|Boles?aw III Wrymouth|
|Duke of Poland|
|Predecessor||W?adys?aw I Herman|
|Successor||W?adys?aw II the Exile|
|Born||20 August 1086|
|Died||28 October 1138 (aged 52)|
|Father||W?adys?aw I Herman|
|Mother||Judith of Bohemia|
Boles?aw III Wrymouth (also known as Boleslaus III the Wry-mouthed, Polish: Boles?aw III Krzywousty) (20 August 1086 - 28 October 1138), was the duke of Lesser Poland, Silesia and Sandomierz between 1102 and 1107 and over the whole Poland between 1107 and 1138. He was the only child of Duke W?adys?aw I Herman and his first wife, Judith of Bohemia.
Boles?aw began to rule in the last decade of the 11th century, when the central government in Poland was significantly weakened. W?adys?aw I Herman fell under the political dependence of the Count palatine Sieciech, who became the real ruler of the country. Backed by their father, Boleslaw and his half-brother Zbigniew finally expelled Sieciech from the country in 1101, after several years of fighting. After the death of W?adys?aw I Herman in 1102, two independent states were created ruled by Boles?aw and Zbigniew.
Boles?aw sought to gain Pomerania which caused an armed conflict between the brothers, and forced Zbigniew to flee the country and seek military help from King Henry V of Germany. Boles?aw punished Zbigniew by blinding him. This action caused outrage among supporters of Zbigniew, resulting in a political crisis in Poland. Boles?aw once again gained the favor of his subjects with public penance, and made a pilgrimage to the monastery of his patron, Saint Giles, in Hungary.
Boles?aw, like Boles?aw II the Generous, based his foreign policy on maintaining good relations with neighboring Hungary and Kievan Rus, with whom he forged strong links through marriage and military cooperation in order to break the political dependence on Germany and his vassal, the King of Bohemia, who in moments of weakness of Polish policy was forced to pay tribute in Silesia. These alliances had allowed Boles?aw to effectively defend the country from invasion in 1109. Several years later, Boles?aw skillfully took advantage of the dynastic disputes in Bohemia to ensure peace on the south-west border.
Boles?aw devoted the second half of his rule to the conquest of Pomerania. In 1113 he conquered the northern strongholds along Note?, which strengthened the border with the Pomeranians. In subsequent years, he took steps toward the conquest of Pomerania. The resolution of the conflict with the Holy Roman Empire allowed Boles?aw to subordinate Western Pomerania and incorporate Gda?sk Pomerania. The military expeditions, carried out in three stages, ended in the 1120s with military and political successes. Integration of the newly annexed lands enabled Boles?aw to build churches and began the process of converting Pomerania. Bishop Otto of Bamberg confirmed the Christianization of Pomerania from 1123 onward.
In the 1130s Boles?aw participated in the dynastic dispute in Hungary. After an unexpected defeat, he was forced to make an agreement with Germany. The Congress of Merseburg of 1135 addressed the issues of Pomerania, Silesian (probably also Polish) sovereignty and the supremacy of the Archbishopric of Magdeburg over the Polish Church.
Boles?aw was married twice. His first marriage with the Kievan princess Zbyslava gave him an excuse to intervene militarily in the internal affairs of Russia. After her death, Boles?aw married to a German noblewoman, Salomea of Berg, which in some way was the cause of changes in Polish foreign policy: in the second half of his rule, the Prince sought to restore diplomatic relations with his western neighbor. His last, and perhaps the most momentous act, was his will and testament known as "The Succession Statute" in which he divided the country among his sons, leading to almost 200 years of feudal fragmentation of the Polish Kingdom.
Boles?aw III Wrymouth has been recognized by historiography as a symbol of Polish political aspirations until well into the 19th century. He also upheld the independence of the Polish archbishopric of Gniezno, despite a temporary failure in the 1130s. Despite undoubted successes, he committed serious political errors, most notably against Zbigniew of Poland, his half-brother. The crime against Zbigniew and his penance for it show Boles?aw's great ambition as well as his ability to find political compromise.
In 1086 the coronation of Vratislav II as King of Bohemia, and his alignment with László I, King of Hungary, threatened the position of the Polish ruler, Prince W?adys?aw I Herman. Therefore, that same year W?adys?aw I was forced to recall from Hungarian banishment the only son of Boles?aw II the Bold and a rightful heir to the Polish throne, Mieszko Boles?awowic. Upon his return young Boles?awowic accepted the over-lordship of his uncle and gave up his hereditary claim to the crown of Poland in exchange for becoming first in line to succeed him. In return, W?adys?aw I Herman granted his nephew the district of Kraków. The situation was further complicated for W?adys?aw I Herman by a lack of a legitimate male heir, as his first-born son Zbigniew came from a union not recognized by the church. With the return of Mieszko Boles?awowic to Poland, W?adys?aw I normalized his relations with the kingdom of Hungary as well as Kievan Rus (the marriage of Mieszko Boles?awowic to a Kievan princess was arranged in 1088). These actions allowed Herman to strengthen his authority and alleviate further tensions in international affairs.
The lack of a legitimate heir, however, remained a concern for W?adys?aw I and in 1085 he and his wife Judith of Bohemia sent rich gifts, among which was a life size statue of a child made of gold, to the Benedictine Sanctuary of Saint Giles in Saint-Gilles, Provence begging for offspring. The Polish envoys were led by the personal chaplain of Duchess Judith, Piotr.
The date of birth of Boles?aw is closely linked with the death of his mother Judith. This fact is evidenced by contemporary sources:
Historian August Bielowski established Boles?aw's birth on 26 December 1085 and the death of his mother two days later, on 28 December. According to him Gallus Anonymus committed two errors. First, instead of the Sunday after the Nativity of the Lord wrote incorrectly in the Sunday of the Nativity. Secondly, he mistook the day of Saint Stephen (26 December) with the festivities of King Stephen I (Saint Stephen of Hungary). (20 August). Both corrections lead to the birth date of Boles?aw on 26 December. This theory was supported by the fact that in 1085 28 December fell on a Sunday.
Oswald Balzer refuted Bielowski's theory and pointed that Judith's death was on the night between 24 and 25 December 1086, and the birth of Boles?aw was four months before, on 20 August. According to him, if Judith died on the night between 24 and 24 December, are possible discrepancies in determining the exact date of the event. All known sources who placed the death of Judith, would then right. Gallus wrote that Judith died shortly after giving birth to a son. Later sources interpret this as a death in childbirth and Cosmas of Prague followed this fact, though he didn't receive the information at first hand. Hence, his mistake would result in this point. In contrast, the right--indicated by Gallus--date of birth of Boles?aw would be 20 August. In the medieval tradition the year began on 25 December. In that case, the reports of Cosmas must be concluded that Boles?aw was born yet in 1085. This information, however, was in contradiction with the reports of the Kalendarz krakowski, who gave the year 1086. Judith was styled by the authors of the Kalendarz as "regina Polonia" (Queen of Poland in Latin), and this title could be associated with her father's coronation as King of Bohemia and Poland on 15 June 1086 (according to Cosmas). Karol Maleczy?ski refuted the arguments of Balzer, who accepted the date of the coronation of Vratislav II given by Cosmas. However, most researchers indicates that the coronation took place on 15 June 1085, so Judith could be called Queen a year earlier.
Karol Maleczy?ski determined that the death of Judith took place on the night between 24 and 25 December 1085, and Boles?aw was born four months before, on 20 August. Researchers found that the date given by the Rocznik kapitu?y krakowskiej (24 December 1086) was the same established by Cosmas (25 December 1085). The difference in the year could be explained in the different of style dating followed by Cosmas, who began the year according to the Julian calendar on 1 January and Christmas (Nativitate in Latin) on 25 December. For Maleczy?ski, Kazimierz Jasi?ski not consider this calendar difference who occurs only during the period 25-31 December.
Archaeologist Wojciech Szafra?ski reassumed the theory of Bielowski: Judith of Bohemia died on 28 December 1085, and Boles?aw was born two days before, on 26 December. According to Szafra?ski Cosmas used the term VIII Calends of January, with no specific date. However, in the Chronicle of Gallus should read that Judith died on Christmas Day, but on Sunday in the Octave of Christmas. Using such a broadened range of days, the investigator determined the birth of Boleslaw in the feast of Saint Stephen (26 December). For this reasons, the date of 1085 given by Bielowski is correct according to him. However, Jasi?ski pointed the weaknesses of the argument of Szafra?ski because Gallus has written about the Octave, but specifically about Christmas night, but the investigator didn't consider all other sources, as well as the achievements of research in genealogy.
Marian Plezia argued that Boles?aw was born on 2 September 1085 or 1086. According to Gallus, the day of King Stephen of Hungary was also celebrated on 2 September. Jasi?ski considered this theory unfounded. In Poland the feast of King Stephen of Hungary is pointed by the Kalendarz krakowski and the kalendarz Kodeksu Gertrudy on 20 August. Besides, if Boles?aw was born on 2 September, Gallus probably would be noted that this was the day after the celebration of Saint Giles (1 September), which was attributed to be the intercessor of his birth.
Kazimierz Jasi?ski placed the death of Judith in the night between 24 and 25 December 1086 and the birth of Boles?aw four months before, on 20 August. In this point he agrees with the findings of Balzer. He supported his views with additional arguments: All sources are based in the missing Rocznika kapitu?y krakowskiej, and the next known text of this source refers to events in 1086. Cosmas, writing his chronicle a few decades later, probably benefited from oral tradition and could make a mistake when he placed the year. His reports who placed the birth of Boles?aw three days before the death of his mother denoted a quite short time.
Today is widely recognized the view of both Jasi?ski and Balzer, that Boles?aw most likely was born in the day of King Stephen of Hungary, 20 August 1086. According to Cosmas of Prague, Boles?aw was named after his uncle, Boles?aw II the Generous. W?adys?aw I Herman had no reason to named his first-born legitimate son after his brother, but probably in this way tried to placate the former allies of his predecessor.
Boles?aw's nickname "Wrymouth" (pl: Krzywousty) appeared in Polish and Latin sources of the 13th century: Genealogii p?ockiej (Criwousti) and the Roczniku ?wi?tokrzyskim m?odszym (Crzyvousti). Probably the origin of this nickname dates back on the 12th century and is relationed with some physical characteristics of the Polish ruler, who were noticed at the time of his reign. Probably he began to be named in this way after 1114, because Gallus Anonymus in his Chronicle never mentioned it. In the Kronice ksit polskich and Kronice polsko-?l?skiej Boles?aw was qualified by the Latin adjective curvus, whose significance remains unclear. According to the 14th-century Kroniki o Piotrze W?ostowicu the Prince was hunchbacked (Latin: gibbosus) or had a crooked mouth. The 15th-century chronicler Jan D?ugosz wrote:
In 1974, in the Masovian Blessed Virgin Mary Cathedral of P?ock, where according to tradition Boles?aw was buried, an archaeological research project was conducted. A coffin was discovered containing the bones of 16 men and women. One of the skulls, of a man who died aged 50, had a deformed mandible. There is a hypothesis that these remains belonged to Boles?aw. Opponents of this theory suggest that the Prince was named in this way many years after his death, and his contemporary Gallus did not mention any physical defect in the hero of his Chronicles. The defenders of the hypothesis argue that the work of Gallus has the characteristics of a panegyric in honor of Boles?aw, because the chronicler did not mention his physical infirmities. It is also speculated that the bone damage occurred as a result of childbirth complications, which led to the death of his mother a few months later.
The nickname of Boleslaw was also explained in other ways. According to a legend, Boleslaw slammed his face against a wall after watching his father's subservience towards the Germans and Czechs. According to Jan D?ugosz, the Prince in his youth suffered from an ulcer, which caused the deformity of his face. According to older historiography, he received the nickname Wrymouth for his perjury.
Following Boles?aw's birth the political climate in the country changed. The position of Boles?aw as an heir to the throne was threatened by the presence of Mieszko Boles?awowic, who was already seventeen at the time and was furthermore, by agreement with W?adys?aw I Herman himself, the first in line to succeed. In all likelihood it was this situation that precipitated the young prince Mieszko's demise in 1089. In that same year Wladyslaw I Herman's first-born son Zbigniew was sent to a monastery in Quedlinburg, Saxony. This suggests that Wladyslaw I Herman intended to be rid of Zbigniew by making him a monk, and therefore depriving him of any chance of succession. This eliminated two pretenders to the Polish throne, secured young Boles?aw's inheritance as well as diminished the growing opposition to Wladyslaw I Herman among the nobility. Shortly after his ascension, however, W?adys?aw I Herman was forced by the barons to give up the de facto reins of government to Count Palatine Sieciech. This turn of events was likely due to the fact that Herman owed the throne to the barons, the most powerful of whom was Sieciech.
Around this time W?adys?aw I Herman married again. The chosen bride was Judith-Maria, daughter of Emperor Henry III and widow of King Solomon of Hungary, who after her wedding took the name Sophia in order to distinguish herself from W?adys?aw I Herman's first wife. Through this marriage Boles?aw gained three or four half-sisters, and as a consequence he remained the only legitimate son and heir. It's believed that the new Duchess was actively aiding Sieciech in his schemes to take over the country and that she became his mistress.
In 1090 Polish forces under Sieciech's command, managed to gain control of Gda?sk Pomerania, albeit for a short time. Major towns were garrisoned by Polish troops, and the rest were burned in order to thwart future resistance. Several months later, however, a rebellion of native elites led to the restoration of the region's independence from Poland. The following year a punitive expedition was organized, in order to recover Gda?sk Pomerania. The campaign was decided at the battle of the Wda River, where the Polish knights suffered a defeat despite the assistance of Bohemian troops.
Prince Boles?aw's childhood happened at a time when a massive political migration out of Poland was taking place, due to Sieciech's political repressions. Most of the elites who became political refugees found safe haven in Bohemia. Another consequence of Sieciech's political persecution was the kidnapping of Zbigniew by Sieciech's enemies and his return from abroad in 1093. Zbigniew took refuge in Silesia, a stronghold of negative sentiment for both Sieciech as well as his nominal patron W?adys?aw I Herman. In the absence of Sieciech and Boles?aw, who were captured by Hungarians and kept captive, Prince W?adys?aw I then undertook a penal expedition to Silesia, which was unsuccessful and subsequently obliged him to recognize Zbigniew as a legitimate heir. In 1093 W?adys?aw I signed an Act of Legitimization which granted Zbigniew the rights of descent from his line. Zbigniew was also granted the right to succeed to the throne. Following Sieciech and Boles?aw's escape from Hungary, an expedition against Zbigniew was mounted by the Count Palatine. Its aim was to nullify the Act of Legitimization. The contestants met at the battle of Goplo in 1096, where Sieciech's forces annihilated the supporters of Zbigniew. Zbigniew himself was taken prisoner, but regained his freedom a year later, in May 1097, due to the intervention of the bishops. At the same time his rights, guaranteed by the Act of Legitimization, were reinstated.
Simultaneously a great migration of Jews from Western Europe to Poland began circa 1096, around the time of the First Crusade. The tolerant rule of W?adys?aw I Herman attracted the Jews who were permitted to settle throughout the entire kingdom without restrictions. The Polish prince, took great care of the Hebrew Diaspora, as he understood its positive influence on the growth of the country's economy. The new Jewish citizens soon gained trust of the gentiles during the rule of Boles?aw III.
In view of his father's disapproval, and after discovering the plans of Sieciech and Duchess Judith-Sophia to take over the country Zbigniew gained an ally in the young prince Boles?aw. Both brothers demanded that the reins of government should be handed over to them. It is difficult to believe, however, that Boles?aw was making independent decisions at this point as he was only 12 years of age. It is postulated that at this stage he was merely a pawn of the Baron's power struggle. W?adys?aw I Herman, however, agreed to divide the realm between the brothers, each to be granted his own province while the Prince - W?adys?aw I himself - kept control of Mazovia and its capital at P?ock. W?adys?aw also retained control of the most important cities i.e. Wroc?aw, Kraków and Sandomierz. Zbigniew's province encompassed Greater Poland including Gniezno, Kuyavia, czyca Land and Sieradz Land. Boles?aw's territory included Lesser Poland, Silesia and Lubusz Land.
The division of the country and the allowance of Boles?aw and Zbigniew to co-rule greatly alarmed Sieciech, who then began preparing to dispose of the brothers altogether. Sieciech understood that the division of the country would undermine his position. He initiated a military settlement of the issue and he gained the Prince's support for it. The position of W?adys?aw I is seen as ambiguous as he chose to support Sieciech's cause instead of his sons'.
In response to Sieciech's preparations Boles?aw and Zbigniew entered into an alliance. This took place at a popular assembly or Wiec organized in Wroc?aw by a magnate named Skarbimir of the Awdaniec family. There it was decided to remove the current guardian of Boles?aw, a noble named Wojslaw who was a relative of Sieciech, and arrange for an expedition against the Palatine. Subsequently, in 1099, the armies of Sieciech and Prince Herman encountered the forces of Zbigniew and Boles?aw near ?arnowiec by the river Pilica. There the forces of Boles?aw and Zbigniew defeated Sieciech's army, and W?adys?aw I Herman was obliged to permanently remove Sieciech from the position of Count Palatine. In the same year, at Christmas, Boles?aw concluded to short-lived peace with Bohemia. The agreement was concluded in ?atec. According to Cosmas, Boles?aw was appointed Miecznik (en: Sword-bearer) of his uncle Bretislaus II, Duke of Bohemia. In addition, the young prince would be paid the amount of 100 pieces of fine silver and 10 talents of gold annually as a tribute to Bohemia (it was about the land of Silesia, for which he paid tribute to W?adys?aw I).
The rebel forces were then further directed towards Sieciechów, where the Palatine took refuge. Unexpectedly, Prince W?adys?aw came to the aid of his besieged favorite with a small force. At this point, the Princes decided to depose their father. The opposition sent Zbigniew with an armed contingent to Masovia, where he was to take control of P?ock, while Boles?aw was directed to the South. The intention was the encirclement of their father, Prince W?adys?aw I. The Prince predicted this maneuver and sent his forces back to Masovia. In the environs of P?ock the battle was finally joined and the forces of W?adys?aw I were defeated. The Prince was thereafter forced to exile Sieciech from the country. The Palatine left Poland around 1100/1101. He was known to sojourn in the German lands. However, he eventually returned to Poland but did not play any political role again. He may have been blinded.
W?adys?aw I Herman died on 4 June 1102. The country was divided into two provinces, each administered by one of the late prince's sons. The extent of each province closely resembled the provinces that the princes were granted by their father three years earlier, the only difference being that Zbigniew also controlled Mazovia with its capital at P?ock, effectively ruling the northern part of the kingdom, while his younger half-brother Boles?aw ruled its southern portion. In this way two virtually separate states were created. According to some historians, Zbigniew tried to play the role of princeps or overlord, because at that time Boles?aw was only 16 years old. Because he was still too inexperienced to independently direct his domains, the local nobility gathered around him took great influence in the political affairs, included his teacher, Skarbimir from the Awdaniec family.
They conducted separate policies internally as well as externally. They each sought alliances, and sometimes they were enemies of one another. Such was the case with Pomerania, towards which Boles?aw aimed his ambitions. Zbigniew, whose country bordered Pomerania, wished to maintain good relations with his northern neighbor. Boles?aw, eager to expand his dominion, organized several raids into Pomerania and Prussia. In Autumn of 1102 Boles?aw organized a war party into Pomerania during which his forces sacked Bia?ogard.
As reprisal the Pomeranians sent retaliatory war parties into Polish territory, but as Pomerania bordered Zbigniew's territory these raids ravaged the lands of the prince who was not at fault. Therefore, in order to put pressure on Boles?aw, Zbigniew allied himself with Bo?ivoj II of Bohemia, to whom he promised to pay tribute in return for his help. By aligning himself with Boles?aw's southern neighbor Zbigniew wished to compel Boles?aw to cease his raids into Pomerania. Boles?aw, on the other hand, allied himself with Kievan Rus and Hungary. His marriage to Zbyslava, the daughter of Sviatopolk II Iziaslavich in 1103, was to seal the alliance between himself and the prince of Kiev. However, Boles?aw's first diplomatic move was to recognize Pope Paschal II, which put him in strong opposition to the Holy Roman Empire. A later visit of papal legate Gwalo, Bishop of Beauvais brought the church matters into order, it also increased Boles?aw's influence.
Zbigniew declined to attend the marriage of Boles?aw and Zbyslava. He saw this union and the alliance with Kiev as a serious threat. Thanks to bribery, he therefore prevailed upon his ally, Bo?ivoj II of Bohemia to invade Boles?aw's province, ostensibly to claim the Polish crown. Boles?aw retaliated with expeditions into Moravia in 1104-05, which brought the young prince not only loot, but also effectively disintegrated the alliance of Pomeranians and Zbigniew. During the return of the army, one part commanded by ?elis?aw were defeated by the Bohemians. Boles?aw, who commanded the other part of the army, couldn't defeated them. Skarbimir, thanks to bribery, could stopped Bo?ivoj II. With a vast amount of money, the Bohemian ruler returned to his homeland and was concluded a short-lived peace with Bohemia. Then Bo?ivoj II ended his alliance with Zbigniew. In order to paralyze the alliance of Pomerania and his older brother, Boles?aw carried out multiple attacks on northern land in 1103 (the battle of Ko?obrzeg, where was defeated), and in 1104-05, ended with success.
The intervention of Boles?aw in the dynastic dispute in Hungary led him in a difficult political situation. At first, he supported the pretender Álmos, and marched to Hungary to help him. However, during the siege of Abaújvár in 1104, Álmos changed his mind and made peace conversations with his brother and rival King Coloman, at that point Zbigniew's ally. Boles?aw then retired his troops from Hungary and in 1105 made a treaty with Coloman. It was decided then that Boles?aw didn't support Álmos against the alliance Coloman-Zbigniew. In addition, the Hungarian King broke his agreements with the Bohemian Kingdom. The dynastic dispute in Prague between Bo?ivoj II and his cousin Svatopluk caused the intervention of Boles?aw and his ally King Coloman in support of Svatopluk, with the main objective to place him in the Bohemian throne. However, a new rebellion of Álmos forced Coloman and his army to return Hungary. Boles?aw also decided to retreat. Svatopluk tried to master the city alone, but suffered a complete defeat; his attempt to seize power in Bohemia was unsuccessful.
Also in 1105, Boles?aw entered into an agreement with his half-brother, in the same way like just a few years before entered with their stepmother Judith-Sophia (who in exchange for abundant dower lands, secured her neutrality in Boles?aw's political contest with Zbigniew). The treaty, signed in Tyniec, was a compromise of both brothers in foreign policy; however, no agreement about Pomerania was settled there. One year later, the treaty ended when Zbigniew refused to help his half-brother in his fight against Pomerania. While hunting, Boles?aw was unexpectedly attacked by them. In the battle, the young prince almost lost his life. Bohemia, using the involvement of Boles?aw in the Pomeranian affairs as an excuse, attacked Silesia. The prince tried to re-established the alliance with his half-brother, without success. The effect of this refusal was the rapprochement to the Bohemian Kingdom in 1106. Boles?aw managed to bribe Bo?ivoj II and have him join his side in the contest against Zbigniew and shortly after formally allied himself with Coloman of Hungary. With the help of his Kievan and Hungarian allies Boles?aw attacked Zbigniew's territory, and began a civil war for the supreme power in Poland. The allied forces of Boles?aw easily took control of most important cities including Kalisz, Gniezno, Spycimierz and czyca, in effect taking half of Zbigniew's lands. Through a mediation of Baldwin, Bishop of Kraków, a peace treaty was signed at czyca, in which Zbigniew officially recognized Boles?aw as the Supreme Prince of all Poland. However, he was allowed to retain Masovia as a fief.
In 1107 Boles?aw III along with his ally King Coloman of Hungary invaded Bohemia in order to aid Svatopluk in gaining the Czech throne. The intervention in the Czech succession was meant to secure Polish interests to the south. The expedition was a full success: on 14 May 1107 Svatopluk was made Duke of Bohemia in Prague.
Later that year Boles?aw undertook a punitive expedition against his brother Zbigniew. The reason for this was that Zbigniew had not followed his orders and had refused to burn down one of the fortresses of Kurów near Pu?awy. Another reason was that Zbigniew had not performed his duties as a vassal by failing to provide military aid to Boles?aw for a campaign against the Pomeranians. In the winter of 1107-08 with the help of Kievan and Hungarian allies, Boles?aw began a final campaign to rid himself of Zbigniew. His forces attacked Mazovia and quickly forced Zbigniew to surrender. Following this Zbigniew was banished from the country and with his followers, took refuge in Prague, where he found support in Svatopluk. From then Boles?aw was the sole lord of the Polish lands, though in fact his over-lordship began in 1107 when Zbigniew paid him homage as his feudal lord.
In 1108 the balance of power in Europe changed. Svatopluk decided to paid homage to Emperor Henry V and in exchange received from him the formal investiture of Bohemia. At the same time King Coloman of Hungary was under attack by the combined forces of the Holy Roman Empire and Bohemia. Svatopluk also directed an attack to Poland; in this expedition took part Zbigniew and his followers. Boles?aw avoided a direct confrontation because he was busy in his fight against Pomerania. Now, the Polish-Hungarian coalition decided to give help and shelter to Bo?ivoj II. Later that year, Boles?aw and Coloman made a new expedition against Bohemia. This expedition was prompted by the invasion of the German-Bohemian coalition to Hungary (siege to Pozsony Castle) and the fact that Svatopluk, who owed Boles?aw his throne, didn't honor his promise in which he returned Silesian cities seized from Poland (Racibórz, Kamieniec, Ko?le among others) by his predecessors. Boles?aw then decided to restore Bo?ivoj II in the Bohemian throne. This attempt was unsuccessful as a result of the attack of the Pomeranians. Boles?aw was forced to bring his army to the north, where could repelled the invasion. Thanks to this situation, Bo?ivoj II failed to regain the throne.
In response to Boles?aw's aggressive foreign policy, German king and Holy Roman Emperor Henry V undertook a punitive expedition against Poland in 1109. In this fight, Henry V was assisted by Czech warriors provided by Svatopluk of Bohemia. The alleged reason for the war was the exile of Zbigniew and his restoration. Boles?aw received an ultimatum from the German King: he abandoned the expedition against him only if Zbigniew was restored with half of Poland as a rule, the formal recognition of the Holy Roman Empire as overlord and the payment of 300 pieces of fine silver as a regular tribute. Boles?aw rejected. During the negotiations between Germany and Poland, the Polish ruler was in the middle of a war against Pomerania. On the west side of the Oder river, Henry V hurriedly gathered knights for his expedition against Poland. Before the fight ended in Pomerania, the German troops have been able to approach G?ogów.
The military operations mainly taken place in southwestern Poland, in Silesia, where Henry V's army laid siege to major strongholds of G?ogów, Wroc?aw and Bytom Odrza?ski. At this time along with the defense of towns, Boles?aw was conducting a guerrilla war against the Holy Roman Emperor and his allies. He reportedly defeated the expedition at the Battle of Hundsfeld on 24 August 1109, although the existence of this battle is doubted by historians because it was first recorded about a century later.
In 1110 Boles?aw undertook an unsuccessful military expedition against Bohemia. His intention was to install yet another pretender on the Czech throne, Sob?slav I, who sought refuge in Poland. During the campaign he won a decisive victory against the Czechs at the Battle of Trutina on 8 October 1110; however, following this battle he ordered his forces to withdraw further attack against Bohemia. The reason for this is speculated to be the unpopularity of Sob?slav I among Czechs as well as Boles?aw's unwillingness to further deteriorate his relations with the Holy Roman Empire. In 1111 a truce between Poland and the Holy Roman Empire was signed which stipulated that Sob?slav I would be able to return to Bohemia while Zbigniew would be able to return Poland. Boles?aw probably also agreed with the return of his half-brother as a result of pressure from the many supporters of the exiled prince in 1108, who according to the reports of Gallus Anonymus was surrounded to bad advisers (in this group unfavorable to Boles?aw was probably Martin I, Archbishop of Gniezno). Once in Poland, Zbigniew could claim the sovereignty over his previous domains at the instigation of this group. The first step towards this was his presence in the Advent ceremonial (which was forbidden to him by Boles?aw after recognizing him as his overlord in czyca in 1107), which is reserved only for rulers. Zbigniew arrived surrounded by attendants, being carried before him a sword. This could be perceived by Boleslaw as an act of treason and caused a definitive breach in their relationship, under which Zbigniew was the vassal and Boleslaw the ruler. Probably these factors influenced Boles?aw's decision of a terrible punishment to Zbigniew: a year later, in 1112, he was blinded on Boles?aw's orders.
The blinding of Zbigniew caused a strong negative reaction among Boles?aw's subjects. Unlike blinding in the east, blinding in medieval Poland was not accomplished by burning the eyes out with a red hot iron rod or knife, but a much more brutal technique was employed in which the condemned's eyes were pried out using special pliers. The convict was then made to open his eyes and if they did not do so, their eyelids were also removed.
Contemporary sources don't provide clear information if Boles?aw was indeed excluded from the community of the Church. Is generally believed that Archbishop Martin I of Gniezno (who was a strong supporter of Zbigniew) excommunicated Boles?aw for committing this crime against his half-brother. The excommunication exempted all Boles?aw's subjects from his oath to obedience. The prince was faced with a real possibility of uprising, of the sort that deposed Boles?aw the Bold. Seeing his precarious situation Boles?aw sought the customary penance that would reconcile the high priesthood. According to Gallus Anonymus, Boles?aw first fasted for forty days and made gifts to the poors:
It's possible that Boles?aw decided to celebrate a public penance as a result of the negative public response to the blinding of Zbigniew. His intention with this was to rebuild his weakened authority and gain the favor of Zbigniew's supporters. Punishment of blinding was used in medieval Europe to the rebellious nobles. This act of Boles?aw against his half-brother could be received by the Polish society as a breach of the principle of solidarity among the members of the ruling dynasty, accepting the foundation of public order.
According to Gallus, Boles?aw also sought and received forgiveness from his half-brother. In the next part of his penance, the prince made a pilgrimage to Hungary to the Abbeys of Saint Giles in Somogyvár and King Saint Stephen I in Székesfehérvár. The pilgrimage to the Abbey of Saint Giles also had a political goal; Boles?aw strengthened his ties of friendship and alliance with the Arpad dynasty. Following his return to Poland, Boles?aw even traveled to Gniezno to pay further penance at the tomb of Saint Adalbert of Prague, where poor people and clergy received numerous costly gifts from the prince. Only after this the excommunication was finally lifted. Following his repentance the Polish prince made a vague commitment to the Church.
About Zbigniew's death there are not preserved information. In the obituary of the Benedictine monastery in Lubi? dated 8 July 1113 was reported the death of a monk in Tyniec called brother Zbigniew. Historians believed that he could be Boles?aw's half-brother. The information marked that his burial place was in the Benedictine monastery of Tyniec.
The separation of Pomerania during the reign of Casimir I the Restorer contributed to the weakening of the Polish state, and subsequent rulers during the second half of the 11th century weren't able to unite all the lands that once belonged to Mieszko I and Boles?aw I the Brave. All attempts made to reconquer this area failed. Only after defeating Zbigniew and repelling the claims of Bohemia against Silesia in 1109, Boles?aw III Wrymouth was able to direct the expansion to the West, which he intended to return to Poland.
The issue of conquest of Pomerania had been a lifelong pursuit for Boles?aw III Wrymouth. His political goals were twofold; first - to strengthen the Polish border on the Note? river line, second - to subjugate Pomerania with Polish political overlordship but without actually incorporating it into the country with the exception of Gda?sk Pomerania and a southern belt north of river Note? which were to be absorbed by Poland. By 1113 the northern border has been strengthened. The fortified border cities included: Santok, Wiele?, Nak?o, Czarnków, Uj?cie and Wyszogród. Some sources report that the border began at the mouth of river Warta and Oder in the west, ran along the river Note? all the way to the Vistula river.
Before Boles?aw III began to expand in Gda?sk Pomerania (Pomerelia), he normalized his political relations with Bohemia. This took place in 1114 at a great convention on the border of the Nysa K?odzka river. In addition to Boles?aw also assisted Bohemian princes of the Premyslid line: Vladislaus I, Otto II the Black and Sob?slav I. The pact was sealed by the marriage of Boles?aw (a widower since his wife Zbyslava's death) with Vladislaus I and Otto II's sister-in-law, the German noblewoman Salomea of Berg.
After being normalized his relations with Bohemia, Boles?aw directed his efforts against Prussia, and in 1115 he made a victorious expedition, ravaging their tribal lands. As a result, the north-east border was at peace, which allowed to freely prepare the invasion to Gda?sk Pomerania. The conquest of this part of the Pomeranian lands (made during 1115-19), crowned a long-time struggle of previous Polish rulers. The result was the complete incorporation of the territories on the Vistula River, including the castellany of Nak?o, to Poland. Northern borders were established Polish Duchy probably on the line along the rivers Gwda and Uniesta (in later times currents of these rivers were the boundary between Pomerania and the Oder Slavic). It's also possible that the border ran along the ?eba.
The local rulers of the conquered Gda?sk and S?upsk were removed from power and replaced by Polish nobles. Boles?aw also introduced Polish clerical organization, which was made in order to protect his interests in that territory. However, these areas refused to follow the church organization. The incorporation to the Polish Church occurred only during 1125-26 at the time of the visit of Papal Legate Gilles, Cardinal-Bishop of Tusculum.
During Boles?aw's Pomeranian campaign a formidable rebellion led by Count Palatine Skarbimir from the Awdaniec family began. The rebellion was quelled by the prince in 1117 and the mutinous nobleman were blinded as punishment. The conflict between Boles?aw and the Awdaniec family is difficult to explain due to the lack of sources. The cause was probably the growing influence of the family, the ambition and jealousy of Skarbimir against Boles?aw and his increased popularity. Another probable factor was the desire to put W?adys?aw II, Boles?aw's first-born son, as the sole ruler after his death or also Boleslaw's fears to lose his position, as it was in the conflict with Sieciech. It was also suggested that Skarbimir entered in contacts with Pomeranians and Vladimir II Monomakh, Grand Prince of Kievan Rus'. Medieval historiography also associated the rebellion with the Law of Succession issued by Boleslaw. The problem with the principle of inheritance appeared between 1115 and 1116 (after the birth of his second son Leszek, first-born from his second marriage). According to one hypothesis Skarbimir objected the adoption of the statute who changed the traditional Polish succession customs. In the suppression of the rebellion played a major role Piotr W?ostowic of the Labedz family, who replaced Skarbimir as Count Palatine. Defeated, Skarbimir received a minor punishment from Boles?aw. The rebellion of Skarbimir also rested importance to the conquest of Gda?sk Pomerania.
Probably in the rebellion of Skarbimir intervened the Rurikid ruler Vladimir II Monomakh and his sons. In 1118 Monomakh incorporated Volhynia to his domains and expelled his ruler, Yaroslav Sviatopolkovich, who sought refuge firstly in Hungary, then in Poland. In Yaroslav's place, Monomakh put his son Roman as a ruler of Volhynia, and after his early death in 1119, replaced him with another son, Andrew, who in 1120 invaded Polish territory with the support of the Kipchaks tribe. A year later, Boles?aw with the exiled Yaroslav (who was his brother-in-law), organized a retaliatory expedition to Czermno. After this, for several years Boles?aw intervened in the dynastic disputes of the House of Rurik.
During the 1120s the Kievan princes continue their expeditions against Poland. The neutrality of the neighboring Principality of Peremyshl was attributed to Count Palatine Piotr W?ostowic, who in 1122 captured Prince Volodar. A year later Boles?aw intervened again in Volhynia, where he wanted to restore Yaroslav. The expedition (aided by the Bohemian, Hungarian, Peremyshl and Terebovl forces) failed due to the death of Yaroslav and the stubborn resistance of the besieged Volodymyr-Volynskyi, aided by Skarbimir's supporters. This failed military expedition led to disturbances in the Polish-Hungarian-Halych alliance.
In 1121 (or 1119) Pomeranian Dukes Wartislaw I and Swietopelk I were defeated by Boles?aw's army at the battle of Niek?ad? near Gryfice. Polish troops ravaged Pomerania, destroyed native strongholds, and forced thousands of Pomeranians to resettle deep into Polish territory. Boles?aw's further expansion was directed to Szczecin (1121-22). He knew that this city was well defended by both the natural barrier of the Oder river and his well-built fortifications, like Ko?obrzeg. The only way to approach the walls was through the frozen waters of a nearby swamp. Taking advantage of this element of surprise, Boles?aw launched his assault from precisely that direction, and took control of the city. Much of the population was slaughtered and the survivors were forced to paid homage to the Polish ruler.
A further step is probably fought battles on the western side of the Oder River, where Boleslaw had addressed areas to the Lake Morzyce (now the German Müritz). These areas were outside the territorial scope of Pomeranians. In parallel with the expansion of the Polish ruler to the west continued the conquest of these lands by Lothair, Duke of Saxony (and future Holy Roman Emperor). According to contemporary sources, a Saxon army approaching from above the Elbe River in the direction of today's Rostock. They conquered the Warinis, Circipanes, Kessinians and part of the Tollensers tribes. The expansion led by the two rulers was probably the result of earlier unknown agreements. This was the first step for the later Christianization of Pomeranian lands.
In 1122 Boles?aw finally conquered Western Pomerania, which became a Polish fief. Duke Wartislaw I was forced to paid homage to the Polish ruler, paying an annual tribute of 500 marks of fine silver and the obligation to give military aid to Poland at Boles?aw's request. In subsequent years the tribute was reduced to 300 marks. This success enabled Boles?aw to make further conquests. In 1123 his troops even reached to Rügen, but didn't mastered these areas.
According to modern historiography, Boles?aw began to pay tribute to Emperor Henry V, at least from 1135. Is believed that the amount was 500 marks of fine silver annually. It's unknown why Boles?aw began to paid homage to Henry V, as the sources do not mention any reference about the Polish ruler being tributary of the Holy Roman Empire in the period 1121-35.
In order to make Polish and Pomeranian ties stronger, Boles?aw organized a mission to Christianize the newly acquired territory. The Polish monarch understood that the Christianization of the conquered territory would be an effective means of strengthening his authority there. At the same time he wished to subordinate Pomerania to the Gniezno Archbishopric. Unfortunately first attempts made by unknown missionaries did not make the desired progress. Another attempt, officially sponsored by Boles?aw and led by Bernard the Spaniard, who traveled to Wolin during 1122-23, has ended in another failure. The next two missions were carried out in 1124-25 and 1128 by Bishop Otto of Bamberg (called the Apostle of Pomerania). After appropriate consultation with Boles?aw, Bishop Otto set out on a first stage of Christianization of the region in 1124. In his mission Otto stayed firstly at Boles?aw's court, where he was provided with appropriate equipment, fire and several clergymen for his trip to Pomerania.
The Bishop was accompanied throughout his mission by the Pomeranian ruler Wartislaw I, who greeted him on the border of his domains, in the environs of the city of Sanok. In Stargard the pagan prince promised Otto his assistance in the Pomeranian cities as well as help during the journey. He also assigned 500 armored knights to act as guards for the bishop's protection, and obtain the baptism of the elders tribal leaders. Primary missionary activities were directed to Pyrzyce, then the towns of Kamie?, Wolin, Szczecin and once again Wolin. In the first two towns the Christianization went without resistance. In Kamie? the task was facilitated by the intercession of Wartislaw I's own wife and dignitaries. At Szczecin and Wolin, which were important centers of Slavic paganism, opposition to conversion was particularly strong among the pagan priests and local population. The conversion was finally accepted only after Boles?aw lowered the annual tribute imposed on the Pomeranians. Four great pagan temples were torn down and churches were built in their places. Otto's mission of 1124 ended with the erection of bishoprics in Lubusz for Western Pomerania and in Kruszwica for Eastern Pomerania (Gda?sk), which was subordinated to the Archbishopric of Gniezno.
In 1127 the first pagan rebellions began to take place. These were due to both the large tribute imposed by Poland as well as a plague that descended on Pomerania and which was blamed on Christianity. The rebellions were largely instigated by the old pagan priests, who had not come to terms with their new circumstances. Wartislaw I confronted these uprisings with some success, but was unable to prevent several insurgent raids into Polish territory. Because of this Boles?aw was preparing a massive punitive expedition that may have spoiled all the earlier accomplishments of missionary work by Bishop Otto. Thanks to Otto's diplomacy direct confrontation was avoided and in 1128 he embarked on another mission to Pomerania. Wartislaw I greeted Otto at Demmin with some Polish knights. This time more stress was applied to the territories west of the Oder River, i.e. Usedom, Wolgast and Gützkow, which weren't under Polish suzerainty. The final stage of the mission returned to Szczecin, Wolin and Kamie?. The Christianization of Pomerania is considered one of the greatest accomplishments of Boles?aw's Pomeranian policy.
In 1129 Boles?aw concluded with Niels, King of Denmark an alliance directed against Wartislaw I and the attempts of Lothair III, King of Germany to subordinate Western Pomerania. In retaliation for the sack of P?ock by Wartislaw I in 1128, Polish-Danish troops taken the Western Pomeranian islands of Wolin and Usedom.
At end of the 1120s Boles?aw began to implement an ecclesiastical organization of Pomerania. Gda?sk Pomerania was added to the Diocese of W?oc?awek, known at the time as the Kujavian Diocese. A strip of borderland north of Note? was split between the Diocese of Gniezno and Diocese of Poznan. The bulk of Pomerania was, however, made an independent Pomeranian bishopric (whose first Bishop was one of the participants in the missionary expedition and former Polish royal chaplain, Adalbert), set up in the territory of the Duchy of Pomerania in 1140, and after Boles?aw had died in 1138 the duchy became independent from Poland.
During the 1130s a project was designed by Norbert, Archbishop of Magdeburg, under which Pomerania would be divided between two dioceses subordinated to the Archbishopric of Magdeburg. At the same, he revivied the old claims about Magdeburg's ecclesiastical sovereignty over all Poland. A first Bull was prepared already in 1131, but never entered into force. Despite adversity, Norbert continued his actions to subdue the Polish Church during 1132-33. For the Polish bishops, a call was made in the Curia.
The Polish bishops didn't appear before Pope Innocent II, which resulted in the issuing of the Bull Sacrosancta Romana in 1133, which confirmed the sovereignty of the Archbishopric of Magdeburg over the Polish Church and the projected Pomeranian dioceses. The formal privilegium maius was the culmination of Norbert's efforts. Boles?aw, trying to save his past efforts in Pomeranian politics, opted for his submission at Merseburg in 1135.
To consolidate his power over Pomerania Boles?aw conducted in 1130 an expedition to the island of Rügen. For this purpose, he concluded an alliance with the Danish duke Magnus Nilsson (his son-in-law) who provided him with a fleet in exchange for support in his efforts to obtain the Swedish throne. The fleet of Magnus transported Polish troops to the shores of the island of Rügen. However, the intended battle on the island never happened, because the Rani at the sight of the Polish-Danish combined forces recognized Boles?aw's overlordship.
After the successful invasion to the Danish capital, Roskilde in 1134 Boles?aw formed an alliance with Wartislaw I of Pomerania against King Eric II of Denmark (an ally of Emperor Lothair III). The role of the Polish prince was limited only to aid the House of Griffins, not due while the real interest in Danish affairs. The Danish, after repelling the first attack, in retaliation led an expedition which led to their expansion into the lands of Pomerania.
In 1125 Henry V, Holy Roman Emperor and King of Germany, died. His successor, Lothair of Supplinburg, has been embroiled in disputes over his inheritance. For the Imperial crown, he became involved in the affairs of the Papacy. In 1130 there was a double election to the Apostolic See. Lothair supported Pope Innocent II, hoping in this way to secure his own coronation. Contrary to was expected, Lothair's Imperial coronation didn't end his disputes against the contenders for the German throne.
In 1130 Boles?aw controlled the areas situated on the left bank of the Oder river on the island of Rügen. Germany also wanted to control these lands, but the internal political situation and the involvement in the civil war in Hungary, however, didn't allow an armed conflict. The Bull Sacrosancta Romana of 1133 give the Archbishopric of Magdeburg sovereign rights over the Pomeranian dioceses instituted by Boles?aw.
The death of King Stephen II of Hungary in 1131 led the country into civil war between two claimants to the throne: Béla the Blind (son of Álmos, Duke of Croatia) and Boris (the alleged son of King Coloman). Boris sought the help of the Polish ruler, who hoped for a closer alliance with Hungary and cooperation with the Kievan Rus' princes (Boris was a son of a daughter of Vladimir II Monomakh). However, Boles?aw overestimated his strength against Béla, who counted with the support of almost all his country. The Polish army faced the combined forces of Hungary, Bohemia, Austria and Germany in the Battle of the Sajó river (22 July 1132), where the coalition had a complete victory over the Polish prince, who was forced to retreat.
The success in Hungary was used by the Bohemian ruler Sob?slav I, an Imperial vassal, who during 1132-34 repeatedly led invasions to Silesia. The issue over the property of Silesia was subjected to the decision of Lothair III.
In February 1134 Sob?slav I of Bohemia and dignitaries of King Béla II of Hungary, together with Bishop Peter of Székesfehérvár went to Altenburg, where they presented their allegations against the Polish ruler. They asked the intervention of the Holy Roman Empire (preliminary requests occurred two years earlier). Lothair III accepted the request, acting as an arbitrator in the dynastic disputes in Central Europe.
At the same time Béla II and Prince Volodymyrko of Peremyshl undertook a military expedition against Poland. The combined forces occupied Lesser Poland, reaching to Wi?lica. Shortly after, Boles?aw received a summons to the Imperial court at Magdeburg on 26 June 1135. Playing for time, however, he only send deputies. The emperor sent another delegation and requested a personal appearance of the Polish ruler, setting a new date on 15 August 1135, this time in Merseburg. Boles?aw realized that without an agreement with Lothair III he couldn't maintain the control over the newly conquered lands on the west side of the Oder and the island of Rügen.
Even before the Congress of Merseburg was performed, Boles?aw persuaded one of ruling princes of Western Pomerania, Ratibor I to make an expedition against Denmark. It was a clear expression of ostentation to Emperor Lothair III because the King of Denmark was a German vassal. The fleet formed by 650 boats (with 44 knights and 2 horses) attacked the rich Norwegian port city of Kungahälla (now Kungälv in Sweden).
The Congress took place on 15 August 1135. During the ceremony, Emperor Lothair II recognized the rights of the Polish ruler over Pomerania. In retribution, Boles?aw agreed to paid homage for the Pomeranian lands and the Principality of Rügen, with the payment of 6,000 pieces of fine silver from these lands to the Holy Roman Empire; however, he remained fully independent ruler of his main realm, Poland. With Boles?aw's death in 1138, Polish authority over Pomerania ended, triggering competition of the Holy Roman Empire and Denmark for the area. The conflict with Hungary also ended, with Boles?aw recognizing Béla II's rule. The agreement was sealed with the betrothal of Boles?aw's daughter Judith with Béla II's Géza (this marriage never took place). In case of the Bohemian-Polish dispute the Imperial mediation failed. Boles?aw argued he must be treated as a sovereign ruler, who wasn't the case of Sob?slav I, an imperial vassal. Lothair III, unable to come to an agreement with the Polish ruler, proposed to discuss the matter in subsequent negotiations.
The Congress ended with church ceremonies, during which Boles?aw carried the imperial sword. This was an honor granted only to sovereign rulers. An indirect goal of Polish diplomacy was the successful invalidation of the Papal Bull of 1133 and the recognition of metropolitan rights of the Archbishopric of Gniezno at the Synod in Pisa in 1135. On 7 July 1136 was issued the protectionist Bull Ex commisso nobis a Deo under which Pope Innocent II confirmed the unquestioned sovereignty of the Archbishopric of Gniezno over the Polish dioceses.
After entering in the imperial sphere of influence, Poland normalized his relations with Bohemia at the Congress of K?odzko on 30 May 1137 (the so-called Peace of K?odzko), but the details of this agreement are unknown. This treaty was confirmed in the town of Niemcza, where W?adys?aw, the eldest son of Boles?aw, stood as godfather in the baptism of Wenceslaus, Sob?slav I's son.
In the last years of his life, Boles?aw's main concern was to arranged political marriages for his children in order to strengthen his relations with neighboring countries. In 1137 Boles?aw reinforced his relations with the Kievan Rus' with the marriage of his son Boles?aw with Princess Viacheslava, daughter of Vsevolod, Prince of Pskov. In the year of his death, by contrast, finally normalized his relations with Hungary through the marriage of his son Mieszko with Princess Elizabeth, daughter of King Béla II.
Boles?aw III Wrymouth died on 28 October 1138, probably in the town of Sochaczew. There are no records about the circumstances of his death. Twelfth-century sources didn't provide information about his place of burial. It was only in the 15th century, when Jan D?ugosz recorded that the Prince's tomb was in the Masovian Blessed Virgin Mary Cathedral in P?ock. However, he didn't show from where he took this information. Presumably the chronicler took this report from the lost Rocznik mazowiecki. Wawrzyniec Wszerecz, Canon of P?ock during the 16th-17th century, wrote that Boles?aw was in a common coffin at the cathedral, where the remains of his father W?adys?aw I Herman and several other Piast Masovian rulers were also placed.
Zbyslava of Kiev (1085 - 1114), his first wife, was a member of the Rurikid dynasty. She was the daughter of Grand Prince Sviatopolk II of Kiev. The marriage was probably concluded in 1103 with the purpose to obtain future military help from Kiev in the fight against Zbigniew. This union also notoriously limited the attacks of the princes of Galicia and Terebovlia against Poland. Until Zbyslava's death the relations between Poland and the Principality of Galicia-Volhynia remained friendly. The children born from this marriage were:
Older historiography attributed another child born from the marriage of Boles?aw and Zbyslava. In addition to W?adys?aw II and Judith was also added a second son but did not record his name. Gallus Anonymous wrote that this son was born around 1107-08. According to Oswald Balzer, he died shortly after birth. However, this likely is referring to Wladyslaw II as it does not give an exact date.
Salomea of Berg (1101 - 27 July 1144), his second wife, was a German noblewoman. She was the daughter of Count Henry of Berg-Schelklingen. The marriage took place in January or February 1115. This union was motivated by the current political situation, on the occasion of the signing of a peace treaty between Poland and Bohemia. Salomea came from a powerful and influential family, who, after the death of Emperor Henry V in 1125, as a result of the support of the opposition in Germany, lost their political influence at the court of Lothair III.
Older historiography attributed another two daughters from the marriage of Boles?aw and Salomea: Adelaide and Sophia. Adelaide (c. 1114 - 25 March before 1132), was the first wife of Adalbert II the Pious, eldest son of Leopold III, Margrave of Austria. Modern historians denies that she was a daughter of Boles?aw. Sophia (d. 10 October 1136), was probably the mother of Mateusz, Bishop of Kraków.
In older historiography Adelaide, a supposed daughter of Emperor Henry IV, was erroneously considered as another wife of Boles?aw. The information about this stated that after the death of Zbyslava, Boles?aw married her in Bamberg in 1110. This report is provided by Jan D?ugosz and Archdeacon Sulger. This view was challenged by Oswald Balzer.
Boles?aw's experiences during his youth probably motivated him to make a division of his domains between his surviving sons. The loyal Count Palatine Piotr W?ostowic was appointed to execute the provisions. In his testament, also known as the "Statute of Succession", Boles?aw introduced in Poland the senioral principle in an effort to keep the unity of the state and to prevent the struggle for power among his sons. This regulation about the succession came into force after Boles?aw's death, although is unknown the exact date of his establishment. It's believed that his creation could happen in 1115 or 1116, after the birth of a son Leszek, or after the suppression of the rebellion of Skarbimir (in 1117). Sources indicate that the original document about the succession was established in 1137. The Statute was nullified in 1180 but restored by Pope Innocent III in 1210 after a petition of the Silesian rulers; however, historians challenge the approval of the Statute by the Pope in the absence of any other information.
The senioral principle established that the eldest member of the dynasty was to have supreme power over the rest and was also to control an indivisible "senioral part": a vast strip of land running north-south down the middle of Poland, with Kraków its chief city. The senior duke's prerogatives also included control over Pomerania, a fief of the Holy Roman Empire. Sources showed a discrepancy in terms of the power exercised by the senior duke. Pope Innocent III wrote about primogeniture, while Wincenty Kad?ubek refers to both seniority and primogeniture. Kad?ubek combined in one sentence the two systems, i.e. inheritance of supreme power in individual districts, where primogeniture was in force. Among historians, there is a view that Boles?aw not established seniority, but primogeniture that belongs exclusively to W?adys?aw II and his descendants. A fact who supported this hypothesis was the coverage and nature of power exercised by Boles?aw IV the Curly in 1146.
Boles?aw divided his domains into the following provinces:
The Seniorate Province (with his capital Kraków) was supposed to be non-inherited and indivisible. It consisted of Lesser Poland, Sieradz and czyca, the western part of Kruszwica and Kuyavia, the eastern part of Greater Poland, Kalisz, Gniezno and Gda?sk Pomerania. Western Pomerania as a fief would remain under the control of the senior duke.
Casimir II, Boles?aw's youngest son, was not included in the testament, because he was born after his father's death or shortly before.
Among medievalists there is a view that the Statute only provide the inheritance of Boles?aw's descendants in the first generation (i.e. his sons). After their deaths, their lands were to be included in the Seniorate Province. However, the later fights between them made the provinces transformed into a hereditary domains.
The "Senioral Principle" was soon broken, leading to a period of nearly 200 years of Poland's disintegration, also known as feudal fragmentation, a phenomenon common in medieval Europe. Among others countries who were affected by this are Russia, Hungary, and Germany. This was a time of internal struggles that caused the weakening of the Polish state and the enormous growth of internal development, culture, and improving the situation of the broad masses of the population. Distribution of the then princely rights by contemporary historiography also had a good side, which include: the reconstruction of the political system in the new economic fundamentals and increasing responsibility for the fate of the country placed upon its upper echelons.
A detailed knowledge of the internal organization of the 12th century Polish state is impossible. There are no documents from this period and the reports of chroniclers showed problems about a real knowledge of the principality's management.
Boles?aw divided his domains into provinces, districts and grods (a type of fortified village or castellany). Within them remained the Opole. Territorial scope of the province corresponded to the laters Dzielnica. It's believed that 6-7 provinces were created: Masovia, Silesia, Greater Poland, Kraków, Sandomierz, Kalisz-czyca and Pomerania (from the lands of Gda?sk Pomerania). During Boles?aw's reign attempts were made to organize the borders areas into marches following the German model. Among the marches corroborated in the available sources are: G?ogów, Gda?sk and probably Lubusz. Probably Boles?aw had a number of well-maintained castles that served in the political, economic and administrative spheres.
The state's nature during the Piast dynasty was patrimonial. The ducal court (Latin: curia ducis) was a center of power, which belonged to the reigning family (along with a separate court by the duchess), after them came the secular and Church dignitaries and subjects, next to lower officials, chivalry and courtly princely members and chaplains. The most important office at the court of W?adys?aw I Herman and Boles?aw was the count palatine (also known as voivode). The count palatine (Latin: comes palatinus) included major command of the military expeditions (in place of the ruler), defense of the State, supervision of the administration (as head of the ducal court), control and appointment of the heads of the castellanies and the exercise of the courts. The office of count palatine was abolished in 1180. Already during the reign of Mieszko II Lambert saw the development of Polish bureaucratic apparatus. The collector (Latin: camerarius), managed the economy of the ducal court. Another specific offices in the ducal court the cze?nik (cup-bearer), the stolnik (esquire), the stra?nik (guard), the miecznik (Sword-bearer), the Koniuszy (Master of the Horse) and the ?owczy (Master of the Hunt). During Boles?aw's reign appeared the office of the chancellor, who directed the work of the court offices and the ducal chapel (Latin: capella), which consisted of a bunch of secular and religious duties. Micha? Awdaniec was a chancellor at this time. Also belonged to the central government the treasurer, the Mint Master and others. Also during the rule of Boles?aw the structure of the state was closely linked to the organization of the Polish Church. The church was subject to the ruler, which had the right of Investiture.
The ducal court was in contact with the subjects via the castellanies, who were managed by the Naczelnik or Town Chief (Latin: princeps terrae). He had sovereignty over the castellanies or grods (Latin: comes), while the castellans (grod rulers) should exercise the local civil authority, getting benefits from the public, organizing the defense and probably exercising the courts. Under the direct obligation of the ruler are the bailiff, the ?upan (gastald), the minters, the celnik (tax collector) and collectors. All important functions in the principality are held by the nobility. The castellan belonged to the group of nobles, officials and ministerialis. Some had served directly to the ruler, others held the offices, while the role of others are of food shortages. The Margraves (who are in charge of the border areas) were directly subordinate to the Polish ruler and had greater power than the provincial chiefs.
At the end of the 11th century waned this princely organization. Was replaced with the Western European model of troops consisting of chivalry. The Latin term milites, which had been used to determine the soldiers came to be called the category of knights and warriors who could afford to keep a horse. Polish armed forces in Boles?aw's times are composed of three types of forces: the princely army (Oddzia?u nadwornego), the lord's army (Dru?yny mo?now?adców) and the militia (Pospolite ruszenie), composed of branches of small feudal lords and peasants (according to other views the militia adjutant troops were powerful and also composed by clergy and laity).
The princely army consisting of his nobles--at the end of the 11th century, the so-called "New People" (pl: Nowi Ludzie): tribal chiefs, local leaders and opolne rulers who aspired to participate in government, sent their sons to the duke's court, where he was accompanied the ruler. Boles?aw's personal guard was probably chosen by himself, using an invocation which was written in the Chronicles of Gallus Anonymous:
The nobles maintained their own army, which consisted of poor knights supported by peasants. They also are responsible for their armament. Among the equipment used by them was a wooden weapons (like spear), blunt weapons (like club), cutting weapons (like sword) and belching weapons (like crossbow, bow and arrow, sling), and the so-called protective equipment (shield, helmet, armor). These armies over time become larger than the princely one, the most notorious example from this was Sieciech. During the constant conflicts at the beginning of the 12th century, the nobles invoked the militia, particularly of endangered lands. The whole militia was divided into branches, which were given the names of their native districts (for example, the Kruszwiczan hordes). In the case of an armed conflict to a greater weapon are invoked independent branches composed by peasants (for example, during 1109).
In addition to the nobles (who were tied to the ruler and his court) and warriors the Polish society in Boles?aw's times also consisted of free peasants and servants (attached to his place of residence). A distinct social group were the free people, the so-called guests (Latin: hospites) -who do not own property-, the warriors (Latin: milites gregarii) who had farms and are counted into the common people. At the end of the social scale are the slaves (bra?cy of war, or their descendants). There are little difference between them and the free peasants, but their duty to their master was higher. Non-free population was also used for personal services or to work on the land in favor of the ruler.
All aspects of life in the state were regulated by the ducal judge (Latin: ius ducale). He covered all the rights of the duke, in relation to the subjects or property, the enforcement of a variety of benefits, dues and ministries. The expanded state apparatus and the church maintained by benefits from the population producing material goods. The main burden of the tax rests on the lowest social class: the peasantry (Latin: heredes, rustici ducis, possesores). Up to them to submit certain levies, tithes, and other forms of taxes like the podworowe (in the form of a cow, which consisted of the entire village), podymne (for every house), poradlne (for each piece of land), narzazu (for grazing pigs in the woods), the stacji or stanu (who allow the maintenance of the duke's court) and the pos?ug komunikacyjnych, who regulated the transport ways in the country and was divided in three main taxes: przewód ("the cable"), powóz ("the carriage") and podwód ("the wagon"). Other minor taxes involved hunting, military, guards (who custodied the grods), taxes on regalia and criminal penalties. In addition, subjects were required to repair roads, bridges, construction and maintenance of castles.
Of the five oldest preserved seals from Polish rulers four were discovered in various places during 2002-06, while one of more than 100 years ago. Polish archaeologists made further discoveries in Gbokie (2002), in Ostrów Tumski (2005), in Gniezno (2005) and in an undisclosed location in the village of Susk near Sierpc, 32 km. from P?ock (2006). The first preliminary studies suggested that the seals could belonged to Boles?aw III Wrymouth. They are made of lead, a durable material, with a diameter of 36-40 mm. The lead seals are used at that time in European courts and are from the Bulla tipe. Seals are known in municipal and military orders. Occasionally, in the most important documents (acts) were used golden bullas.
The discovered bullas from Boles?aw's reign fall into two major types, differing in the form of writing:
One example from both type of seals came from the relationship with St. Adalbert, where he emphasizes his pontifical recognition (in type I) and in the crosier, with the gesture of the imposition of hands, clearly visible in the seals after restoration (in type II). The use of the genitive seals in Poland came from the 12th century, a phenomenon (unprecedented), with its only then monetary equivalent in the denarius with the Latin legend: Denarivs ducis Bolezlai. At the end of Boles?aw's reign returned to the staid mold inscriptions with the Latin legend: Dvx Bolezlavus. According to S. Suchodolski the bullas were used for the authentication of princely documents like letters, privileges, judgments, etc., and by T. Jurek, they could also be used to secure the business arrangements (like buy of doors, chests, reliquaries).
During Boles?aw's reign appeared a two-sided denarius, which was denominated the foreign coin (Polish: monet? obc?). The first known denarius from this time bears the Latin legend Bolezlav. For the others most commonly used coins bears the Latin inscription Bolezlavs, denarivus, dicis Bolezlai with St. Adalbert in the reverse. Another type of coins didn't have legends. They differ mostly came from the weight: they were much lighter, punched for purely economic purposes.
In this time was also modeled mainly on the Magdeburg technique a bracteate, who was one of the oldest in Europe. There are two types of bracteates who dated from Boles?aw's reign:
In addition to the two presented bracteates from Boles?aw's there is one, which is now counted among the oldest known in numismatics. This bracteate was found in Brzeg (in Gmina P?czniew) and preserved almost the 2/3 part of the whole weight of 0.61 g and a diameter of 27 mm. The coin shows the figure of the ruler with crown, sword in hand and an outstretched hand. Initially, was believed that showed W?adys?aw II the Exile. Further studies, included by A. Mikolajczyk, identified this image with Boles?aw III Wrymouth. Among researchers, however, today, there are discrepancies about what ruler showed the coin, because the inscription preserved is incomplete.
It was customary between the 12th-century ruling families a wide-ranging religious activities like donations in the benefit of the Church. The main objective was to spread Christianity. This was to include show religious rulers in the face of God, church hierarchs, clergy and society. Boles?aw wasn't the exception, and he wasn't not only a predatory warrior, a cunning politician and a diplomat; he was also a patron of cultural developments in his realm.
Like most medieval monarchs, he founded several churches and monasteries. Among the most important of which are:
Stored documents from about 1427 (called the ?wi?tokrzyskie dokumenty pergaminowe) confirm the history of the Bishop, adding that the co-founder of the monastery was the knight Wojs?aw.
The connection of Boles?aw and his second wife Salomea with the Swabian monastery of Zwiefalten was well known. The detailed description of Berthold of Zwiefalten was the only evidence of the cultural, artistic and religious development of the 12th-century Polish court:
The same source mentioned that the golden cross donated to the monastery was made by master Leopard, who worked for the Polish ruler during 1129-37.
The Reliquary of 1113 is an example of the artistic development during Boles?aw's rule; was made during the penitential journey to the tomb of Saint Adalbert in Gniezno Cathedral after the blinding of Zbigniew, according to the reports the Gallus Anonymous:
The Reliquary contained the head of Saint Adalbert. At the end of the 15th century it was melted in order to make a new one. According to the notes of 1494, it had the form of an octagonal shrine. The side walls have the shape of squares and were separated by small columns, which were based on the figures of saints or prophets. The monument was decorated with 8 pearls and 40 sapphires.
During his rule, Boles?aw wanted the history of the Piast dynasty to be written. This task was assigned to an unnamed Benedictine monk (who had been incorrectly named as Gallus Anonymous). Modern research, however, suggests that the monk was a Venetian.
His Chronica Polonorum, written in Latin, was made between 1112 and 1116. The history of the State (Latin: gesta ducum) was made describing the fate of the rulers. The Chronicle covers the history from legendary times until 1114. Composed of three parts, this unfinished literary work justified the right of the Piasts to rule over Poland. The Chronicle also explain many controversial events that were placed under the responsibility of the rulers, and give a full explanation about their policy.