Coronavirus diseases are caused by viruses in the coronavirus subfamily, a group of related RNA viruses that cause diseases in mammals and birds. In humans and birds, the group of viruses cause respiratory tract infections that can range from mild to lethal. Mild illnesses in humans include some cases of the common cold (which is also caused by other viruses, predominantly rhinoviruses), while more lethal varieties can cause  SARS, MERS and COVID-19.  As of 2021, 45 species are registered as coronaviruses,  whilst 11 diseases have been identified, as listed below.
Coronaviruses are known for their shape resembling a
stellar corona, such as that of the Sun visible during a total solar eclipse; is derived from the Latin word corona cor?na, meaning ' garland, wreath, crown'. It was coined by  June Almeida and David Tyrrell, the founding fathers of coronavirus studies, and was first used in a  article in 1968, Nature with approval by the  International Committee for the Nomenclature of Viruses three years later.
The first coronavirus disease was discovered in the late 1920s, however, the most recent common ancestor of coronaviruses is estimated to have existed as recently as 8000
BCE. Human coronaviruses were discovered in the 1960s, through a variety of experiments in the  United States and the United Kingdom. A common origin in human coronaviruses are bats. 
Structural view of a coronavirus
Listed diseases primarily affect humans unless otherwise noted.
Avian infectious bronchitis
Avian coronavirus 1920s
 Originated from North America.
Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV)
 Infects pigs, cats,  and dogs. 
, Common cold , pneumonia , etc.
( Human coronavirus 229E HCoV-229E)
 Likely originated from bats.
Murine encephalitis JHM (named after
John Howard Mueller), a murine coronavirus
( Human coronavirus OC43 HCoV-OC43)
 Likely originated from rodents, then transmitted to humans through cattle.
Acute infectious diarrhea
Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus 1971
 and 1978,  2010, 2013, 2014, and 2015.  Infects pigs and sows.
Severe acute respiratory syndrome
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV or SARS-CoV-1), a strain of (SARSr-CoV)
severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus 2002
Caused the 2002-2004 SARS outbreak. Likely originated from horseshoe bats.
( Human coronavirus HKU1 HCoV-HKU1)
Originated from Hong Kong.
( Human coronavirus NL63 HCoV-NL63)
Originated from Amsterdam, Netherlands. Likely originated from  tricolored bats.
Middle East respiratory syndrome
( Middle East respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus MERS-CoV)
Caused outbreaks in 2012, 2015, and 2018. Likely originated from the Middle East, particularly Jeddah.
Discovered in Hong Kong.
Coronavirus disease 2019
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), a strain of SARSr-CoV
Cause of the COVID-19 pandemic. Originated from Wuhan, China; possibly from horseshoe bats,  pangolins, or both.
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