The 2006 Canadian census was a detailed enumeration of the Canadian population. Census day was May 16, 2006. The following census was the 2011 Census. Canada's total population enumerated by the 2006 census was 31,612,897. This count was lower than the official July 1, 2006 population estimate of 32,623,490 people. The previous census was the 2001 census and the following census was in 2011 census.
Over 12.7 million households, 32.5 million people were expected to be counted. Canada Post delivered census forms by mail to 70% of the country, primarily residents in urban areas. Census enumerators delivered to the remaining 30% of households. Every fifth home received the long questionnaire (53 questions versus 8 questions on the short form). For the first time, Canadian residents were able to go online to fill in their forms. Statistics Canada expected approximately 20% of households to file their surveys electronically. Persistent census staff are contacting tardy households. The total estimated cost of the 2006 census is $567 million spread over seven years, employing more than 25,000 full and part-time census workers.
New in the 2006 Census Questionnaire:
Questions not asked in the 2006 Census:
As the data were compiled, Statistics Canada released various census data products. The first set of data products was released on March 13, 2007, originally scheduled for release on February 13, 2007, covering population and dwelling counts by geographical unit. This was followed by other census data products.
The first release of 2006 Census data was on March 13, 2007, covering population and dwelling counts by geographical unit.
Population of the provinces and territories
|Rank||Province or territory||Population as of
|Population as of
|9||Newfoundland and Labrador||505,469||512,930||-7,461||-1.5%|
|10||Prince Edward Island||138,581||135,294||3,287||2.4%|
The second release of 2006 Census data was on July 17, 2007, covering age and sex of the Canadian population. Among other findings, Statistics Canada reported that the 65-and-over population was at a record high of 13.7% of the total population of Canada. By comparison, the 2001 census found that the 65-and-over population was 13.0% of the total population of Canada.
|Province / territory||0 to 14||15-64||65+||Males||Females|
|Newfoundland and Labrador||78,230||356,975||70,265||245,730||259,740|
|Prince Edward Island||23,985||91,685||20,185||65,595||70,260|
The following table displays various census data (derived from the 20% sample that completed the long questionnaire) on marital status for the Canadian population aged 15 years or more, as well as data on the number of couples by various criteria, and where available the percentage change from the 2001 census:
|Population aged 15 years and over||26,033,060||+7.2|
|Legally married (and not separated)||12,470,400||+3.8|
|Separated, but still legally married||775,425||+5.7|
|In a common-law relationship||2,731,635||+19.6|
|In a same-sex union||90,695||+32.6|
|Male same-sex married couples||4,010|
|Female same-sex married couples||3,455|
|Male same-sex common-law couples||20,730|
|Female same-sex common-law couples||17,155|
|Married couples with children||3,443,775||-0.7|
|Married couples without children||2,662,130||+9.5|
|Common-law couples with children||618,150||+16.4|
|Common-law couples without children||758,715||+20.9|
The fourth release of 2006 Census data was on December 4, 2007 and covered immigration, citizenship, language, mobility, migration and other population data.
The fifth release of 2006 Census data was on January 15, 2008, covering aboriginal peoples.
The eighth release of 2006 Census data was on May 1, 2008, covering income and earnings, and shelter costs.
In contrast to 1996 focus-groups that found it important to know the legal requirement at the outset, participants of 2005 focus-groups were annoyed or provoked by draft ads reminding Canadians about the census law. As a result of the finding, Statistics Canada's initial newspaper, radio and TV ads avoided mention of the legal requirement. Instead, reference to the census law was highlighted only in ads appearing after census day, to capture late filers.
To encourage participation, Statistics Canada set aside $13 million for "saturation" advertising, including billboards, bookmarks, inserts in municipal tax bills, and ads on bags of sugar and milk cartons.
Statistics Canada reports less than 20% of the work will be outsourced, spending $85 million over 5 years. Despite an open public tender process, controversy arose on the announcement of a $43.3 million deal awarded to Lockheed Martin Canada--a subsidiary of Lockheed Martin, the world's largest defense contractor by defense revenue--for the purchase of scanning and printing software and hardware.
A variety of forms were available in both official languages, varying in length, colour, and recipient's location.
Most households (80%) received the short form (2A):
One in five received the long form (2B):
Federal and provincial employees and their families working in embassies and National Defence bases abroad (2C):
In the three northern territories and on Aboriginal communities and settlements (2D):
Census of Agriculture (6):
Special interest groups criticised Statistics Canada over the design of questions, accuracy, and the future of the census data:
In addition, Statistics Canada's online questionnaire had been criticized over accessibility issues:
The quality of data was further hampered by individuals who advocated minimal cooperation or non-cooperation, in protest to the outsourcing contract awarded to Lockheed Martin. Many people believed that Lockheed Martin would have access to their information, and that the US government could then access that information through the USA PATRIOT Act. However, despite assurances to the contrary (i.e., only Statistics Canada employees would and could handle, store, and access the information), some people refused to participate fully in the Census.
The release of data was postponed to numerous issues during enumeration. These included:
As a result, the first release of data from the census, originally scheduled for release on February 13, 2007, was delayed to March 13, 2007.