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Portrait of 16th century merchant Georg Gisze
Commerce is the exchange of goods and services, especially on a large scale.
The English-language word commerce has been derived from the Latin word commercium, from com ("together") and merx ("merchandise").
- used today as the symbol of commerce,
and traditionally associated with the Roman god Mercury
, patron of commerce, trickery and thieves.
Historian Peter Watson and Ramesh Manickam date the history of long-distance commerce from circa 150,000 years ago.
In historic times, the introduction of currency as a standardized money facilitated the exchange of goods and services.
Banking systems developed in medieval Europe, facilitating financial transactions across national boundaries. Markets became a feature of town life, and were regulated by town authorities.
- ^ "commerce". English: Oxford Living Dictionaries. Oxford University Press. n.d. Retrieved 2018.
1 The activity of buying and selling, especially on a large scale.
Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica. 6 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 766..
- ^ Hans Biedermann, James Hulbert (trans.), Dictionary of Symbolism - Cultural Icons and the Meanings behind Them, p. 54.
- ^ Watson, Peter (2005). Ideas : A History of Thought and Invention from Fire to Freud. HarperCollins. ISBN 0-06-621064-X. Introduction......./
- ^ Davies, Glyn (2002). Ideas: A history of money from ancient times to the present day. University of Wales Press. ISBN 0-7083-1717-0.
- ^ Martha C. Howell (12 April 2010). Commerce Before Capitalism in Europe, 1300-1600. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-76046-1.
Fernand Braudel (1982). Civilization and Capitalism, 15th-18th Century: The wheels of commerce. University of California Press. p. 30. ISBN 978-0-520-08115-4.
Taken over by towns, the markets grew apace with them.