|yori · koto · hentaigana|
The ch?onpu (Japanese: , lit. "long sound symbol"), also known as ch?onkig? (?), onbiki (), b?biki (), or Katakana-Hiragana Prolonged Sound Mark by the Unicode Consortium, is a Japanese symbol that indicates a ch?on, or a long vowel of two morae in length. Its form is a horizontal or vertical line in the center of the text with the width of one kanji or kana character. It is written horizontally in horizontal text and vertically in vertical text. The ch?onpu is usually used to indicate a long vowel sound in katakana writing, rarely in hiragana writing, and never in romanized Japanese. The ch?onpu is a distinct mark from the dash, and in most Japanese typefaces it can easily be distinguished. In horizontal writing it is similar in appearance to, but should not be confused with, the kanji character ? ("one").
The symbol is sometimes used with hiragana, for example in the signs of ramen restaurants, which are normally written ? in hiragana. Usually, however, hiragana does not use the ch?onpu but another vowel kana to express this sound. The following table shows the usual hiragana equivalents used to form a long vowel, using the ha-gy? (the ha, hi, fu, he, ho sequence) as an example.
|f? / h?|
When rendering English words into katakana, the ch?onpu is often used to represent a syllable-final sequence of a vowel letter + r, which in English generally represents a long vowel if the syllable is stressed and a schwa if unstressed (in rhotic dialects it may additionally be an R-coloured vowel). For example, both "ar" and "er" are usually represented by a long ? vowel, with the words "number" and "car" becoming ? (nanb?) and (k?).
In Unicode, the ch?onpu has the value ー KATAKANA-HIRAGANA PROLONGED SOUND MARK, which corresponds to JIS X 0208 kuten code point 01-28, encoded in Shift JIS as 815B. It is normally rendered fullwidth and with a glyph appropriate to the writing direction. The halfwidth compatibility form has the value ｰ HALFWIDTH KATAKANA-HIRAGANA PROLONGED SOUND MARK, which is converted to Shift JIS value B0.
|Unicode name||KATAKANA-HIRAGANA PROLONGED SOUND MARK||HALFWIDTH KATAKANA-HIRAGANA PROLONGED SOUND MARK|
|UTF-8||227 131 188||E3 83 BC||239 189 176||EF BD B0|
|Numeric character reference||ー
|Shift JIS||129 91||81 5B||176||B0|
|EUC-JP||161 188||A1 BC||142 176||8E B0|
|GB 18030||169 96||A9 60||132 49 151 50||84 31 97 32|
|KPS 9566-2011||234 72||EA 48|
|Big5 (ETEN / HKSCS)[a]||198 227||C6 E3|