Budin Eyalet
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Budin Eyalet

Province of Budin (Buda)
  (Ottoman Turkish)
Budai vilajet  (Hungarian)
Budimski pa?aluk  (Serbo-Croatian)
Eyalet of Ottoman Empire
1541-1686
Budin Eyalet, Central europe 1683.png
The Budin Eyalet in 1683
CapitalBudin (Hungarian: Buda)
Area
 o Coordinates47°28?N 19°03?E / 47.467°N 19.050°E / 47.467; 19.050Coordinates: 47°28?N 19°03?E / 47.467°N 19.050°E / 47.467; 19.050
 o TypeEyalet
History 
1541
1686
Today part of Slovakia
 Hungary
 Croatia
 Serbia

Budin Eyalet (also known as Province of Budin/Buda or Pashalik of Budin/Buda, Ottoman Turkish: ‎, romanized: Ey?let-i Budin[1]) was an administrative territorial entity of the Ottoman Empire in Central Europe and the Balkans. It was formed on the territories that Ottoman Empire conquered from the medieval Kingdom of Hungary and Serbian Despotate. The capital of the Budin Province was Budin (Hungarian: Buda).[2]

Population of the province was ethnically and religiously diverse and included Hungarians, Croats, Serbs, Slovaks, Muslims of various ethnic origins (living mainly in the cities)[3] and others (Jews, Romani, etc.). The city of Buda itself became majority Muslim during the seventeenth century, largely through the immigration of Balkan Muslims.[4]

History

The pasha of Budin receiving the envoy of the Ottoman Sultan
The northern part of the Budin Eyalet in 1572

In the 16th century the Ottoman Empire had conquered the southern "line of fortresses" (végvár) of the Kingdom of Hungary. After the Battle of Mohács where the Kingdom of Hungary was heavily defeated, and the turmoil caused by the defeat, the influence was spread on the middle part of the Kingdom of Hungary. While Ottoman troops invaded Buda in 1526 and 1529, Suleyman I used the Buda area as a territory of the allied kingdom and did not annex it fully to the Empire.[5]

In 1541, Suleyman decided to consolidate the conquered Buda area and to set it up as an organic part of the Empire. He drove away the Austrian commander Wilhelm von Roggendorf, besieging the city, and on 29 August 1541 he took control of the city, together with the city on the other side of the Danube, Pest. He immediately organised the first Central European eyalet (province) with its capital in Buda (Budin in Turkish).[2]

The same year, several other cities fell under Ottoman rule: Szeged, Kalocsa and Szabadka (Serbian: Subotica). In the years 1543-44, the Ottomans conquered the fortresses of Nógrád, Vác, Fehérvár, Pécs and Siklós which were embedded into the new eyalet.[6]

In 1552 the eyalet was expanded with new territories in the North, and the new Eyalet of Teme?var was established. Military control of the surrounding areas was driven from Budin.[7]

The following year, the advance of the Ottomans slowed down and the territory of the Budin vilajet did not change until the ending of the Fifteen Years War and the Peace of Zsitvatorok, where the Ottomans lost territories North of Nógrád. However E?ri and Kanije were captured during these wars and were shortly managed as sanjaks in this province.[6]

The territory of the eyalet was significantly reduced in size with the establishment of the eyalets of E?ri (1596) and Kanije (1600).[8] Nevertheless, it remained the foremost Ottoman province in Central Europe, owing to the strategic importance of Budin as a major port on the Danube.[9]

In the 17th century Kara Mustafa Pasha conquered more areas from the Habsburg Kingdom of Hungary and its vassal, the Principality of Transylvania, but did not succeed in conquering Vienna in 1683.[10] This failed attempt heralded the gradual decline of Ottoman power in Europe. On 2 September 1686 Budin was captured by the troops of the Holy League.[11]

Military

Military clashes between the Habsburgs and the Ottomans were inevitable. They formed a border with one another, and although the European Eyalet had been established, there was a strong military presence in Buda.[12]

The number of the troops in the province at this time is difficult to estimate. There are documents to show 10,200 soldiers in the fortresses in 1546, and 12,451 soldiers in 1568. Auxiliary troops called sipahi[13] were also present. The cost of maintaining this large force put pressure on the budget of the province. In 1552, for example, the Porte sent 440,000 gold coins to Budin to provision the army.[14]

If the sultan or the beylerbey[15][16][17] was not present, then the post of general commander was taken by the pashas of Budin.

Fortresses

The Ottoman Empire put all efforts to strengthen the stronghold in Budin. They built several rings of defence around Budin and defended roads for supplies to Vienna, as their aim was to crush the capital of the Habsburgs, which they did not succeed.[18][19][20]

The most important fortresses around Budin were Esztergom, Székesfehérvár, and also less important Vác and Visegrád. To the south, the most relevant fortress was Szigetvár.[21]

Budin

In the 145 years Ottoman era,[22] the city of Budin was not converted to the "Italian" type of defensive fortress, which was in the fashion at that time.[23] The old fortress was enlarged by the "Víziváros" walls and a small stronghold was built on the Gellért hill.

The Budin Castle was already standing on a Medieval castle, with more or less same walls as per now. Various towers were built by Ottomans i.e. "Murad pasha tower" (Turkish: Murat pa?a kulesi)[24] between 1650 and 1653. The walls were enlarged in Gellért hill, in Rózsadomb, Nap-hegy and on the side of the Danube. The main castle was also walled inside, where they have made small openings so that the sentry could move easily.[25]

Administrative divisions

After 1541, province included following sanjaks:[26]

  1. Sanjak of Budin (Buda)
  2. Sanjak of Semendire (Smederevo)
  3. Sanjak of ?zvornik (Zvornik)
  4. Sanjak of Vulçetrin (Vushtrri)
  5. Sanjak of Pojega (Po?ega)
  6. Sanjak of Mohaç (Mohács)
  7. Sanjak of ?stolni Belgrad (Székesfehérvár)
  8. Sanjak of Segedin (Szeged)
  9. Sanjak of Sirem (Syrmia)
  10. Sanjak of Kopan (Koppany)
  11. Sanjak of ?iklo? (Siklos)
  12. Sanjak of Peçuy (Pécs)
  13. Sanjak of Vidin
  14. Sanjak of Alacahisar (Kru?evac)
  15. Sanjak of Çanad (Cenad)
  16. Sanjak of Beçkerek (Zrenjanin)
  17. Sanjak of Hipovo

In about 1566, province included following sanjaks:[27]

  1. Sanjak of Budin (Buda)
  2. Sanjak of Semendire (Smederevo)
  3. Sanjak of Pojega (Po?ega)
  4. Sanjak of M?haç (Mohács)
  5. Sanjak of ?stolni Belgrad (Székesfehérvár)
  6. Sanjak of Segedin (Szeged)
  7. Sanjak of Sirem (Syrmia)
  8. Sanjak of Baboça (Babocsa)
  9. Sanjak of Zigetvar (Szigetvar)
  10. Sanjak of Peçuy (Pécs)
  11. Sanjak of Estergon (Esztergom)
  12. Sanjak of Hatvan
  13. Sanjak of Filek (Filakovo)
  14. Sanjak of Seçen (Szécsény)
  15. Sanjak of Sonluk (Szolnok)
  16. Sanjak of ?imontorna (Simontornya)
  17. Sanjak of Kopan (Koppány)
  18. Sanjak of ?iklo? (Siklós)
  19. Sanjak of Sekçay (Szekszárd)
  20. Sanjak of Novigrad (Nograd)
  21. Sanjak of Pespirim (Veszprém)

In about 1600, province included following sanjaks:[26]

  1. Sanjak of Semendire (Smederevo)
  2. Sanjak of Sirem (Syrmia)
  3. Sanjak of Ráckeve
  4. Sanjak of Kopan (Koppány)
  5. Sanjak of ?stolni Belgrad (Székesfehérvár)
  6. Sanjak of M?haç (Mohács)
  7. Sanjak of ?iklo? (Siklós)
  8. Sanjak of Seçuy

In 1610, province included following sanjaks:[26]

  1. Sanjak of Budin (Buda)
  2. Sanjak of Sirem (Syrmia)
  3. Sanjak of Ráckeve
  4. Sanjak of Kopan (Koppány)
  5. Sanjak of ?stolni Belgrad (Székesfehérvár)
  6. Sanjak of M?haç (Mohács)

Before the end of Ottoman administration (i.e. before 1699), province included following sanjaks:[26]

  1. Sanjak of Budin (Buda)
  2. Sanjak of Sirem (Syrmia)
  3. Sanjak of Semendire (Smederevo)
  4. Sanjak of Sekçay (Szekszárd)
  5. Sanjak of ?imontorna (Simontornya)
  6. Sanjak of ?stolni Belgrad (Székesfehérvár)
  7. Sanjak of Estergon (Esztergom)
  8. Sanjak of Mohaç (Mohács)
  9. Sanjak of Peçuy (Pécs)

See also

Notes

  1. ^ "Some Provinces of the Ottoman Empire". Geonames.de. Archived from the original on 28 September 2013. Retrieved 2013.
  2. ^ a b O'Sullivan, Michael (1 May 2018). Patrick Leigh Fermor: Noble Encounters between Budapest and Transylvania. Central European University Press. p. 27. ISBN 978-615-5225-64-2.
  3. ^ Sluglett, Peter; Currie, Andrew (30 January 2015). Atlas of Islamic History. Routledge. p. 54. ISBN 978-1-317-58897-9.
  4. ^ Faroqhi, Suraiya (1994). "Crisis and Change, 1590-1699". In ?nalc?k, Halil; Donald Quataert (eds.). An Economic and Social History of the Ottoman Empire, 1300-1914. 2. Cambridge University Press. p. 440. ISBN 0-521-57456-0.
  5. ^ "Török hódoltság Magyarországon". Terebess Ázsia Lexikon. Terebess Hungária Kft. Retrieved 2007.
  6. ^ a b Dr. Papp-Váry, Árpád (2005). Középiskolai történelmi atlasz. Budapest: Cartographia Kft. pp. 43-44. ISBN 963-352-557-8.
  7. ^ Fekete, Lajos; Nagy Lajos (1986). Budapest története a török korban (History of Budapest in Ottoman period). Budapest: Akadémia Kiadó. ISBN 963-05-4394-X.
  8. ^ Encyclopedia of the Ottoman Empire, p. 96, at Google Books By Gábor Ágoston, Bruce Alan Masters
  9. ^ Guns for the sultan: military power and the weapons industry in the Ottoman ..., p. 136, at Google Books By Gábor Ágoston
  10. ^ Khan, Arshad (2003). Islam, Muslims, and America: Understanding the Basis of Their Conflict. Algora Publishing. p. 30. ISBN 978-0-87586-194-4.
  11. ^ ?andorfi, Rudolf (1996). History of Slovakia: (survey). Matica Slovenska Abroad. p. 68.
  12. ^ Mikaberidze, Alexander (22 July 2011). Conflict and Conquest in the Islamic World: A Historical Encyclopedia [2 volumes]: A Historical Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. p. 983. ISBN 978-1-59884-337-8.
  13. ^ ?nönü ansiklopedisi (in Turkish). Maarif Matbaas?. 1956. p. 310.
  14. ^ R. Várkonyi, Ágnes (1997). Megújulások kora (Age of renewals). Budapest: Helikon Kiadó. p. 17. ISBN 963-208-426-8.
  15. ^ Zimmermann, Johannes; Herzog, Christoph; Motika, Raoul (28 June 2016). Osmanische Welten: Quellen und Fallstudien; Festschrift für Michael Ursinus (in German). University of Bamberg Press. p. 539. ISBN 978-3-86309-413-3.
  16. ^ Tekta?, Naz?m (18 November 2011). ?ki Yüzlü Vezirler. artcivic. ISBN 978-605-4337-19-4.
  17. ^ OTAM: Ankara Üniversitesi Osmanl? Tarihi Ara?t?rma ve Uygulama Merkezi dergisi (in Turkish). Ankara Üniversitesi Bas?mevi. 2011. p. 233.
  18. ^ Lukan, Walter (2006). Serbien und Montenegro: Raum und Bevölkerung, Geschichte, Sprache und Literatur, Kultur, Politik, Gesellschaft, Wirtschaft, Recht (in German). LIT Verlag Münster. p. 59. ISBN 978-3-8258-9539-6.
  19. ^ Blanton, Stephen (January 2011). Stephen Blanton - Google Books. p. 36. ISBN 9781456720339.
  20. ^ Stoye, John (1994). Marsigli's Europe, 1680-1730: The Life and Times of Luigi Ferdinando Marsigli, Soldier and Virtuoso. Yale University Press. p. 20. ISBN 978-0-300-05542-9.
  21. ^ Turnbull, Stephen (20 September 2012). The Ottoman Empire 1326-1699. Bloomsbury Publishing. ISBN 978-1-78200-422-6.
  22. ^ Aygen, Zeynep (2013). International Heritage and Historic Building Conservation: Saving the World's Past. Routledge. p. 73. ISBN 978-0-415-88814-1.
  23. ^ Fekete, Lajos; Nagy Lajos (1986). Budapest története a török korban. Budapest: Akadémia Kiadó. p. 100. ISBN 963-05-4394-X.
  24. ^ Kad?o?lu, Muhsin (22 October 2016). Gülbaba: Türklerin ve Müslümanlar?n Avrupa'daki Manevi Sembolü. Muhsin Kad?o?lu. p. 1879.
  25. ^ Fekete, Lajos; Nagy Lajos (1986). Budapest története a török korban. Budapest: Akadémia Kiadó. pp. 19-23. ISBN 963-05-4394-X.
  26. ^ a b c d Dr Du?an J. Popovi?, Srbi u Vojvodini, knjiga I, Novi Sad, 1990, page 201.
  27. ^ "Wayback Machine, Internet Archive". 8 March 2004. Archived from the original on 8 March 2004. Retrieved 2020.

References

  • Peter Rokai - Zoltan ?ere - Tibor Pal - Aleksandar Kasa?, Istorija Ma?ara, Beograd, 2002.
  • Dr. Du?an J. Popovi?, Srbi u Vojvodini, knjiga 1, Novi Sad, 1990.

External links


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