Central European Time
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Central European Time

Central European Time (CET) is a standard time which is 1 hour ahead of Coordinated Universal Time (UTC). The time offset from UTC can be written as UTC+01:00. It is used in most parts of Europe and in a few North African countries. CET is also known as Middle European Time (MET, German: MEZ) and by colloquial names such as Amsterdam Time, Berlin Time, Brussels Time, Madrid Time, Paris Time, Rome Time, and Warsaw Time.

The 15th meridian east is the central axis for UTC+01:00 in the world system of time zones.

As of 2011, all member states of the European Union observe summer time (daylight saving time), from the last Sunday in March to the last Sunday in October. States within the CET area switch to Central European Summer Time (CEST, UTC+02:00) for the summer.[1]

In Africa, UTC+01:00 is called West Africa Time (WAT), where it is used by several countries, year round.[2] Algeria, Morocco, and Tunisia also refer to it as Central European Time.[3]

Usage

Usage in Europe

The monument 'The 15th Meridian' in Stargard, Poland

Current usage

As of 2017,[4] Central European Time is currently used in Albania, Andorra, Austria, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Kosovo*, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Malta, Monaco, Montenegro, Netherlands, North Macedonia, Norway, Poland, San Marino, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain (except Canary Islands), Sweden, Switzerland and Vatican City.[3]

History

After World War II Monaco, Andorra and Gibraltar implemented CET.[19]

Portugal used CET in the years 1966–1976 and 1992–1996.

United Kingdom

The time around the world is based on Universal Coordinated Time (UTC) which is roughly synonymous with Greenwich Mean Time (GMT). From late March to late October, clocks in the United Kingdom are put forward by one hour for British Summer Time (BST). Since 1997, most of the European Union aligned with the British standards for BST.

In 1968[23] there was a three-year experiment called British Standard Time, when the UK and Ireland experimentally employed British Summer Time (GMT+1) all year round; clocks were put forward in March 1968 and not put back until October 1971.[24]

Central European Time is sometimes referred to as continental time in the UK.

Other countries

Several African countries use UTC+01:00 all year long, where it is known as West Africa Time (WAT), although Algeria, Morocco and Tunisia use the term Central European Time despite being located in North Africa.[3]

Between 2005 and 2008, Tunisia observed daylight saving time.[25] Libya also used CET during the years 1951–1959, 1982–1989, 1996–1997 and 2012–2013.

For other countries see UTC+01:00 and West Africa Time.

Discrepancies between official CET and geographical CET

Colour Legal time vs local mean time
1 h ± 30 m behind
0 h ± 30 m
1 h ± 30 m ahead
2 h ± 30 m ahead
3 h ± 30 m ahead
European winter
European summer

Legal, political and economic, as well as physical or geographical criteria are used in the drawing of time zones so official time zones rarely adhere to meridian lines. The CET time zone, were it drawn by purely geographical terms, would consist of exactly the area between meridians 7°30? E and 22°30? E. As a result, there are European locales that despite lying in an area with a "physical" or "nominal" UTC+01:00 time, actually use another time zone (UTC+02:00 in particular - there are no "physical" UTC+01:00 areas that employ UTC+00:00). Conversely, there are European areas that have gone for UTC+01:00, even though their "physical" time zone is UTC (typically), UTC-01:00 (westernmost Spain), or UTC+02:00 (e.g. the very easternmost parts of Norway, Sweden, Poland and Serbia). On the other hand, the people in Spain still have all work and meal hours one hour later than France and Germany even if they have the same time zone.[26] Following is a list of such "incongruences":

Historically Gibraltar maintained UTC+01:00 all year until the opening of the land frontier with Spain in 1982 when it followed its neighbour and introduced CEST.

Areas located within UTC+01:00 longitudes using other time zones

These areas are located between 7°30? E and 22°30? E ("physical" UTC+1)[27][28]

Areas using UTC+02:00

Areas located outside UTC+01:00 longitudes using UTC+01:00 time

These areas are located either west of 7°30? E or east of 22°30? E (outside nominal UTC+01:00)[27][28]

Areas between 22°30? W and 7°30? W (nominal UTC-01:00)

  • The westernmost part of mainland Spain (Galicia, e.g. the city of A Coruña); Cape Finisterre and nearby points in Galicia, at 9°18? W, are the westernmost places of CET in Spain.
  • The Norwegian island of Jan Mayen lies entirely within this area and extends nearly as far west as Cape Finisterre, with its western tip at 9°5? W and its eastern tip at 7°56? W.
  • Western Morocco including the city of Casablanca, at 7°35? W. CET usage in Morocco extends as west as 13°10? W.
  • The entirety of Western Sahara with its western tip at 17°6? W and its eastern tip at 8°40? W.

Areas between 7°30? W and 7°30? E (nominal UTC+00:00)

Areas between 22°30? E and 37°30? E (nominal UTC+02:00)

Map of Petsamo area in northern Finland/Soviet Union/Russia. The green area is the Finnish part of the Rybachi peninsula (Kalastajasaarento) which was ceded to the Soviet Union after the Winter War. The Red area is the Jäniskoski-Niskakoski area ceded to the USSR in 1947.

See also

References

  1. ^ "Europe Starts Daylight Saving on March 27, 2011". www.timeanddate.com. Retrieved .
  2. ^ "WAT - West Africa Time (Time Zone Abbreviation)". www.timeanddate.com. Retrieved .
  3. ^ a b c "Central European Time Zone - CET". WorldTimeServer.com. 2015-11-19. Retrieved .
  4. ^ CET - Central European Time / European Central Time (Standard Time)
  5. ^ "Time Zone & Clock Changes in Belgrade, Serbia". www.timeanddate.com. Retrieved .
  6. ^ Kunt, Miroslav (2004). "Studie - Zavedení st?edoevropského ?asu". archiv.kvalitne.cz (in Czech). Retrieved 2020.
  7. ^ a b Bartky, Ian R. (2007). One Time Fits All: The Campaigns for Global Uniformity. Stanford University Press. pp. 126-7. ISBN 978-0804756426. Retrieved 2015.
  8. ^ "Time Zone & Clock Changes in Rome, Italy". www.timeanddate.com. Retrieved .
  9. ^ "Time Zone & Clock Changes in Valletta, Malta". www.timeanddate.com. Retrieved .
  10. ^ "Time Zone & Clock Changes in Vienna, Vienna, Austria". www.timeanddate.com. Retrieved .
  11. ^ Messerli, Jakob. "Zeitsysteme". HLS-DHS-DSS.CH (in German). Retrieved .
  12. ^ "dullophob". www.dullophob.com. Archived from the original on 2018-07-19. Retrieved .
  13. ^ "Time Zone & Clock Changes in Copenhagen, Denmark". www.timeanddate.com. Retrieved .
  14. ^ "Daylight Saving Time Changes 1895 in Oslo, Norway". www.timeanddate.com. Retrieved .
  15. ^ "Time Zone & Clock Changes in Stockholm, Sweden". www.timeanddate.com. Retrieved .
  16. ^ "Daylight Saving Time Changes 1904 in Luxembourg, Luxembourg". www.timeanddate.com. Retrieved .
  17. ^ "Daylight Saving Time Changes 1918 in Luxembourg, Luxembourg". www.timeanddate.com. Retrieved .
  18. ^ "Time Zone & Clock Changes in Tirana, Albania". www.timeanddate.com. Retrieved .
  19. ^ a b c d "CET - Central European Time". www.thetimenow.com. Retrieved .
  20. ^ "Time Zone & Clock Changes in Vilnius, Lithuania". www.timeanddate.com. Retrieved .
  21. ^ "Time Changes in Poland 2017". www.vercalendario.info. Retrieved .
  22. ^ Bartky, Ian R. (2007). One Time Fits All: The Campaigns for Global Uniformity. Stanford University Press. pp. 130, 134. ISBN 978-0804756426. Retrieved 2015.
  23. ^ "Summer Time all the time". Birmingham Daily Post. England. 13 February 1968. Retrieved 2018 – via British Newspaper Archive.
  24. ^ "Clocks to be turned back". Birmingham Daily Post. England. 2 October 1971. Retrieved 2018 – via British Newspaper Archive.
  25. ^ "Daylight Saving Time Changes 2005 in Tunis, Tunisia". www.timeanddate.com. Retrieved .
  26. ^ Purdy, Chase. "Spain spent the last 76 years in the wrong time zone--and it's not healthy for workers". Quartz. Retrieved .
  27. ^ a b "Greece Time Zone". www.timetemperature.com. Retrieved .
  28. ^ a b "Europe Time Zones Map With Zone - madriver.me". madriver.me. Archived from the original on 2018-07-20. Retrieved .

External links


  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

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