osz a writer who "voices man's exposed condition in a world of severe conflicts".
Mi?osz survived the German occupation of Warsaw during World War II and became a cultural attaché for the Polish government during the postwar period. When communist authorities threatened his safety, he defected to France and ultimately chose exile in the United States, where he became a professor at the University of California, Berkeley. His poetry--particularly about his wartime experience--and his appraisal of Stalinism in a prose book, The Captive Mind, brought him renown as a leading émigré artist and intellectual.
Throughout his life and work, Mi?osz tackled questions of morality, politics, history, and faith. As a translator, he introduced Western works to a Polish audience, and as a scholar and editor, he championed a greater awareness of Slavic literature in the West. Faith played a role in his work as he explored his Catholicism and personal experience.
Czes?aw Mi?osz was born on 30 June 1911, in the village of ?eteniai (Polish: Szetejnie), Kovno Governorate, Russian Empire (now K?dainiai district, Kaunas County, Lithuania). He was the son of Aleksander Mi?osz (1883-1959), a Polish civil engineer, and his wife, Weronika (née Kunat; 1887-1945).
Mi?osz was born into a prominent family. On his mother's side, his grandfather was Zygmunt Kunat, a descendant of a Polish family that traced its lineage to the 13th century and owned an estate in Krasnogruda (in present-day Poland). Having studied agriculture in Warsaw, Zygmunt settled in ?eteniai after marrying Mi?osz's grandmother, Jozefa, a descendant of the noble Syru? family, which was of Lithuanian origin. One of her ancestors, Szymon Syru?, had been personal secretary to Stanis?aw I, King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania. Mi?osz's paternal grandfather, Artur Mi?osz, was also from a noble family and fought in the 1863 January Uprising for Polish independence. Mi?osz's grandmother, Stanis?awa, was a doctor's daughter from Riga, Latvia, and a member of the German/Polish von Mohl family. The Mi?osz estate was in Serbiny, a name that Mi?osz's biographer Andrzej Franaszek has suggested could indicate Serbian origin; it is possible the Mi?osz family originated in Serbia and settled in present-day Lithuania after being expelled from Germany centuries earlier. Mi?osz's father was born and educated in Riga. Mi?osz's mother was born in ?eteniai and educated in Kraków.
Despite this noble lineage, Mi?osz's childhood on his maternal grandfather's estate in ?eteniai lacked the trappings of wealth or the customs of the upper class. He memorialized his childhood in a 1955 novel, The Issa Valley, and a 1959 memoir, Native Realm. In these works, he described the influence of his Catholic grandmother, Jozefa, his burgeoning love for literature, and his early awareness, as a member of the Polish gentry in Lithuania, of the role of class in society.
Mi?osz's early years were marked by upheaval. When his father was hired to work on infrastructure projects in Siberia, he and his mother traveled to be with him. After World War I broke out in 1914, Mi?osz's father was conscripted into the Russian army, tasked with engineering roads and bridges for troop movements. Mi?osz and his mother were sheltered in Vilnius when the German army captured it in 1915. Afterward, they once again joined Mi?osz's father, following him as the front moved further into Russia, where, in 1917, Mi?osz's brother, Andrzej, was born. Finally, after moving through Estonia and Latvia, the family returned to ?eteniai in 1918. But the Polish-Soviet War broke out in 1919, during which Mi?osz's father was involved in a failed attempt to incorporate the newly independent Lithuania into the Second Polish Republic, resulting in his expulsion from Lithuania and the family's move to what was then known as Wilno, which had come under Polish control after the Polish-Lithuanian War of 1920. The Polish-Soviet War continued, forcing the family to move again. At one point during the conflict, Polish soldiers fired at Mi?osz and his mother, an episode he recounted in Native Realm. The family returned to Wilno after the war ended in 1921.
Despite the interruptions of wartime wanderings, Mi?osz proved to be an exceptional student with a facility for languages. He ultimately learned Polish, Lithuanian, Russian, English, French, and Hebrew. After graduation from Sigismund Augustus Gymnasium in Wilno, he entered Stefan Batory University in 1929 as a law student. While at university, Mi?osz joined a student group called The Intellectuals' Club and a student poetry group called ?agary, along with the young poets Jerzy Zagórski, Teodor Bujnicki, Aleksander Rymkiewicz, Jerzy Putrament, and Józef Ma?li?ski. His first published poems appeared in the university's student magazine in 1930.
In 1931, he visited Paris, where he first met his distant cousin, Oscar Milosz, a French-language poet of Lithuanian descent who had become a Swedenborgian. Oscar became a mentor and inspiration. Returning to Wilno, Mi?osz's early awareness of class difference and sympathy for those less fortunate than himself inspired his defense of Jewish students at the university who were being harassed by an anti-Semitic mob. Stepping between the mob and the Jewish students, Mi?osz fended off attacks. One student was killed when a rock was thrown at his head.
Mi?osz's first volume of poetry, A Poem on Frozen Time, was published in Polish in 1933. In the same year, he publicly read his poetry at an anti-racist "Poetry of Protest" event in Wilno, occasioned by Hitler's rise to power in Germany. In 1934, he graduated with a law degree, and the poetry group ?agary disbanded. Mi?osz relocated to Paris on a scholarship to study for one year and write articles for a newspaper back in Wilno. In Paris, he frequently met with his cousin Oscar.
By 1936, he had returned to Wilno, where he worked on literary programs at Radio Wilno. His second poetry collection, Three Winters, was published that same year, eliciting from one critic a comparison to Adam Mickiewicz. After only one year at Radio Wilno, Mi?osz was dismissed due to an accusation that he was a left-wing sympathizer: as a student, he had adopted socialist views from which, by then, he had publicly distanced himself, and he and his boss, Tadeusz Byrski, had produced programming that included performances by Jews and Byelorussians, which angered right-wing nationalists. After Byrski made a trip to the Soviet Union, an anonymous complaint was lodged with the management of Radio Wilno that the station housed a communist cell, and Byrski and Mi?osz were dismissed. In summer 1937, Mi?osz moved to Warsaw, where he found work at Polish Radio and met his future wife, Janina (née D?uska; 1909-1986), who was at the time married to another man.
Mi?osz was in Warsaw when it was bombarded as part of the German invasion of Poland in September 1939. Along with colleagues from Polish Radio, he escaped the city, making his way to Lwów. But when he learned that Janina had remained in Warsaw with her parents, he looked for a way back. The Soviet invasion of Poland thwarted his plans, and, to avoid the incoming Red Army, he fled to Bucharest. There he obtained a Lithuanian identity document and Soviet visa that allowed him to travel by train to Kiev and then Wilno. After the Red Army invaded Lithuania, he procured fake documents that he used to enter the part of German-occupied Poland the Germans had dubbed the "General Government". It was a difficult journey, mostly on foot, that ended in summer 1940. Finally back in Warsaw, he reunited with Janina.
Like many Poles at the time, to evade notice by German authorities, Mi?osz participated in underground activities. For example, with higher education officially forbidden to Poles, he attended underground lectures by W?adys?aw Tatarkiewicz, the Polish philosopher and historian of philosophy and aesthetics. He translated Shakespeare's As You Like It and T. S. Eliot's The Waste Land into Polish. Along with his friend the novelist Jerzy Andrzejewski, he also arranged for the publication of his third volume of poetry, Poems, under a pseudonym in September 1940. The pseudonym was "Jan Syru?" and the title page said the volume had been published by a fictional press in Lwów in 1939; in fact, it may have been the first clandestine book published in occupied Warsaw. In 1942, Mi?osz arranged for the publication of an anthology of Polish poets, Invincible Song: Polish Poetry of War Time, by an underground press.
Mi?osz's riskiest underground wartime activity was aiding Jews in Warsaw, which he did through an underground socialist organization called Freedom. His brother, Andrzej, was also active in helping Jews in Nazi-occupied Poland; in 1943, he transported the Polish Jew Seweryn Tross and his wife from Vilnius to Warsaw. Mi?osz took in the Trosses, found them a hiding place, and supported them financially. The Trosses ultimately died during the Warsaw Uprising. Mi?osz helped at least three other Jews in similar ways: Felicja Wo?komi?ska and her brother and sister.
Despite his willingness to engage in underground activity and vehement opposition to the Nazis, Mi?osz did not join the Polish Home Army. In later years, he explained that this was partly out of an instinct for self-preservation and partly because he saw its leadership as right-wing and dictatorial. He also did not participate in the planning or execution of the Warsaw Uprising. According to Irena Grudzi?ska-Gross, he saw the uprising as a "doomed military effort" and lacked the "patriotic elation" for it. He called the uprising "a blameworthy, lightheaded enterprise", but later criticized the Red Army for failing to support it when it had the opportunity to do so.
As German troops began torching Warsaw buildings in August 1944, Mi?osz was captured and held in a prisoner transit camp; he was later rescued by a Catholic nun--a stranger to him--who pleaded with the Germans on his behalf. Once freed, he and Janina escaped the city, ultimately settling in a village outside Kraków, where they were staying when the Red Army swept through Poland in January 1945, after Warsaw had been largely destroyed.
In the preface to his 1953 book The Captive Mind, Mi?osz wrote, "I do not regret those years in Warsaw, which was, I believe, the most agonizing spot in the whole of terrorized Europe. Had I then chosen emigration, my life would certainly have followed a very different course. But my knowledge of the crimes which Europe has witnessed in the twentieth century would be less direct, less concrete than it is". Immediately after the war, Mi?osz published his fourth poetry collection, Rescue; it focused on his wartime experiences and contains some of his most critically praised work, including the 20-poem cycle "The World," composed like a primer for naïve schoolchildren, and the cycle "Voices of Poor People". The volume also contains some of his most frequently anthologized poems, including "A Song on the End of the World", "Campo Dei Fiori", and "A Poor Christian Looks at the Ghetto".
From 1945 to 1951, Mi?osz served as a cultural attaché for the newly formed People's Republic of Poland. It was in this capacity that he first met Jane Zielonko, the future translator of The Captive Mind, with whom he had a brief relationship. He moved from New York City to Washington, D.C., and finally to Paris, organizing and promoting Polish cultural occasions such as musical concerts, art exhibitions, and literary and cinematic events. Although he was a representative of Poland, which had become a Soviet satellite country behind the Iron Curtain, he was not a member of any communist party. In The Captive Mind, he explained his reasons for accepting the role:
My mother tongue, work in my mother tongue, is for me the most important thing in life. And my country, where what I wrote could be printed and could reach the public, lay within the Eastern Empire. My aim and purpose was to keep alive freedom of thought in my own special field; I sought in full knowledge and conscience to subordinate my conduct to the fulfillment of that aim. I served abroad because I was thus relieved from direct pressure and, in the material which I sent to my publishers, could be bolder than my colleagues at home. I did not want to become an émigré and so give up all chance of taking a hand in what was going on in my own country.
Mi?osz did not publish a book while he was a representative of the Polish government. Instead, he wrote articles for various Polish periodicals introducing readers to American writers like Eliot, William Faulkner, Ernest Hemingway, Norman Mailer, Robert Lowell, and W. H. Auden. He also translated into Polish Shakespeare's Othello and the work of Walt Whitman, Carl Sandburg, Pablo Neruda, and others.
In 1947, Mi?osz's son, Anthony, was born in Washington, D.C.
In 1948, Mi?osz arranged for the Polish government to fund a Department of Polish Studies at Columbia University. Named for Adam Mickiewicz, the department featured lectures by Manfred Kridl, Mi?osz's friend who was then on the faculty of Smith College, and produced a scholarly book about Mickiewicz. Mickiewicz's granddaughter wrote a letter to Dwight D. Eisenhower, then the president of Columbia University, to express her approval, but the Polish American Congress, an influential group of Polish émigrés, denounced the arrangement in a letter to Eisenhower that they shared with the press, which alleged a communist infiltration at Columbia. Students picketed and called for boycotts. One faculty member resigned in protest. Despite the controversy, the department was established, the lectures took place, and the book was produced, but the department was discontinued in 1954 when funding from Poland ceased.
In 1949, Mi?osz visited Poland for the first time since joining its diplomatic corps and was appalled by the conditions he saw, including an atmosphere of pervasive fear of the government. After returning to the U.S., he began to look for a way to leave his post, even soliciting advice from Albert Einstein, whom he met in the course of his duties.
As the Polish government, influenced by Josef Stalin, became more oppressive, his superiors began to view Mi?osz as a threat: he was outspoken in his reports to Warsaw and met with people not approved by his superiors. Consequently, his superiors called him "an individual who ideologically is totally alien". Toward the end of 1950, when Janina was pregnant with their second child, Mi?osz was recalled to Warsaw, where in December 1950 his passport was confiscated, ostensibly until it could be determined that he did not plan to defect. After intervention by Poland's foreign minister, Zygmunt Modzelewski, Mi?osz's passport was returned. Realizing that he was in danger if he remained in Poland, Mi?osz left for Paris in January 1951.
Upon arriving in Paris, Mi?osz went into hiding, aided by the staff of the Polish émigré magazine Kultura. With his wife and son still in the United States, he applied to enter the U.S. and was denied. At the time, the U.S. was in the grip of McCarthyism, and influential Polish émigrés had convinced American officials that Mi?osz was a communist. Unable to leave France, Mi?osz was not present for the birth of his second son, John Peter, in Washington, D.C., in 1951.
With the United States closed to him, Mi?osz requested--and was granted--political asylum in France. After three months in hiding, he announced his defection at a press conference and in a Kultura article, "No", that explained his refusal to live in Poland or continue working for the Polish regime. He was the first artist of note from a communist country to make public his reasons for breaking ties with his government. His case attracted attention in Poland, where his work was banned and he was attacked in the press, and in the West, where prominent individuals voiced criticism and support. For example, the future Nobel laureate Pablo Neruda, then a supporter of the Soviet Union, attacked him in a communist newspaper as "The Man Who Ran Away". On the other hand, Albert Camus, another future Nobel laureate, visited Mi?osz and offered his support. Another supporter during this period was the Swiss philosopher Jeanne Hersch, with whom Mi?osz had a brief romantic affair.
Mi?osz was finally reunited with his family in 1953, when Janina and the children joined him in France. That same year saw the publication of The Captive Mind, a nonfiction work that uses case studies to dissect the methods and consequences of Soviet communism, which at the time had prominent admirers in the West. The book brought Mi?osz his first readership in the United States, where it was credited by some on the political left (such as Susan Sontag) with helping to change perceptions about communism. The German philosopher Karl Jaspers described it as a "significant historical document". It became a staple of political science courses and is considered a classic work in the study of totalitarianism.
Mi?osz's years in France were productive. In addition to The Captive Mind, he published two poetry collections (Daylight (1954) and A Treatise on Poetry (1957)), two novels (The Seizure of Power (1955) and The Issa Valley (1955)), and a memoir (Native Realm (1959)). All were published in Polish by an émigré press in Paris.
Andrzej Franaszek has called A Treatise on Poetry Mi?osz's magnum opus, while the scholar Helen Vendler compared it to The Waste Land, a work "so powerful that it bursts the bounds in which it was written--the bounds of language, geography, epoch". A long poem divided into four sections, A Treatise on Poetry surveys Polish history, recounts Mi?osz's experience of war, and explores the relationship between art and history.
In 1960, Mi?osz was offered a position as a visiting lecturer at the University of California at Berkeley. With this offer, and with the climate of McCarthyism abated, he was able to move to the United States. He proved to be an adept and popular teacher, and was offered tenure after only two months. The rarity of this, and the degree to which he had impressed his colleagues, are underscored by the fact that Mi?osz lacked a PhD and teaching experience. Yet his deep learning was obvious, and after years of working administrative jobs that he found stifling, he told friends that he was in his element in a classroom. With stable employment as a tenured professor of Slavic languages and literatures, Mi?osz was able to secure American citizenship and purchase a home in Berkeley.[f]
Mi?osz began to publish scholarly articles in English and Polish on a variety of authors, including Fyodor Dostoevsky. But despite his successful transition to the U.S., he described his early years at Berkeley as frustrating, as he was isolated from friends and viewed as a political figure rather than a great poet. (In fact, some of his Berkeley faculty colleagues, unaware of his creative output, expressed astonishment when he won the Nobel Prize.) His poetry was not available in English, and he was not able to publish in Poland.
As part of an effort to introduce American readers to his poetry, as well as to his fellow Polish poets' work, Mi?osz conceived and edited the anthology Postwar Polish Poetry, which was published in English in 1965. American poets like W.S. Merwin, and American scholars like Clare Cavanagh, have credited it with a profound impact. It was many English-language readers' first exposure to Mi?osz's poetry, as well as that of Polish poets like Wis?awa Szymborska, Zbigniew Herbert, and Tadeusz Ró?ewicz. (In the same year, Mi?osz's poetry also appeared in the first issue of Modern Poetry in Translation, an English-language journal founded by prominent literary figures Ted Hughes and Daniel Weissbort. The issue also featured Miroslav Holub, Yehuda Amichai, Ivan Lali?, Vasko Popa, Zbigniew Herbert, and Andrei Voznesensky.) In 1969, Mi?osz's textbook The History of Polish Literature was published in English. He followed this with a volume of his own work, Selected Poems (1973), some of which he translated into English himself.
At the same time, Mi?osz continued to publish in Polish with an émigré press in Paris. His poetry collections from this period include King Popiel and Other Poems (1962), Bobo's Metamorphosis (1965), City Without a Name (1969), and From the Rising of the Sun (1974).
During Mi?osz's time at Berkeley, the campus became a hotbed of student protest, notably as the home of the Free Speech Movement, which has been credited with helping to "define a generation of student activism" across the United States. Mi?osz's relationship to student protesters was sometimes antagonistic: he called them "spoiled children of the bourgeoisie" and their political zeal naïve. At one campus event in 1970, he mocked protesters who claimed to be demonstrating for peace and love: "Talk to me about love when they come into your cell one morning, line you all up, and say 'You and you, step forward--it's your time to die--unless any of your friends loves you so much he wants to take your place!'" Comments like these were in keeping with his stance toward American counterculture of the 1960s in general. For example, in 1968, when Mi?osz was listed as a signatory of an open letter of protest written by poet and counterculture figure Allen Ginsberg and published in The New York Review of Books, Mi?osz responded by calling the letter "dangerous nonsense" and insisting that he had not signed it.
After 18 years, Mi?osz retired from teaching in 1978. To mark the occasion, he was awarded a "Berkeley Citation", the University of California's equivalent of an honorary doctorate. But when his wife, Janina, fell ill and required expensive medical treatment, Mi?osz returned to teaching seminars.
On 9 October 1980, the Swedish Academy announced that Mi?osz had won the Nobel Prize in Literature. The award catapulted him to global fame. On the day the prize was announced, Mi?osz held a brief press conference and then left to teach a class on Dostoevsky. In his Nobel lecture, Mi?osz described his view of the role of the poet, lamented the tragedies of the 20th century, and paid tribute to his cousin Oscar.
Many Poles became aware of Mi?osz for the first time when he won the Nobel Prize. After a 30-year ban in Poland, his writing was finally published there in limited selections. He was also able to visit Poland for the first time since fleeing in 1951 and was greeted by crowds with a hero's welcome. He met with leading Polish figures like Lech Wasa and Pope John Paul II. At the same time, his early work, until then only available in Polish, began to be translated into English and many other languages.
In 1981, Mi?osz was appointed the Norton Professor of Poetry at Harvard University, where he was invited to deliver the Charles Eliot Norton Lectures. He used the opportunity, as he had before becoming a Nobel laureate, to draw attention to writers who had been unjustly imprisoned or persecuted. The lectures were published as The Witness of Poetry (1983).
Mi?osz continued to publish work in Polish through his longtime publisher in Paris, including the poetry collections Hymn of the Pearl (1981), Bells in Winter (1984) and Unattainable Earth (1986), and the essay collection Beginning with My Streets (1986).
In 1986, Mi?osz's wife, Janina, died.
In 1988, Mi?osz's Collected Poems appeared in English; it was the first of several attempts to collect all his poetry into a single volume. After the fall of communism in Poland, he split his time between Berkeley and Kraków, and he began to publish his writing in Polish with a publisher based in Kraków. When Lithuania broke free from the Soviet Union in 1991, Mi?osz visited for the first time since 1939. In 2000, he moved to Kraków.
In 1992, Mi?osz married Carol Thigpen, an academic at Emory University in Atlanta, Georgia. They remained married until her death in 2002. His work from the 1990s includes the poetry collections Facing the River (1994) and Roadside Dog (1997), and the collection of short prose Mi?osz's ABC's (1997). Mi?osz's last stand-alone volumes of poetry were This (2000), and The Second Space (2002). Uncollected poems written afterward appeared in English in New and Selected Poems (2004) and, posthumously, in Selected and Last Poems (2011).
Czes?aw Mi?osz died on 14 August 2004, at his Kraków home, aged 93. He was given a state funeral at the historic Mariacki Church in Kraków. Polish Prime Minister Marek Belka attended, as did the former president of Poland, Lech Wasa. Thousands of people lined the streets to witness his coffin moved by military escort to his final resting place at Ska?ka Roman Catholic Church, where he was one of the last to be commemorated. In front of that church, the poets Seamus Heaney, Adam Zagajewski, and Robert Hass read Mi?osz's poem "In Szetejnie" in Polish, French, English, Russian, Lithuanian, and Hebrew--all the languages Mi?osz knew. Media from around the world covered the funeral.
Protesters threatened to disrupt the proceedings on the grounds that Mi?osz was anti-Polish, anti-Catholic, and had signed a petition supporting gay and lesbian freedom of speech and assembly. Pope John Paul II, along with Mi?osz's confessor, issued public messages confirming that Mi?osz had received the sacraments, which quelled the protest.
Mi?osz's brother, Andrzej Mi?osz (1917-2002), was a Polish journalist, translator, and documentary film producer. His work included Polish documentaries about his brother.
Mi?osz's son, Anthony, is a composer and software designer. He studied linguistics, anthropology, and chemistry at the University of California at Berkeley, and neuroscience at the University of California Medical Center in San Francisco. In addition to releasing recordings of his own compositions, he has translated some of his father's poems into English.
In addition to the Nobel Prize in Literature, Mi?osz received the following awards:
Mi?osz was named a distinguished visiting professor or fellow at many institutions, including the University of Michigan and University of Oklahoma, where he was a Puterbaugh Fellow in 1999. He was an elected member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the American Academy of Arts and Letters, and the Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts. He received honorary doctorates from Harvard University, the University of Michigan, the University of California at Berkeley, Jagiellonian University, Catholic University of Lublin, and Vytautas Magnus University in Lithuania. The last institution also has an academic center named for Mi?osz.
His books also received awards. His first, A Poem on Frozen Time, won an award from the Union of Polish Writers in Wilno. The Seizure of Power received the Prix Littéraire Européen (European Literary Prize). The collection Roadside Dog received a Nike Award in Poland.
Mi?osz has also been honored posthumously. The Polish Parliament declared 2011, the centennial of his birth, the "Year of Mi?osz". It was marked by conferences and tributes throughout Poland, as well as in New York City, at Yale University, and at the Dublin Writers Festival, among many other locations. The same year, he was featured on a Lithuanian postage stamp. Streets are named for him near Paris, Vilnius, and in the Polish cities of Kraków, Pozna?, Gda?sk, Bia?ystok, and Wroc?aw. In Gda?sk there is a Czes?aw Mi?osz Square. In 2013, a primary school in Vilnius was named for Mi?osz, joining schools in Mierzecice, Poland, and Schaumburg, Illinois, that bear his name.
In 1978, the Russian-American poet Joseph Brodsky called Mi?osz "one of the great poets of our time; perhaps the greatest". Mi?osz has been cited as an influence by numerous writers--contemporaries and succeeding generations. For example, scholars have written about Mi?osz's influence on the writing of Seamus Heaney, and Clare Cavanagh has identified the following poets as having benefited from Mi?osz's influence: Robert Pinsky, Edward Hirsch, Rosanna Warren, Robert Hass, Charles Simic, Mary Karr, Carolyn Forché, Mark Strand, Ted Hughes, Joseph Brodsky, and Derek Walcott.
By being smuggled into Poland, Mi?osz's writing was a source of inspiration to the anti-communist Solidarity movement there in the early 1980s. Lines from his poem "You Who Wronged" are inscribed on the Monument to the Fallen Shipyard Workers of 1970 in Gda?sk, where Solidarity originated.
Of the effect of Mi?osz's edited volume Postwar Polish Poetry on English-language poets, Merwin wrote, "Mi?osz's book had been a talisman and had made most of the literary bickering among the various ideological encampments, then most audible in the poetic doctrines in English, seem frivolous and silly". Similarly, the British poet and scholar Donald Davie argued that, for many English-language writers, Mi?osz's work encouraged an expansion of poetry to include multiple viewpoints and an engagement with subjects of intellectual and historical importance: "I have suggested, going for support to the writings of Mi?osz, that no concerned and ambitious poet of the present day, aware of the enormities of twentieth-century history, can for long remain content with the privileged irresponsibility allowed to, or imposed on, the lyric poet".
Mi?osz's writing continues to be the subject of academic study, conferences, and cultural events. His papers, including manuscripts, correspondence, and other materials, are housed at the Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library at Yale University.
Mi?osz's birth in a time and place of shifting borders and overlapping cultures, and his later naturalization as an American citizen, have led to competing claims about his nationality. Although his family identified as Polish and Polish was his primary language, and although he frequently spoke of Poland as his country, he also publicly identified himself as one of the last citizens of the multi-ethnic Grand Duchy of Lithuania. Writing in a Polish newspaper in 2000, he claimed, "I was born in the very center of Lithuania and so have a greater right than my great forebear, Mickiewicz, to write 'O Lithuania, my country.'" But in his Nobel lecture, he said, "My family in the 16th century already spoke Polish, just as many families in Finland spoke Swedish and in Ireland English, so I am a Polish, not a Lithuanian, poet". Public statements such as these, and numerous others, inspired discussion about his nationality, including a claim that he was "arguably the greatest spokesman and representative of a Lithuania that, in Mi?osz's mind, was bigger than its present incarnation". Others have viewed Mi?osz as an American author, hosting exhibitions and writing about him from that perspective and including his work in anthologies of American poetry.
But in The New York Review of Books in 1981, the critic John Bayley wrote, "nationality is not a thing [Mi?osz] can take seriously; it would be hard to imagine a greater writer more emancipated from even its most subtle pretensions". Echoing this notion, the scholar and diplomat Piotr Wilczek argued that, even when he was greeted as a national hero in Poland, Mi?osz "made a distinct effort to remain a universal thinker". Speaking at a ceremony to celebrate his birth centenary in 2011, Lithuanian President Dalia Grybauskait? stressed that Mi?osz's works "unite the Lithuanian and Polish people and reveal how close and how fruitful the ties between our people can be".
Though raised Catholic, Mi?osz as a young man came to adopt a "scientific, atheistic position mostly", though he later returned to the Catholic faith. He translated parts of the Bible into Polish, and allusions to Catholicism pervade his poetry, culminating in a long 2001 poem, "A Theological Treatise". For some critics, Mi?osz's belief that literature should provide spiritual fortification was outdated: Franaszek suggests that Mi?osz's belief was evidence of a "beautiful naïveté", while David Orr, citing Mi?osz's dismissal of "poetry which does not save nations or people", accused him of "pompous nonsense".
Mi?osz expressed some criticism of both Catholicism and Poland (a majority-Catholic country), causing furor in some quarters when it was announced that he would be interred in Kraków's historic Ska?ka church. Cynthia Haven writes that, to some readers, Mi?osz's embrace of Catholicism can seem surprising and complicates the understanding of him and his work.
Mi?osz's body of work comprised multiple literary genres: poetry, fiction (particularly the novel), autobiography, scholarship, personal essay, and lectures. His letters are also of interest to scholars and lay readers; for example, his correspondence with writers such as Jerzy Andrzejewski, Witold Gombrowicz, and Thomas Merton have been published.
At the outset of his career, Mi?osz was known as a "catastrophist" poet--a label critics applied to him and other poets from the ?agary poetry group to describe their use of surreal imagery and formal inventiveness in reaction to a Europe beset by extremist ideologies and war. While Mi?osz evolved away from the apocalyptic view of catastrophist poetry, he continued to pursue formal inventiveness throughout his career. As a result, his poetry demonstrates a wide-ranging mastery of form, from long or epic poems (e.g., A Treatise on Poetry) to poems of just two lines (e.g., "On the Death of a Poet" from the collection This), and from prose poems and free verse to classic forms such as the ode or elegy. Some of his poems use rhyme, but many do not. In numerous cases, Mi?osz used form to illuminate meaning in his poetry; for example, by juxtaposing variable stanzas to accentuate ideas or voices that challenge each other.
Mi?osz's work is known for its complexity; according to the scholars Leonard Nathan and Arthur Quinn, Mi?osz "prided himself on being an esoteric writer accessible to a mere handful of readers". Nevertheless, some common themes are readily apparent throughout his body of work.
The poet, critic, and frequent Mi?osz translator Robert Hass has described Mi?osz as "a poet of great inclusiveness", with a fidelity to capturing life in all of its sensuousness and multiplicities. According to Hass, Mi?osz's poems can be viewed as "dwelling in contradiction", where one idea or voice is presented only to be immediately challenged or changed. According to Donald Davie, this allowance for contradictory voices--a shift from the solo lyric voice to a chorus--is among the most important aspects of Mi?osz's work.
The poetic chorus is deployed not just to highlight the complexity of the modern world but also to search for morality, another of Mi?osz's recurrent themes. Nathan and Quinn write, "Mi?osz's work is devoted to unmasking man's fundamental duality; he wants to make his readers admit the contradictory nature of their own experience" because doing so "forces us to assert our preferences as preferences". That is, it forces readers to make conscious choices, which is the arena of morality. At times, Mi?osz's exploration of morality was explicit and concrete, such as when, in The Captive Mind, he ponders the right way to respond to three Lithuanian women who were forcibly moved to a Russian communal farm and wrote to him for help, or when, in the poems "Campo Dei Fiori" and "A Poor Christian Looks at the Ghetto", he addresses survivor's guilt and the morality of writing about another's suffering.
Mi?osz's exploration of morality takes place in the context of history, and confrontation with history is another of his major themes. Vendler wrote, "for Mi?osz, the person is irrevocably a person in history, and the interchange between external event and the individual life is the matrix of poetry". Having experienced both Nazism and Stalinism, Mi?osz was particularly concerned with the notion of "historical necessity", which, in the 20th century, was used to justify human suffering on a previously unheard-of scale. Yet Mi?osz did not reject the concept entirely. Nathan and Quinn summarize Mi?osz's appraisal of historical necessity as it appears in his essay collection Views from San Francisco Bay: "Some species rise, others fall, as do human families, nations, and whole civilizations. There may well be an internal logic to these transformations, a logic that when viewed from sufficient distance has its own elegance, harmony, and grace. Our reason tempts us to be enthralled by this superhuman splendor; but when so enthralled we find it difficult to remember, except perhaps as an element in an abstract calculus, the millions of individuals, the millions upon millions, who unwillingly paid for this splendor with pain and blood".
Mi?osz's willingness to accept a form of logic in history points to another recurrent aspect of his writing: his capacity for wonder, amazement, and, ultimately, faith--not always religious faith, but "faith in the objective reality of a world to be known by the human mind but not constituted by that mind". At other times, Mi?osz was more explicitly religious in his work. According to scholar and translator Michael Parker, "crucial to any understanding of Mi?osz's work is his complex relationship to Catholicism". His writing is filled with allusions to Christian figures, symbols, and theological ideas, though Mi?osz was closer to Gnosticism, or what he called Manichaeism, in his personal beliefs, viewing the universe as ruled by an evil whose influence human beings must try to escape. From this perspective, "he can at once admit that the world is ruled by necessity, by evil, and yet still find hope and sustenance in the beauty of the world. History reveals the pointlessness of human striving, the instability of human things; but time also is the moving image of eternity". According to Hass, this viewpoint left Mi?osz "with the task of those heretical Christians...to suffer time, to contemplate being, and to live in the hope of the redemption of the world".
Mi?osz had numerous literary and intellectual influences, although scholars of his work--and Mi?osz himself, in his writings--have identified the following as significant: Oscar Mi?osz (who inspired Mi?osz's interest in the metaphysical) and, through him, Emanuel Swedenborg; Lev Shestov; Simone Weil (whose work Mi?osz translated into Polish); Dostoevsky; William Blake (whose concept of "Ulro" Mi?osz borrowed for his book The Land of Ulro), and Eliot.
Weronika would retain two passports throughout her life, while Czes?aw, as a child, had only Lithuanian citizenship.
Aside from a few internationally acclaimed authors such as Czeslaw Milosz, W.S. Kuniczak, and Jerzy Kosinski...Polish Americans seem to have produced little literature of their own.
Birth and death of Mi?osz's parents are noted on pp. 36, 38, 242, 243.