Columns of Gediminas
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Columns of Gediminas
Columns of Gediminas
Gediminids' Pillars
COA of Gediminai?iai dynasty Lithuania.svg
ArmigerGrand Duchy of Lithuania,
Republic of Lithuania,
S?j?dis
AdoptedIt is absolutely certain that since 1397, the Gediminids' Pillars were Vytautas the Great's coat of arms.

The Columns of Gediminas or Pillars of Gediminas (Lithuanian: Gediminai?i? stulpai (Gediminids' Pillars); Belarusian: ? (Columns)) are one of the earliest symbols of Lithuania and its historical coats of arms.[1] They were used in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, initially as a rulers' personal insignia, a state symbol, and later as a part of heraldic signs of leading aristocracy.[1]

Appearance

The symbol appears in the following form: Horizontal line at bottom, vertical lines extend up at both ends. The Square at the middle of the horizontal line is about half as tall as the vertical lines. Another vertical line rises from the top center of the square, giving an overall appearance that is close to a trident. This form is the one usually seen in modern times, often drawn on walls and fences as protest against the Soviet occupation of Lithuania.

It is notable that the ancient pre-Christian symbols of Lithuania did not follow the same strict rules of heraldry as their western counterparts. Thus this symbol was used in Or and argent, usually on the field gules, and was depicted in various shapes on flags, banners and shields.

Name

The name "Columns of Gediminas" was given in the 19th century by historian Teodor Narbutt, who supposed that the symbol was Gediminas' insignia. The more exact name of the symbol is the Pillars of Gediminids, since there is no direct evidence of its connection with Grand Duke of Lithuania Gediminas.

History

Engraving of Pillars of Gediminas on a stone on Rambynas hill

In the Grand Duchy of Lithuania

According to the historical and archaeological evidence, the Columns were used by Grand Duke of Lithuania and Duke of Trakai K?stutis. They appear on the Lithuanian coins issued by him.[2] The symbol was also used by Vytautas as his personal insignia since 1397 and appeared on his seal and coins.[3] It was suggested by historian Edmundas Antanas Rim?a, who analyzed the ancient coins, that the Columns of the Gediminids symbolizes the Gates of the Trakai Peninsula Castle.[4] According to the accounts of Jan D?ugosz, it was derived from a symbol or brand used to mark horses and other property. The Columns were adopted by descendants of K?stutis as their family symbol, equivalent to a coat of arms. Another user of the Columns of Gediminas was Grand Duke of Lithuania Sigismund K?stutaitis. At first, the Columns signified the family of K?stutis, in contrast to the Vytis which was used by Algirdas' descendants. Later on, as a symbol of a ruling dynasty, it was adopted by Jagiellons and the two symbols became state symbols of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and the Columns of Gediminas remained in use over the following centuries.

In the Interwar Republic of Lithuania

During the period between World War I and World War II they were used by the Lithuanian Republic as a minor state symbol, e. g. on Litas coins and military equipment. The Columns of Gediminas are featured on the Lithuanian Presidential award Order of the Lithuanian Grand Duke Gediminas, that was started in 1928.

In the Soviet Union

After the annexation of Lithuania by the Soviet Union, the symbol was officially banned. During the Singing Revolution of the late 80s, it became the iconic sign of the reform movement S?j?dis.

In 21st-century Lithuania

The Columns of Gediminas appears in the emblem of the Lithuanian Armed Forces, Land Force, Air Force, Navy, Military Police and National Defence Volunteer Forces.

The official logo of the EuroBasket 2011, which took place in Lithuania, is composed of the Columns overlaid on a basketball board.

The columns of Gediminas are displayed on the flag to the left of Vytautas the Great

In art

The Columns of Gediminas are displayed to the left of Jogaila in one of Jan Matejko's best-known portraits, although Jogaila's personal insignia was a double cross.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b "Columns of the Gediminids". Seimas. Retrieved 2021.
  2. ^ (in Lithuanian) Peculiarities of earliest Lithuanian coins
  3. ^ (in Lithuanian) Vilniaus ?emutin?s pilies lobis - XIV a. pabaigos valstybini? bei valdov? atribut? atspindys
  4. ^ Savukynas, Virginijus. "Kas slypi u? tautini? simboli". DELFI (in Lithuanian). Prepared according to V. Savukynas telecast Tapatyb?s labirintai. Retrieved 2021.

Sources


  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

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