Cato Institute
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Cato Institute
Cato Institute.svg
Established1974; 47 years ago (1974)[1]
FoundersEd Crane, Charles Koch, Murray Rothbard
Type501(c)(3) Non-profit think tank
23-7432162
FocusPublic advocacy, media exposure and societal influence
Location
Coordinates38°54?12?N 77°01?35?W / 38.90333°N 77.02639°W / 38.90333; -77.02639Coordinates: 38°54?12?N 77°01?35?W / 38.90333°N 77.02639°W / 38.90333; -77.02639
President and CEO
Peter N. Goettler[2]
Chairman
Robert A. Levy[2]
Executive Vice-President
David Boaz[3]
Revenue (2020)
$31,695,000[4]
Expenses (2020)$31,726,000[4]
Endowment (2020)$85,585,000[4]
Staff
100 staff
46 faculty
70 adjunct faculty
Websitecato.org
Formerly called
Charles Koch Foundation; Cato Foundation

The Cato Institute is an American libertarian think tank headquartered in Washington, D.C. It was founded as the Charles Koch Foundation in 1974 by Ed Crane, Murray Rothbard, and Charles Koch,[6] chairman of the board and chief executive officer of Koch Industries.[nb 1] In July 1976, the name was changed to the Cato Institute.[6][7] Cato was established to have a focus on public advocacy, media exposure and societal influence.[8] According to the 2017 Global Go To Think Tank Index Report (Think Tanks and Civil Societies Program, University of Pennsylvania), Cato is number 15 in the "Top Think Tanks Worldwide" and number 10 in the "Top Think Tanks in the United States".[9]

The Cato Institute is libertarian in its political philosophy, and advocates a limited role for government in domestic and foreign affairs as well as a strong protection of civil liberties. This includes support for the lowering or abolishing most taxes, opposition to the Federal Reserve system, the privatization of numerous government agencies and programs including Social Security, the Affordable Care Act and the United States Postal Service, demilitarization of the police, along with adhering to a non-interventionist foreign policy.

Cato Institute building in Washington, D.C.

History

The institute was founded in December 1974 in Wichita, Kansas, as the Charles Koch Foundation and initially funded by Charles Koch.[nb 2][10] The other members of the first board of directors included co-founder Murray Rothbard, libertarian scholar Earl Ravenal, and businessmen Sam H. Husbands Jr. and David H. Padden.[6][11] At the suggestion of Rothbard,[11] the institute changed its name in 1976 to Cato Institute after Cato's Letters, a series of British essays penned in the early 18th century by John Trenchard and Thomas Gordon.[12][13]

Cato relocated first to San Francisco, California, in 1977, then to Washington, D.C., in 1981, settling initially in a historic house on Capitol Hill.[14](p446) The institute moved to its current location on Massachusetts Avenue in 1993. Cato Institute was named the fifth-ranked think tank in the world for 2009 in a study of think tanks by James G. McGann, PhD of the University of Pennsylvania, based on a criterion of excellence in "producing rigorous and relevant research, publications and programs in one or more substantive areas of research".[15]

By 2011, the Cato Institute had a budget of $39 million and was "one of the largest think tanks in Washington. In 2012, Ed Crane--who was then the president of Cato, William Niskanen--who had served as Cato chairman, and the Koch brothers--with 50 percent of Cato shares,[16] held shares in Cato Institute. When Niskanen died in March 2012, the Koch brothers contested Niskanen's wife's inheritance of 25 percent of Cato's shares in a lawsuit filed in a court in Kansas. The brothers sued for control of the Cato Institute.[17][18][19] In response to the lawsuit which called for Crane's resignation, "independent parties on the political Left, Right, and Center" provided "testimonials to Cato's effectiveness" as a respected leader of thought, educator and contributor to the "marketplace of ideas".[16] During the 2012 United States presidential election, the Koch brothers were also "prominent donors" to the Americans For Prosperity who supported the Tea Party movement and opposed President Obama.[17] Those who supported Cato's existing management rallied around the "Save Cato" banner,[20] while those who supported the Koch brothers, called "For a Better Cato".[21]

Activities

Various Cato programs were favorably ranked in a survey published by the University of Pennsylvania in 2012.[9]

Publications

The Cato Institute publishes numerous policy studies, briefing papers, periodicals, and books. Journals include the Cato Journal[22][23][24] (since 1981) and Regulation (acquired in 1990).[25][26][27] Other periodicals include Cato's Letter,[28] Cato Supreme Court Review,[29] and Cato Policy Report.[30] Cato published Inquiry Magazine from 1977 to 1982 (before transferring it to the Libertarian Review Foundation)[31] and Literature of Liberty from 1978 to 1979 (before transferring it to the Institute for Humane Studies).[32] Additionally, Cato publishes numerous white papers on a wide variety of policy topics. Some notable examples include Drug Decriminalization in Portugal: Lessons for Creating Fair and Successful Drug Policies(2009) by Glenn Greenwald and Overkill: The Rise of Paramilitary Policy Raids in America(2006) by Radley Balko.

Cato also co-publishes the annual Human Freedom Index (2015-)[33] with the Fraser Institute and is the co-publisher with Fraser of the U.S. edition of the Economic Freedom of the World annual report (1996-).[34]

Books published by the Cato Institute

  • Social Security: The Inherent Contradiction (Peter J. Ferrara, 1980, Cato's first book and the first case for privatization)
  • Kindly Inquisitors: The New Attacks on Free Thought (Jonathan Rauch, 1993, a Cato co-pub with University of Chicago Press)
  • Patient Power: Solving America's Health Care Crisis (John C. Goodman and Gerald L. Musgrave, 1994)
  • Cato Handbook for Congress (1995, the first in a series that eventually became the Cato Handbook for Policymakers)
  • Cato Pocket Constitution (2002)
  • In Defense of Global Capitalism (Johan Norberg, 2003)
  • The Improving State of the World: Why We're Living Longer, Healthier, More Comfortable Lives on a Cleaner Planet (Indur Goklany, 2007)
  • The Cult of the Presidency: America's Dangerous Devotion to Executive Power (Gene Healy, 2008)
  • The Beautiful Tree: A Personal Journey into How the World's Poorest People are Educating Themselves (James Tooley, 2009, winner of the Sir Antony Fisher International Memorial Award)
  • The Tyranny of Silence (Flemming Rose, 2014)
  • The Conscience of the Constitution: The Declaration of Independence and the Right to Liberty (Timothy Sandefur, 2013)
  • The Fire Next Door: Mexico's Drug Violence and the Danger to America (Ted Galen Carpenter, 2016)
  • Overcharged: Why American's Pay Too Much for Health Care (Charles Silver and David A. Hyman, 2018)
  • Ten Global Trends Every Smart Person Should Know (Marian Tupy and Ronald Bailey, 2020)

Other notable books by Cato scholars

Podcasts

  • The Cato Daily Podcast,[35] hosted by Caleb O. Brown, allows Cato Institute scholars and other commenters to discuss relevant news and libertarian thought in a conversational, informal manner.
  • Power Problems,[36] hosted by John Glaser, is a bi-weekly podcast offering a skeptical take on U.S. foreign policy, and discussion of today's big questions in international security with guests from across the political spectrum.
  • Cato Events[37] offers listeners a chance to stay up-to-date on a wide range of essential contemporary issues through presentations by leading national authorities.
  • Cato Audio[38] covers important policy debates in Washington.
  • Cato Out Loud,[39] provides the most notable of Cato's print publications in an audio format.
  • Free Thoughts, hosted by Aaron Ross Powell and Trevor Burrus, is a weekly show about politics and liberty, featuring conversations with top scholars, philosophers, historians, economists, and public policy experts.
  • Building Tomorrow, hosted by Paul Matzko, explores the ways technology, innovation, and entrepreneurship are creating a freer, wealthier, and more peaceful world.
  • Pop & Locke, hosted by Landry Ayres and Natalie Dowzicky, explores the intersection of political ideas and pop culture.
  • Portraits of Liberty, hosted by Paul Meany, investigates the lives and philosophies of thinkers throughout history who argued in favor of a freer world.
  • The Pursuit, hosted by Tess Terrible, Landry Ayres, and Natalie Dowzicky, is a podcast about government action and individual liberty.
  • Liberty Chronicles, hosted by Dr. Anthony Comegna, combines innovative libertarian thinking about history with specialist interviews, primary and secondary sources, and answers to listener questions.
  • Excursions Into Libertarian Thought, hosted by George H. Smith, explores the history of libertarian ideas.
  • Classics of Liberty, hosted by Caleb O.Brown, relives classic works and speeches of classical liberals

Web projects

In addition to maintaining its own website in English and Spanish,[40] Cato maintains websites focused on particular topics:

  • "Downsizing the Federal Government" contains essays on the size of the U.S. federal government and recommendations for decreasing various programs.[41]
  • Libertarianism.org is a website focused on the theory and practice of libertarianism.[42]
  • Cato Unbound, a web-only publication that features a monthly open debate among four people. The conversation begins with one lead essay, followed by three response essays by separate people. After that, all four participants can write as many responses and counter-responses as they want for the duration of that month.
  • PoliceMisconduct.net contains reports and stories from Cato's National Police Misconduct Reporting Project and the National Police Misconduct News Feed.[43]
  • Overlawyered is a law blog on the subject of tort reform run by author Walter Olson.
  • HumanProgress.org is an interactive data web project that catalogs increases in prosperity driven by the free market.
  • "Public Schooling Battle Map" illustrates different moral conflicts that result from public schooling.[44]
  • UnlawfulShield.com is dedicated to abolishing Qualified Immunity.[45]
  • FreedomInthe50States.org ranks states by policies that shape personal and economic freedom.[46]

Social media sponsored by Cato includes pages on on Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, YouTube, LinkedIn and TikTok, as well as a presence on Clubhouse, Snapchat, Goodreads, Odysee, and other fora.

Conferences

The Cato Institute hosts conferences throughout the year. Topics include monetary policy, the U.S. Constitution, poverty and social welfare, technology and privacy, financial regulation, and civic culture.[47]

Speakers at past Cato Institute conferences have included Federal Reserve Chairmen Alan Greenspan[48] and Ben Bernanke,[49] Federal Reserve Vice Chairman Richard Clarida,[50] International Monetary Fund Managing Director Rodrigo de Rato,[51][52][53][54] Czech Republic President Václav Klaus,[55] and Avanti Financial Group Founder and CEO Caitlin Long.[56]

Ideological relationships

Libertarianism, classical liberalism, and conservatism

Many Cato scholars have advocated support for civil liberties, liberal immigration policies,[57] drug liberalization,[58] and the repeal of Don't Ask Don't Tell and laws restricting consensual sexual activity.[59][60] The Cato Institute officially resists being labeled as part of the conservative movement because "'conservative' smacks of an unwillingness to change, of a desire to preserve the status quo".[61]

On the other hand, Cato has strong ties to the political philosophy of classical liberalism.[62] [63] [64] According to executive vice president David Boaz, libertarians are classical liberals who strongly emphasize the individual right to liberty. He argues that, as the term "liberalism" became increasingly associated with government intervention in the economy and social-welfare programs, some classical liberals abandoned the old term and began to call themselves "libertarians".[65] Officially, Cato admits that the term "classical liberal" comes close to the mark of labeling its position, but fails to capture the contemporary vibrancy of the ideas of freedom. According to Cato's mission statement, the Jeffersonian philosophy that animates Cato's work has increasingly come to be called 'libertarianism' or 'market liberalism.' It combines an appreciation for entrepreneurship, the market process, and lower taxes with strict respect for civil liberties and skepticism about the benefits of both the welfare state and foreign military adventurism.[66][67]

In 2006, Markos Moulitsas of the Daily Kos proposed the term "Libertarian Democrat" to describe his particular liberal position, suggesting that libertarians should be allies of the Democratic Party. Replying, Cato vice president for research Brink Lindsey agreed that libertarians and liberals should view each other as natural ideological allies,[68] and noted continuing differences between mainstream liberal views on economic policy and Cato's "Jeffersonian philosophy".

Some Cato scholars disagree with conservatives on neo-conservative foreign policy, albeit that this has not always been uniform.[69][failed verification]

Objectivism

John A. Allison IV speaking at the 2014 International Students for Liberty Conference (ISFLC)

The relationship between Cato and the Ayn Rand Institute (ARI) improved with the nomination of Cato's new president John A. Allison IV in 2012. He is a former ARI board member and is reported to be an "ardent devotee" of Rand who has promoted reading her books to colleges nationwide.[70] In March 2015, Allison retired as president, remaining on the board, and was succeeded by Peter Goettler.[71]

Cato positions on political issues and policies

The Cato Institute advocates policies that advance "individual liberty, limited government, free markets, and peace". They are libertarian in their policy positions, typically advocating diminished government intervention in domestic, social, and economic policies and decreased military and political intervention worldwide. Cato was cited by columnist Ezra Klein as nonpartisan, saying that it is "the foremost advocate for small-government principles in American life" and it "advocates those principles when Democrats are in power, and when Republicans are in power";[72] and Eric Lichtblau called Cato "one of the country's most widely cited research organizations."[73] Nina Eastman reported in 1995 that "on any given day, House Majority Whip Tom DeLay of Texas might be visiting for lunch. Or Cato staffers might be plotting strategy with House Majority Leader Dick Armey, another Texan, and his staff."[74]

On domestic issues

Cato scholars have consistently called for the privatization of many government services and institutions, including NASA, Social Security, the United States Postal Service, the Transportation Security Administration, public schooling, public transportation systems, and public broadcasting.[75][76][77][78][79][80][81][82] The institute opposes minimum wage laws, saying that they violate the freedom of contract and thus private property rights, and increase unemployment.[83][84] It is opposed to expanding overtime regulations, arguing that it will benefit some employees in the short term, while costing jobs or lowering wages of others, and have no meaningful long-term impact.[85][86] It opposes child labor prohibitions.[87][88][89] It opposes public sector unions and supports right-to-work laws.[90][91] It opposes universal health care, arguing that it is harmful to patients and an intrusion onto individual liberty.[92][93] It is against affirmative action.[94] It has also called for total abolition of the welfare state, and has argued that it should be replaced with reduced business regulations to create more jobs, and argues that private charities are fully capable of replacing it.[95][96] Cato has also opposed antitrust laws.[97][98]

Cato is an opponent of campaign finance reform, arguing that government is the ultimate form of potential corruption and that such laws undermine democracy by undermining competitive elections. Cato also supports the repeal of the Federal Election Campaign Act.[99][100]

Cato has published strong criticisms of the 1998 settlement which many U.S. states signed with the tobacco industry.[101] In 2004, Cato scholar Daniel Griswold wrote in support of President George W. Bush's failed proposal to grant temporary work visas to otherwise undocumented laborers which would have granted limited residency for the purpose of employment in the U.S.[102]

In 2006, the Cato Institute published a study proposing a Balanced Budget Veto Amendment to the United States Constitution.[103]

In 2003, Cato filed an amicus brief in support of the Supreme Court's decision in Lawrence v. Texas, which struck down the remaining state laws that made private, non-commercial homosexual relations between consenting adults illegal. Cato cited the 14th Amendment, among other things, as the source of their support for the ruling. The amicus brief was cited in Justice Kennedy's majority opinion for the Court.[104]

In 2006, Cato published a Policy Analysis criticising the Federal Marriage Amendment as unnecessary, anti-federalist, and anti-democratic.[105] The amendment would have changed the United States Constitution to prohibit same-sex marriage; the amendment failed in both houses of Congress.

A 2006 Cato report by Radley Balko strongly criticized U.S. drug policy and the perceived growing militarization of U.S. law enforcement.[106]

Criticism of corporate welfare

In 2004, the institute published a paper arguing in favor of "drug re-importation".[107] Cato has published numerous studies criticizing what it calls "corporate welfare", the practice of public officials funneling taxpayer money, usually via targeted budgetary spending, to politically connected corporate interests.[108][109][110][111]

Cato president Ed Crane and Sierra Club executive director Carl Pope co-wrote a 2002 op-ed piece in The Washington Post calling for the abandonment of the Republican energy bill, arguing that it had become little more than a gravy train for Washington, D.C., lobbyists.[112] Again in 2005, Cato scholar Jerry Taylor teamed up with Daniel Becker of the Sierra Club to attack the Republican Energy Bill as a give-away to corporate interests.[113]

On copyright issues

A 2006 study criticized the Digital Millennium Copyright Act.[114]

On foreign policy

Cato's non-interventionist foreign policy views, and strong support for civil liberties, have frequently led Cato scholars to criticize those in power, both Republican and Democratic. Cato scholars opposed President George H. W. Bush's 1991 Gulf War operations (a position which caused the organization to lose nearly $1 million in funding),[14](p454) President Bill Clinton's interventions in Haiti and Kosovo, President George W. Bush's 2003 invasion of Iraq, and President Barack Obama's 2011 military intervention in Libya.[115] As a response to the September 11 attacks, Cato scholars supported the removal of al Qaeda and the Taliban regime from power, but are against an indefinite and open-ended military occupation of Afghanistan.[116] Cato scholars criticized U.S. involvement in Saudi Arabian-led intervention in Yemen.[115]

Ted Galen Carpenter, Cato's vice president for defense and foreign policy studies, criticized many of the arguments offered to justify the 2003 invasion of Iraq. One of the war's earliest critics, Carpenter wrote in January 2002: "Ousting Saddam would make Washington responsible for Iraq's political future and entangle the United States in an endless nation-building mission beset by intractable problems."[117] Carpenter also predicted: "Most notably there is the issue posed by two persistent regional secession movements: the Kurds in the north and the Shiites in the south."[117] But in 2002 Carpenter wrote, "the United States should not shrink from confronting al-Qaeda in its Pakistani lair,"[118] a position echoed in the institute's policy recommendations for the 108th Congress.[119] Cato's director of foreign policy studies, Christopher Preble, argues in The Power Problem: How American Military Dominance Makes Us Less Safe, Less Prosperous, and Less Free, that America's position as an unrivaled superpower tempts policymakers to constantly overreach and to redefine ever more broadly the "national interest".[120]

Christopher Preble has said that the "scare campaign" to protect military spending from cuts under the Budget Control Act of 2011 has backfired.[121]

On environmental policy

Cato scholars have written about the issues of the environment, including global warming, environmental regulation, and energy policy.

PolitiFact.com and Scientific American have called Cato's work on global warming "false" and based on "data selection".[122][123] A December 2003 Cato panel included Patrick Michaels, Robert Balling and John Christy.[] Michaels, Balling and Christy agreed that global warming is related at least some degree to human activity but that some scientists and the media have overstated the danger.[] The Cato Institute has also criticized political attempts to stop global warming as expensive and ineffective.[124]

Cato scholars have been critical of the Bush administration's views on energy policy. In 2003, Cato scholars Jerry Taylor and Peter Van Doren said the Republican Energy Bill was "hundreds of pages of corporate welfare, symbolic gestures, empty promises, and pork-barrel projects".[125] They also spoke out against the former president's calls for larger ethanol subsidies.[126]

With regard to the "Takings Clause" of the United States Constitution and environmental protection, libertarians associated with Cato contended in 2003 that the Constitution is not adequate to guarantee the protection of private property rights.[127]

In 2019, Cato closed its "Center for the Study of Science" (which E&E News characterized as "a program that for years sought to raise uncertainty about climate science") after its head Pat Michaels had left the institute over disagreements, along with his collaborator Ryan Maue, a meteorologist.[128] By that time, the Cato Institute was also no longer affiliated with its former distinguished fellow Richard Lindzen, another critic of the scientific consensus on climate change.[128]

Other commentaries on presidential administrations

Cato scholars were critical of George W. Bush's Republican administration (2001-2009) on several issues, including education,[129] and excessive government spending.[130] On other issues, they supported Bush administration initiatives, most notably health care,[131] Social Security,[132][133] global warming,[124] tax policy,[134] and immigration.[102][135][136][137]

During the 2008 U.S. presidential election, Cato scholars criticized both major-party candidates, John McCain and Barack Obama.[138][139]

Cato has criticized President Obama's stances on policy issues such as fiscal stimulus,[140] healthcare reform,[141] foreign policy,[142] and drug-related matters,[58] while supporting his stance on the repeal of Don't Ask, Don't Tell[60] and the DREAM Act.[57]

Cato was critical of Trump's immigration ban, which was enacted in January 2017.[143]

Funding, tax status, and corporate structure

The Cato Institute is classified as a 501(c)(3) organization under U.S. Internal Revenue Code. For revenue, the institute is largely dependent on private contributions and does not receive government funding.[144] The Cato Institute reported fiscal year 2015 revenue of $37.3 million and expenses of $29.4 million.[145] According to the organization's annual report, $32.1 million came from individual donors, $2.9 million came from foundations, $1.2 million came from program revenue and other income, and $1 million came from corporations.[145]

Sponsors of Cato have included FedEx, Google, CME Group and Whole Foods Market.[146] The Nation reported support for Cato from the tobacco industry in a 2012 story.[147]

Funding details

Net assets as of FYE March 2020: $81,391,000.

Shareholder dispute and departure of Ed Crane

According to an agreement signed in 1977, there were to be four shareholders of the Cato Institute. They were Charles and David Koch, Ed Crane,[148] and William A. Niskanen. Niskanen died in October 2011.[149] In March 2012, a dispute broke out over the ownership of Niskanen's shares.[148][149] Charles and David Koch filed suit in Kansas, seeking to void his shareholder seat. The Kochs argued that Niskanen's shares should first be offered to the board of the institute, and then to the remaining shareholders.[150] Crane contended that Niskanen's share belonged to his widow, Kathryn Washburn, and that the move by the Kochs was an attempt to turn Cato into "some sort of auxiliary for the G.O.P ... It's detrimental to Cato, it's detrimental to Koch Industries, it's detrimental to the libertarian movement."[73]

In June 2012, Cato announced an agreement in principle to settle the dispute by changing the institute's governing structure. Under the agreement, a board replaced the shareholders and Crane, who at the time was also chief executive officer, retired. Former BB&T bank CEO John A. Allison IV replaced him.[151][152] The Koch brothers agreed to drop two lawsuits.[153]

In 2018, several former Cato employees alleged longtime sexual harassment by Crane, going back to the 1990s and continuing until his departure in 2012. Politico reported that he settled one such claim in 2012. Crane denied the allegations.[154]

Cato in the news

  • Cato senior fellow Robert A. Levy personally funded the plaintiffs' successful Supreme Court challenge to the District of Columbia's gun ban (District of Columbia v. Heller), on the basis of the Second Amendment.[155]
  • In January 2008, Dom Armentano wrote an op-ed piece about UFOs and classified government data in the Vero Beach Press-Journal.[156] Cato Executive Vice President David Boaz wrote that "I won't deny that this latest op-ed played a role in our decision..." to drop Armentano as a Cato adjunct scholar.[157]

Recipients of the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences at Cato

The following recipients of the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences have worked with Cato:[158]

Milton Friedman Prize

Since 2002, the Cato Institute has awarded the Milton Friedman Prize for Advancing Liberty every two years to "an individual who has made a significant contribution to advancing human freedom."[160] The prize comes with a cash award of US$250,000.[161]

Board of directors

As of 2020:[2]

Notable Cato experts

Notable scholars associated with Cato include the following:[172]

Policy scholars

Adjunct scholars

Fellows

Affiliations

The Cato Institute is an associate member of the State Policy Network, a U.S. national network of free-market oriented think tanks.[173][174]

Rankings

According to the 2017 Global Go To Think Tank Index Report (Think Tanks and Civil Societies Program, University of Pennsylvania), Cato is number 15 in the "Top Think Tanks Worldwide" and number 10 in the "Top Think Tanks in the United States".[9] Other "Top Think Tank" rankings include # 13 (of 85) in Defense and National Security, #5 (of 80) in Domestic Economic Policy, #4 (of 55) in Education Policy, #17 (of 85) in Foreign Policy and International Affairs, #8 (of 30) in Domestic Health Policy, #14 (of 25) in Global Health Policy, #18 (of 80) in International Development, #14 (of 50) in International Economic Policy, #8 (of 50) in Social Policy, #8 (of 75) for Best Advocacy Campaign, #17 (of 60) for Best Think Tank Network, #3 (of 60) for best Use of Social Networks, #9 (of 50) for Best External Relations/Public Engagement Program, #2 (of 40) for Best Use of the Internet, #12 (of 40) for Best Use of Media, #5 (of 30) for Most Innovative Policy Ideas/Proposals, #11 (of 70) for the Most Significant Impact on Public Policy, and #9 (of 60) for Outstanding Policy-Oriented Public Programs. Cato also topped the 2014 list of the budget-adjusted ranking of international development think tanks.[175]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Koch Industries is the second largest privately held company by revenue in the United States. "Forbes List". Forbes. Archived from the original on November 7, 2010. Retrieved 2011.
  2. ^ Koch is chairman of the board and chief executive officer of the conglomerate Koch Industries, the second largest privately held company by revenue in the United States. "Forbes List". Forbes. Archived from the original on November 7, 2010. Retrieved 2011.

References

  1. ^ Weigel, David (March 30, 2015). "The Cato Institute Switches Out Captains". Bloomberg. Archived from the original on February 6, 2020. Retrieved 2020.
  2. ^ a b c "Board of Directors". Cato Institute. Archived from the original on June 22, 2020. Retrieved 2020.
  3. ^ "Cato Institute website profile of David Boaz". Cato Institute. Archived from the original on April 15, 2008. Retrieved 2012.
  4. ^ a b c d "Fiscal year 2020 financial results" (PDF). Cato Institute. Archived (PDF) from the original on March 18, 2021. Retrieved 2021.
  5. ^ "Cato's Mission". Cato Institute. Archived from the original on July 1, 2011. Retrieved 2011.
  6. ^ a b c "25 years at the Cato Institute: The 2001 Annual Report" (PDF). OCLC 52255585. Archived (PDF) from the original on May 8, 2007. Retrieved 2013.
  7. ^ "Articles of Incorporation Charles Koch Foundation and Restated Articles of Incorporation". December 19, 1974. Archived from the original on March 15, 2012. Retrieved 2012.
  8. ^ Cobane, Craig T. (2005). "Think Tanks". Americans at War. Gale. Archived from the original on March 29, 2015. Retrieved 2013.
  9. ^ a b c James G. McGann (Director) (January 31, 2018). "2017 Global Go To Think Tank Index Report". Archived from the original on March 30, 2019. Retrieved 2018.
  10. ^ "Articles of Incorporation Charles Koch Foundation and Restated Articles of Incorporation". December 19, 1974. Archived from the original on March 15, 2012. Retrieved 2012.
  11. ^ a b Burris, Charles (February 4, 2011). "Kochs v. Soros: A Partial Backstory". LewRockwell.com. Archived from the original on October 12, 2013. Retrieved 2013.
  12. ^ The essays, named after Cato the Younger, the defender of republican institutions in Rome, expounded on the political views of philosopher John Locke, that had a strong influence on the American Revolution's intellectual environment. See: Mitchell, Annie (July 2004). "A Liberal Republican "Cato"". American Journal of Political Science. 48 (3): 588-603. doi:10.1111/j.0092-5853.2004.00089.x.
  13. ^ Rossiter, Clinton (1953). Seedtime of the Republic: the origin of the American tradition of political liberty. New York: Harcourt, Brace. pp. 141. No one can spend any time the newspapers, library inventories, and pamphlets of colonial America without realizing that Cato's Letters rather than John Locke's Civil Government was the most popular, quotable, esteemed source for political ideas in the colonial period.
  14. ^ a b Doherty, Brian (2007). Radicals for Capitalism: A Freewheeling History of the Modern American Libertarian Movement. New York: PublicAffairs. p. 741. ISBN 978-1-58648-350-0. OCLC 76141517.
  15. ^ "The Think Tanks and Civil Societies Program 2009" (PDF). University of Pennsylvania. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 7, 2011. Retrieved 2010.
  16. ^ a b McDuffee, Allen (March 12, 2012). "Koch brothers vs. Cato: Cato Chairman Bob Levy refutes Charles Koch's statement". Washington Post. Archived from the original on September 19, 2020. Retrieved 2020.
  17. ^ a b McDuffee, Allen; Farnam, T.W. (March 1, 2012). "Koch Brothers sue Cato Institute, president". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on July 24, 2020. Retrieved 2020.
  18. ^ Troy, Tevi (March 15, 2012). "Think tank politics". Washington Post. Archived from the original on December 8, 2020. Retrieved 2020.
  19. ^ Rich, Andrew (April 5, 2004). Think Tanks, Public Policy, and the Politics of Expertise (1 ed.). Cambridge, UK ; New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-83029-4.
  20. ^ "Save Cato". Cato Institute. September 19, 2012. Archived from the original on September 19, 2012. Retrieved 2020.
  21. ^ "For a Better Cato". June 9, 2012. Archived from the original on June 9, 2012. Retrieved 2020.
  22. ^ ISSN 0273-3072
  23. ^ "Academic Search Complete" (PDF). EBSCO. Archived (PDF) from the original on October 10, 2019. Retrieved 2020.
  24. ^ ProQuest Database: ProQuest 5000 International Archived November 26, 2009, at the Wayback Machine, ProQuest
  25. ^ ISSN 0147-0590
  26. ^ "Business Source Complete" (PDF). EBSCO. Archived (PDF) from the original on October 10, 2019. Retrieved 2020.
  27. ^ ProQuest Database: ProQuest 5000 International Archived November 26, 2009, at the Wayback Machine, ProQuest
  28. ^ OCLC 464445035, 51687065
  29. ^ ISSN 1936-0398
  30. ^ ISSN 0743-605X
  31. ^ ISSN 0148-5008; OCLC 3456688
  32. ^ ISSN 0161-7303; OCLC 4007467 (Literature of Liberty ended publication in 1982.)
  33. ^ "Human Freedom Index". cato.org. Archived from the original on June 24, 2021. Retrieved 2021.
  34. ^ "Economic Freedom of the World". cato.org. Archived from the original on June 24, 2021. Retrieved 2021.
  35. ^ "Multimedia: Cato Daily Podcast". cato.org. Archived from the original on March 29, 2016. Retrieved 2021.
  36. ^ "Multimedia: Power Problems". cato.org. Archived from the original on June 24, 2021. Retrieved 2021.
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