Canada Men's National Junior Ice Hockey Team
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Canada Men's National Junior Ice Hockey Team
Canada
Shirt badge/Association crest
The Maple Leaf has always appeared on the uniform since 1920.[1]
Nickname(s)Team Canada
(Équipe Canada)
AssociationHockey Canada
General ManagerAlan Millar[2]
Head coachAndré Tourigny
AssistantsMichael Dyck
Mitch Love
Tyler Dietrich
CaptainKirby Dach[3]
Dylan Cozens and[4]
Bowen Byram
Top scorerJordan Eberle (14)
Most pointsEric Lindros (31)
Team colours     
IIHF codeCAN
First international
 Canada 5 - 4 United States 
(Leningrad, Soviet Union; December 27, 1973)
Biggest win
 Canada 18 - 2 West Germany 
(Kitchener, Ontario, Canada; December 27, 1985)
 Canada 16 - 0 Latvia 
(Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada; December 26, 2009)
Biggest defeat
 Sweden 17 - 1 Canada 
(Tampere, Finland; December 26, 1975)
IIHF World U20 Championship
Appearances45 (first in 1977)
Best resultGold medal with cup.svg Gold: 18 - (1982, 1985, 1988, 1990, 1991, 1993, 1994, 1995, 1996, 1997, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2015, 2018, 2020)
International record (W-L-T)
209-60-23
Medal record
Bronze medal - third place Canada
Silver medal - second place Canada
Silver medal - second place Canada
Silver medal - second place Canada
Bronze medal - third place Canada
Gold medal - first place Canada
Bronze medal - third place Canada
Gold medal - first place Canada
Silver medal - second place Canada
Gold medal - first place Canada
Gold medal - first place Canada
Gold medal - first place Canada
Gold medal - first place Canada
Gold medal - first place Canada
Gold medal - first place Canada
Gold medal - first place Canada
Gold medal - first place Canada
Silver medal - second place Canada
Bronze medal - third place Canada
Bronze medal - third place Canada
Silver medal - second place Canada
Silver medal - second place Canada
Silver medal - second place Canada
Gold medal - first place Canada
Gold medal - first place Canada
Gold medal - first place Canada
Gold medal - first place Canada
Gold medal - first place Canada
Silver medal - second place Canada
Silver medal - second place Canada
Bronze medal - third place Canada
Gold medal - first place Canada
Silver medal - second place Canada
Gold medal - first place Canada
Gold medal - first place Canada
Silver medal - second place Canada

The Canadian men's national under-20 ice hockey team is the ice hockey team representing Canada internationally in under-20 competition. Their primary participation in this age group comes at the International Ice Hockey Federation's World Junior Championship, held annually every December and January. The team also participates in various exhibition matches and occasional exhibition series, such as the 2007 Super Series against their Russian counterparts, an eight-game exhibition series commemorating the 35th anniversary of the 1972 Summit Series.

The national junior team is extremely popular in Canada, with World Junior events in Canada being often sold out, television ratings are extremely high, and even events in Europe are well attended by a contingent of Canadian fans.

The Canadian junior team is the most successful in the world, having medalled in 33 of 45 events held since 1977, winning a record 18 gold medals. Its success can be traced back to the formation of the Program of Excellence in 1982 by the Canadian Amateur Hockey Association, which created the first true national junior team. Since that time, Canada has won 18 of 40 World Junior championships - including five in a row on two occasions, 1993-1997 and 2005-2009.

History

Early tournaments (1974-1981)

The International Ice Hockey Federation (IIHF) created an invitation-only junior tournament for the top ice hockey nations in the world to be held in late December 1973 and early January 1974 in Leningrad, Soviet Union. It featured six teams: the Soviet Union, Czechoslovakia, Sweden, Finland, the United States and Canada. The Canadian Amateur Hockey Association (CAHA) hoped to send the defending Memorial Cup champion Toronto Marlboros to represent Canada, but after they declined, the Peterborough Petes, runner up to Toronto in the Ontario Hockey Association (OHA) standings, was sent.[5] The Petes finished third, despite being the only club team in the tournament[6]

A second tournament was held in 1975, primarily in Winnipeg, Manitoba. The CAHA sent an all-star team made up of players representing the Western Canada Hockey League WCHL as Canada's representative. The team finished in second place with a 4-1 record, their lone loss at the hands of the champion Soviet Union.[7] As the OHA and WCHL had each sent a representative already, the Quebec Major Junior Hockey League (QMJHL) sent Canada's entry in the form of the Sherbrooke Beavers for the 1976 tournament. The team finished second despite scoring only 12 goals and giving up 27 in four games[8]

The growing popularity of international competition begun by the 1972 Summit Series and continued with the Canada Cup led the IIHF to formalize the tournament in 1977 as the IIHF World U20 Championship (colloquially the World Junior Hockey Championship).[9] The defending Memorial Cup champion St. Catharines Fincups of the OHA represented Canada at this first official tournament, winning the silver medal, while Dale McCourt was named the tournament's best forward.[10] The 1978 tournament was held in Montreal.[11] It was the first major international tournament for Wayne Gretzky, a 16-year-old phenom whom the Montreal crowd cheered wildly.[12] Though he led the tournament in scoring with 17 points,[11] Canada managed only a bronze medal after losing the final round-robin game to Sweden, 6-5, in which they needed only a tie for silver.[12]

The following three years yielded poor results. The 1979 team was represented primarily by the WHL's New Westminster Bruins and finished in fifth place.[13] The CAHA nearly chose not to send a team in 1980 due to travel costs, but donations from the three major junior leagues ensured Canada's participation. The Peterborough Petes formed the primary core of the team, supplemented by players from other OHA squads. The result, however, was another fifth-place finish.[14] The 1981 tournament was even worse, as the Cornwall Royals, with some additions from other QMJHL teams, finished in seventh place out of eight teams.[15]

Program of Excellence

The CAHA had long hoped to send a true national team to the tournament, but were limited by costs. To assemble such a team in 1981 would have cost four times the amount it spent to send the Cornwall Royals. The CAHA lacked the resources for such a program and preferred not to send a team at all if it couldn't send its best. However, it was in a dispute at the time with Hockey Canada and feared that if it did not send a team, the IIHF would turn to the rival governing body instead.[16] Though the CAHA typically sent the defending Memorial Cup champion, those teams were typically weakened by the loss of graduating players and were often only a shadow of the team which won their championships.[17] Disappointed by frequent complaints from European teams that the Canadian juniors were just "slugs" who couldn't play the game at an elite level, CAHA president Murray Costello finally set out to build a true national team program.[18]

Known as the "Program of Excellence", Costello and the CAHA proposed a multifaceted approach that would see Canada send its top eligible juniors from across the nation. It included the creation of U-17 and U-18 programs to develop younger players and a summer training camp to evaluate potential players for the junior team. The three major-junior leagues were initially reluctant to support the proposal, as it would have required them to surrender their top players for a longer period for the tournament, as well as their younger players for regional development tournaments. The CAHA ultimately gained the support of each league,[19] but not before having to also convince them to allow the organization to also invite eligible players from outside major junior hockey.[20]

The team that was sent to the 1982 Tournament in Rochester, Minnesota was the first true national junior team sent. It was composed of ten players from the WHL, four from the OHL, three from the QMJHL, two playing United States college and one playing professionally in the Finnish league.[21] The team lacked star players, but relied on a balanced offence and strong defence to post a 6-0-1 record in the round robin tournament. Canada defeated the Soviet Union 7-0 in the second-to-last game, the worst defeat the Soviets suffered in the tournament's history.[22] The game was played at the Winnipeg Arena before a rabid crowd, which amazed the players.[23] The Canadians entered the final game, against Czechoslovakia, guaranteed a silver medal, and needed only a tie to win gold. Played at a half-full arena in Rochester, the Czechs entered the third period leading 2-1, and would have had a larger lead if not for goaltender Mike Moffat. Two third-period goals gave Canada the lead before the Czechs tied it. They held on despite a frenzied attack in the final minutes to end with a 3-3 tie, and win Canada's first gold medal in the tournament's history.[23]

The arena either did not have a copy of the Canadian anthem, or had technical difficulty with it, so was unable to follow the IIHF tradition of playing the winning team's anthem following the game. The players themselves chose to sing the anthem, badly off-key, an image that has since become an iconic moment in the junior program's history.[24] The gold medal marked the first international amateur championship for Canada in 20 years,[25] and established the value of the Program of Excellence.[26]

Rivalry with the Soviet Union (1983-1991)

Attempting to repeat as champions in 1983, Canada endured numerous incidents and mind games perpetrated by the host Soviet Union. The Soviets initially refused to grant a sufficient number of visas for the Canadian delegation, then when the team landed in Leningrad, had their clothing and equipment seized immediately by government officials. It was returned three hours later, but only after the team threatened to withdraw from the tournament.[27] Canada's first three games, all wins, were played in a small, empty arena. The fourth game was against the hosts in a larger rink at full capacity, which the team was denied the ability to practice in beforehand. The players struggled to adapt to the new playing conditions, losing 7-3, and even surrendered a goal when they mistook a whistle from somewhere in the crowd for the referees whistle and stopped playing. The Canadians finished with the bronze medal.[28] The game against the Soviets was a much closer affair in the following year, ending in a 3-3 tie. However, Canada needed a win in the game to retain a chance for gold. Left with bronze as the best possibility, the disheartened Canadians lost to Czechoslovakia in the final game of the tournament and finished in fourth place.[29]

Canada and Czechoslovakia entered their contest on the final day of the 1985 tournament in Sweden with identical 5-0-1 records. Playing for the gold medal, the game was dominated by the goaltenders: Craig Billington and Dominik Ha?ek. It ended in a 2-2 draw and Canada claimed gold in the round-robin tournament as a result of a better goal differential. It was the nation's first World Championship won on European ice in 24 years.[30] With 5-0 records, Canada and the Soviet Union again faced off for the gold medal in their match-up at the 1986 in Hamilton. The Soviets emerged 4-1 victors and won the gold, while Canada finished as silver medalists.[31]

Believing that the Canada-Soviet match-up would again determine who won gold, the Czechoslovak hosts scheduled the two teams to be the final game of the 1987 tournament. It did not turn out that way, as the Soviets struggled and were eliminated from contention. However, Canada could win silver with a victory, or gold with a victory of 5 or more goals.[32] Norwegian referee Hans Rønning, assigned based on his neutrality despite his inexperience officiating at the international level,[33] quickly lost control as both teams frequently hacked and slashed each other. Midway through the second period, with Canada leading 4-2, a line brawl broke out that ultimately involved nearly every player for both teams after the Soviets left their bench, closely followed by the Canadians. The melee lasted 20 minutes, ending only when the players were too exhausted to continue fighting.[34] The brawl, which became known as the Punch-up in Piestany, resulted in the disqualification of Canada and the Soviet Union.[33]

Players who were on the 1987 team entered the 1988 tournament in Moscow seeking redemption.[35] They won the gold medal, finishing the tournament at 6-0-1. The 3-2 victory over the Soviet Union was the difference maker, dropping the tournament hosts to the silver medal.[36] Canada would achieve the same feat at the 1990 and 1991 tournaments, capturing back-to-back gold medals for the first time, hinging on crucial wins over the Soviet Union. This ultimately broke the tie in points at the top of the standings each time, leaving the Soviets with silver.

Golden years (1993-1997)

From 1993 through to 1997, Canada won a record five-straight gold medals. The streak started under difficult circumstances beginning at the 1993 World Junior Ice Hockey Championships in Sweden, one of the most competitive engagements in tournament history.[37] The host Swedes, led by Peter Forsberg, Markus Näslund, and Niklas Sundström, broke scoring records. In 1995, the host Canadians benefited from a squad bolstered by the 1994-95 NHL lockout, resulting in a perfect record en route to winning gold.[38] The streak culminated at the 1997 tournament in Switzerland, with excellent defence and goaltending covering for an offence that struggled early in the competition.[39] The run of dominance ended in 1998, when the team buckled under enormous media pressure and lost interest once gold was no longer a possibility, suffering an embarrassing eighth place exit.

Medal streak (1999-2012)

At the 1999 World Junior Ice Hockey Championships, Canada won silver as hosts in Winnipeg, dropping a 3-2 final in overtime to a powerful, deep Russian team. The tournament set records for attendance.[40] This would also be the start of another unrivaled display of junior hockey by Canada, claiming 14-straight medals from 1999-2012, including their second run of five-straight gold medals from 2005 through to 2009. At the 2009 tournament in Ottawa, where Team Canada last captured gold, Canada faced defeat against Russia in the final seconds of their semi-final before Jordan Eberle scored the equalizing goal with 5.4 seconds remaining in the game, forcing overtime. Canada would win in a shootout and go on to rout Sweden 5-1 in the final. John Tavares, the future first overall selection at the 2009 NHL Entry Draft, was named most valuable player of the tournament.[41]

Current roster

Roster for the 2021 World Junior Ice Hockey Championships.[42] (2020-21 teams listed at time of event)

Head Coach: André Tourigny

Position Jersey # Name Height Weight Birthdate Hometown 2020-21 team NHL rights
G 1 Devon Levi 6' 0" 185 December 27, 2001 Quebec Dollard-des-Ormeaux, Quebec United States Northeastern University (HEA) Florida Panthers
D 2 Braden Schneider 6' 2" 210 September 20, 2001 Saskatchewan Prince Albert, Saskatchewan Canada Brandon Wheat Kings (WHL) New York Rangers
D 3 Kaedan Korczak 6' 4" 200 January 29, 2001 Saskatchewan Yorkton, Saskatchewan Canada Kelowna Rockets (WHL) Vegas Golden Knights
D 4 Bowen Byram - C 6' 1" 192 June 13, 2001 British Columbia Cranbrook, British Columbia Canada Colorado Avalanche (NHL) Colorado Avalanche
D 5 Thomas Harley 6' 4" 195 August 19, 2001 New York (state) Jamesville, New York Canada Mississauga Steelheads (OHL) Dallas Stars
D 6 Jamie Drysdale 5' 11" 170 April 8, 2002 Ontario Toronto, Ontario United States Erie Otters (OHL) Anaheim Ducks
F 7 Kirby Dach - C (injured) 6' 4" 187 January 21, 2001 Alberta Fort Saskatchewan, Alberta United States Chicago Blackhawks (NHL) Chicago Blackhawks
D 8 Jordan Spence 5' 10" 178 May 24, 2001 Prince Edward Island Cornwall, Prince Edward Island Canada Moncton Wildcats (QMJHL) Los Angeles Kings
F 9 Connor Zary 6' 0" 180 September 25, 2001 Saskatchewan Saskatoon, Saskatchewan Canada Kamloops Blazers (WHL) Calgary Flames
F 10 Dylan Holloway 6' 1" 203 September 23, 2001 Alberta Bragg Creek, Alberta United States University of Wisconsin (Big Ten) Edmonton Oilers
F 11 Cole Perfetti 5' 10" 180 January 1, 2002 Ontario Whitby, Ontario United States Saginaw Spirit (OHL) Winnipeg Jets
F 12 Jakob Pelletier 5' 10" 170 March 7, 2001 Quebec Quebec City, Quebec Canada Val-d'Or Foreurs (QMJHL) Calgary Flames
F 15 Alex Newhook 5' 11" 197 January 28, 2001 Newfoundland and Labrador St. John's, Newfoundland and Labrador United States Boston College (HEA) Colorado Avalanche
F 16 Ryan Suzuki 6' 1" 180 May 28, 2001 Ontario London, Ontario United States Saginaw Spirit (OHL) Carolina Hurricanes
F 17 Connor McMichael - A 6' 0" 181 January 15, 2001 Ontario Ajax, Ontario Canada London Knights (OHL) Washington Capitals
F 18 Peyton Krebs 5' 11" 180 January 26, 2001 Alberta Okotoks, Alberta Canada Winnipeg Ice (WHL) Vegas Golden Knights
F 19 Quinton Byfield 6' 4" 215 August 19, 2002 Ontario Newmarket, Ontario Canada Sudbury Wolves (OHL) Los Angeles Kings
F 20 Dawson Mercer 6' 0" 178 October 27, 2001 Newfoundland and Labrador Bay Roberts, Newfoundland and Labrador Canada Drummondville Voltigeurs (QMJHL) New Jersey Devils
D 21 Kaiden Guhle 6' 3" 184 January 18, 2002 Alberta Sherwood Park, Alberta Canada Prince Albert Raiders (WHL) Montreal Canadiens
F 22 Dylan Cozens - C 6' 3" 185 February 9, 2001 Yukon Whitehorse, Yukon Canada Buffalo Sabres (NHL) Buffalo Sabres
F 26 Philip Tomasino 6' 0" 183 July 28, 2001 Ontario Mississauga, Ontario Canada Oshawa Generals (OHL) Nashville Predators
D 27 Justin Barron 6' 2" 198 November 15, 2001 Nova Scotia Halifax, Nova Scotia Canada Halifax Mooseheads (QMJHL) Colorado Avalanche
F 29 Jack Quinn 6' 1" 179 September 19, 2001 Ontario Cobden, Ontario Canada Ottawa 67's (OHL) Buffalo Sabres
G 30 Taylor Gauthier 6' 2" 190 February 15, 2001 Alberta Calgary, Alberta Canada Prince George Cougars (WHL) Undrafted
G 31 Dylan Garand 6' 1" 172 June 7, 2002 British Columbia Victoria, British Columbia Canada Kamloops Blazers (WHL) New York Rangers

World Junior Championship record

Year GP W L T GF GA Pts Rank
1974 5 3 2 0 17 23 6 3rd place, bronze medalist(s) Bronze
1975 5 4 1 0 27 10 8 2nd place, silver medalist(s) Silver
1976 4 2 2 0 12 27 4 2nd place, silver medalist(s) Silver
1977 7 5 1 1 50 20 11 2nd place, silver medalist(s) Silver
1978 6 4 2 0 36 18 8 3rd place, bronze medalist(s) Bronze
1979 5 3 2 0 23 10 6 5th
1980 5 3 2 0 25 18 6 5th
1981 5 1 3 1 26 25 3 7th
1982 7 6 0 1 45 14 13 1st place, gold medalist(s) Gold
1983 7 4 2 1 39 24 9 3rd place, bronze medalist(s) Bronze
1984 7 4 2 1 39 17 9 4th
1985 7 5 0 2 44 14 12 1st place, gold medalist(s) Gold
1986 7 5 2 0 54 21 10 2nd place, silver medalist(s) Silver
1987 6 4 1 1 41 23 9 DSQ
1988 7 6 0 1 37 16 13 1st place, gold medalist(s) Gold
1989 7 4 2 1 31 23 9 4th
1990 7 5 1 1 36 18 11 1st place, gold medalist(s) Gold
1991 7 5 1 1 40 18 11 1st place, gold medalist(s) Gold
1992 7 2 3 2 21 30 6 6th
1993 7 6 1 0 37 17 12 1st place, gold medalist(s) Gold
1994 7 6 0 1 39 20 13 1st place, gold medalist(s) Gold
1995 7 7 0 0 49 22 14 1st place, gold medalist(s) Gold
1996 6 6 0 0 27 8 12 1st place, gold medalist(s) Gold
1997 7 5 0 2 27 13 12 1st place, gold medalist(s) Gold
1998 7 2 5+ 0 13 18 4 8th
1999 7 4 2+ 1 30 15 9 2nd place, silver medalist(s) Silver
2000 7 4 1 2 23 14 10 3rd place, bronze medalist(s) Bronze
2001 7 4 2 1 26 16 9 3rd place, bronze medalist(s) Bronze
2002 7 5 2 0 40 14 10 2nd place, silver medalist(s) Silver
2003 6 5 1 0 26 11 10 2nd place, silver medalist(s) Silver
2004 6 5 1 0 35 9 10 2nd place, silver medalist(s) Silver
2005 6 6 0 0 42 7 12 1st place, gold medalist(s) Gold
2006 6 6 0 0 25 6 12 1st place, gold medalist(s) Gold
2007 6 6* 0 0 20 7 17 1st place, gold medalist(s) Gold
2008 7 6* 1 0 23 10 17 1st place, gold medalist(s) Gold
2009 6 6* 0 0 46 12 17 1st place, gold medalist(s) Gold
2010 6 5+ 1+ 0 46 13 15 2nd place, silver medalist(s) Silver
2011 7 5 2? 0 39 19 16 2nd place, silver medalist(s) Silver
2012 6 5 1 0 35 11 15 3rd place, bronze medalist(s) Bronze
2013 6 4 2 0 27 19 12 4th
2014 7 4 3? 0 25 20 13 4th
2015 7 7 0 0 39 9 12 1st place, gold medalist(s) Gold
2016 5 2+ 3 0 18 18 5 6th
2017 7 5 2+ 0 35 18 9 2nd place, silver medalist(s) Silver
2018 7 6 0 1 39 11 19 1st place, gold medalist(s) Gold
2019 5 3 2+ 0 24 7 10 6th
2020 7 6 1 0 32 17 18 1st place, gold medalist(s) Gold
2021 7 6 1 0 41 6 18 2nd place, silver medalist(s) Silver
The Canadians face off against the Finnish junior team at an exhibition game in Calgary.

The 1974, 1975 and 1976 tournaments were unofficial. The 1974 team was represented by the Peterborough Petes. Canada was ejected from the tournament in 1987 for a bench clearing brawl with the Soviet Union. In 1996, a playoff was added to the tournament (prior to this, it was just a round robin tournament.) Playoff games are included in record. Since 2007, the IIHF has awarded 3 points for a win, 2 points for an overtime win and 1 point for an overtime loss.

+ Includes one win in extra time (in the preliminary round)
? Includes one loss in extra time (in the preliminary round)
* Includes one win in extra time (in the playoff round)
+ Includes one loss in extra time (in the playoff round)

Super Series

In 2007, the Canadian junior team played the Russian junior team in an eight-game Super Series commemorating the 35th anniversary of the 1972 Summit Series. For the 40th anniversary, the two teams competed in a four-game series in August 2012. The two teams split the series, which was decided on an overtime goal by Ryan Strome after Game 4.[43]

Year GP W L T GF GA Pts Rank
2007 8 7 0 1 39 13 15 Won Series
2012 4 2 2 0 16 16 4 Won Series

Awards and honours

Canadian players have earned numerous honours throughout the history of the World Junior Championship.

Directorate Awards

All-Star Teams

Year Recipients[46]
1977 Dale McCourt (F)
1978 Wayne Gretzky (F)
1982 Mike Moffat (G), Gord Kluzak (D), Mike Moller (F)
1985 Bobby Dollas (D)
1986 Sylvain Côté (D), Shayne Corson (F)
1988 Jimmy Waite (G), Greg Hawgood (D), Theoren Fleury (F)
1990 Stéphane Fiset (G), Dave Chyzowski (F)
1991 Mike Craig (F), Eric Lindros (F)
1992 Scott Niedermayer (D)
1993 Manny Legace (G), Brent Tully (D), Paul Kariya (F)
1995 Bryan McCabe (D), Jason Allison (F), Éric Dazé (F), Marty Murray (F)
1996 José Théodore (G), Nolan Baumgartner (D), Jarome Iginla (F)
1997 Chris Phillips (D), Christian Dubé (F)
1999 Roberto Luongo (G), Brian Campbell (D), Daniel Tkaczuk (F)
2000 Mathieu Biron (D)
2001 Jason Spezza (F)
2002 Pascal Leclaire (G), Jay Bouwmeester (D), Mike Cammalleri (F)
2003 Marc-André Fleury (G), Carlo Colaiacovo (D), Scottie Upshall (F)
2004 Dion Phaneuf (D), Jeff Carter (F)
2005 Dion Phaneuf (D), Patrice Bergeron (F), Jeff Carter (F)
2006 Luc Bourdon (D), Steve Downie (F)
2007 Carey Price (G), Kris Letang (D), Jonathan Toews (F)
2008 Steve Mason (G), Drew Doughty (D)
2009 P. K. Subban (D), Cody Hodgson (F), John Tavares (F)
2010 Alex Pietrangelo (D), Jordan Eberle (F)
2011 Ryan Ellis (D), Ryan Johansen (F), Brayden Schenn (F)
2012 Brandon Gormley (D)
2013 Ryan Nugent-Hopkins (F)
2014 Anthony Mantha (F)
2015 Josh Morrissey (D), Connor McDavid (F), Sam Reinhart (F), Max Domi (F)
2017 Thomas Chabot (D)
2018 Cale Makar (D)
2020 Joel Hofer (G), Barrett Hayton (F), Alexis Lafrenière (F)
2021 Devon Levi (G), Bowen Byram (D), Dylan Cozens (F)

See also

References

Footnotes

  1. ^ "A century of Jerseys". Hockey Canada. Retrieved .
  2. ^ https://www.hockeycanada.ca/en-ca/team-canada/men/junior/2020-21/camps/roster-sel-camp
  3. ^ Dach missing tournament, with fractured wrist
  4. ^ Cozens and Byram filling in as co-captains, in Dach's absence
  5. ^ Podnieks 1998, p. 10
  6. ^ Podnieks 1998, pp. 11-12
  7. ^ Podnieks 1998, pp. 14-15
  8. ^ Podnieks 1998, pp. 17-19
  9. ^ Podnieks 1998, p. 7
  10. ^ Podnieks 1998, p. 20
  11. ^ a b 1977-1981, The Sports Network, retrieved
  12. ^ a b Podnieks 1998, pp. 39-40
  13. ^ Podnieks 1998, pp. 51-52
  14. ^ Podnieks 1998, pp. 63-64
  15. ^ Podnieks 1998, p. 76
  16. ^ Podnieks 1998, p. 78
  17. ^ Joyce 2011, p. 1
  18. ^ Hornby, Lance (2005-11-08), "Costello rebuilt national pride", Toronto Sun, retrieved
  19. ^ Joyce 2011, p. 3
  20. ^ Podnieks 1998, p. 92
  21. ^ Podnieks 1998, p. 103
  22. ^ 1982 - Minnesota, USA, The Sports Network, retrieved
  23. ^ a b Joyce 2011, p. 10
  24. ^ Joyce 2011, p. 11
  25. ^ "Canadian juniors win 'miracle' gold", Montreal Gazette, p. 28, 1982-01-04, retrieved
  26. ^ Podnieks 1998, p. 107
  27. ^ Podnieks 1998, pp. 109-110
  28. ^ Joyce 2011, pp. 15-17
  29. ^ Joyce 2011, p. 20
  30. ^ Joyce 2011, pp. 22-25
  31. ^ Podnieks 1998, pp. 152-153
  32. ^ Joyce 2006, p. 116
  33. ^ a b Burns, John F. (1987-01-12), "Diplomacy takes hard check", New York Times, retrieved
  34. ^ Joyce 2011, pp. 41-42
  35. ^ Joyce 2011, p. 50
  36. ^ 1988 - Moscow, Russia, The Sports Network, retrieved
  37. ^ "1993 - Gavle, Sweden". TSN. Retrieved 2013.
  38. ^ "1995 - Red Deer, Canada". TSN. Retrieved 2013.
  39. ^ "1997 - Geneva and Morges, Switzerland". TSN. Retrieved 2013.
  40. ^ "1999 - Winnipeg, Canada". TSN. Retrieved 2013.
  41. ^ "2009 - Ottawa, Canada". TSN. Retrieved 2013.
  42. ^ "Roster". Hockey Canada. December 26, 2018.
  43. ^ "Canada takes Challenge with OT series winner". TSN. Retrieved 2013.
  44. ^ a b c Podnieks 2011, p. 35
  45. ^ Podnieks 2011, p. 34
  46. ^ Podnieks 2011, pp. 37-38

General

External links


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