Blood Alcohol Content
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Blood Alcohol Content
Blood alcohol content
SynonymsBlood alcohol content, blood ethanol concentration, blood alcohol level, blood alcohol concentration, blood alcohol
LOINC5639-0, 5640-8, 15120-9, 56478-1

Blood alcohol content (BAC), also called blood alcohol concentration or blood alcohol level, is a measurement of alcohol intoxication used for legal or medical purposes.[1] A BAC of 0.10 (0.10% or one tenth of one percent) means that there is 0.10 g of alcohol for every 100 ml of blood, which is the same as 21.7 mmol/l.[2] A BAC of 0.0 is sober, while in the United States 0.08 is legally intoxicated, and above that is very impaired.[1] BAC levels above 0.40 are potentially fatal.[1]

Effects by alcohol level

Relative risk of an accident based on blood alcohol levels (linear scale).jpg
Symptoms of varying BAC levels. Additional symptoms may occur.
Progressive effects of alcohol[3]
BAC (% by vol.) SI units (mmol/l) mg/dL Behavior Impairment
0.001-0.029 0.22-6.3 1-29
  • May appear normal
  • Subtle effects detected with special tests
0.030-0.059 6.5-12.8 30-59
0.060-0.099 13.0-21.5 60-99
0.100-0.199 21.7-43.3 100-199
0.200-0.299 43.4-64.9 200-299
0.300-0.399 65.1-86.6 300-399
0.400-0.500 86.80-108.5 400-500
>0.50 >108.5 >500
  • High possibility of death

BAC and the impacts on the human mind and body.pdf

Estimation by intake

Blood alcohol content can be estimated by a method developed by Swedish professor Erik Widmark [sv] in the 1920s:[4]


  • A is the mass of alcohol consumed.
  • r is the ratio of body water to total weight. It varies between individuals but averages about 0.68 for men and 0.55 for women, since women tend to a higher percentage of fat.
  • Wt is body weight.
  • ? is the rate at which alcohol is metabolized. It is approximately 0.017% per hour.
  • T is the amount time during which alcohol was present in the blood (usually time since consumption began).

Sometimes the above is multiplied by 1.055 g/mL, the density of blood.[4]

In terms of fluid ounces of alcohol consumed and weight in pounds, the formula can be written as

for a man or

for a woman.[4]

Regarding metabolism (?) in the formula; females demonstrated a higher average rate of elimination (mean, 0.017; range, 0.014-0.021 g/210 L) than males (mean, 0.015; range, 0.013-0.017 g/210 L). Female subjects on average had a higher percentage of body fat (mean, 26.0; range, 16.7-36.8%) than males (mean, 18.0; range, 10.2-25.3%).[5] Additionally, men are, on average, heavier than women but it is not strictly accurate to say that the water content of a person alone is responsible for the dissolution of alcohol within the body, because alcohol does dissolve in fatty tissue as well. When it does, a certain amount of alcohol is temporarily taken out of the blood and briefly stored in the fat. For this reason, most calculations of alcohol to body mass simply use the weight of the individual, and not specifically his/her water content. Finally, it is speculated that the bubbles in sparkling wine may speed up alcohol intoxication by helping the alcohol to reach the bloodstream faster.[according to whom?]


  • 80 kg male drinking 3 drinks of 10 grams each, in two hours:
  • 70 kg woman drinking 2.5 drinks of 10 grams each, in two hours:
Standard drink chart (U.S.)[6]
Alcohol Amount (ml) Amount (fl oz) Serving size Alcohol (% by vol.) Alcohol
80 proof liquor 44 1.5 One shot 40 0.6 US fl oz (18 ml)
Table wine 148 5 One glass 12 0.6 US fl oz (18 ml)
Beer 355 12 One can/bottle 5 0.6 US fl oz (18 ml)

Note: This chart defines a standard drink as 0.6 fluid ounces (14 g) of ethanol, whereas other definitions exist, for example 10 grams of ethanol.

Standard drink sizes (Australia)

  • 375 ml can of light beer (2.7% alcohol) = 0.8 standard drinks
  • 375 ml can of mid-strength beer (3.5% alcohol) = 1 standard drink
  • 375 ml can of full strength beer (4.8% alcohol) = 1.4 standard drinks
  • 100 ml glass of wine (13.5% alcohol) = 1 standard drink
  • 150 ml glass of wine (13.5% alcohol) = 1.5 standard drinks
  • 30 ml shot of spirits (40% alcohol) = 0.95 standard drinks
  • 440 ml can of pre-mix spirits (approx. 5% alcohol) = 1.7 standard drinks
  • 440 ml can pre-mix spirits (approx. 7% alcohol) = 2.4 standard drinks
Approximate blood alcohol percentage (by volume)[7]
Based on one drink having 0.5 US fl oz (15 ml) alcohol by volume
Drinks Sex Body weight
1 Male - 0.04 0.03 0.03 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02
Female 0.05 0.05 0.04 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.02 0.02 0.02
2 Male - 0.08 0.06 0.05 0.05 0.04 0.04 0.03 0.03
Female 0.10 0.09 0.08 0.07 0.06 0.05 0.05 0.04 0.04
3 Male - 0.11 0.09 0.08 0.07 0.06 0.06 0.05 0.05
Female 0.15 0.14 0.11 0.10 0.09 0.08 0.07 0.06 0.06
4 Male - 0.15 0.12 0.11 0.09 0.08 0.08 0.07 0.06
Female 0.20 0.18 0.15 0.13 0.11 0.10 0.09 0.08 0.08
5 Male - 0.19 0.16 0.13 0.12 0.11 0.09 0.09 0.08
Female 0.25 0.23 0.19 0.16 0.14 0.13 0.11 0.10 0.09
6 Male - 0.23 0.19 0.16 0.14 0.13 0.11 0.10 0.09
Female 0.30 0.27 0.23 0.19 0.17 0.15 0.14 0.12 0.11
7 Male - 0.26 0.22 0.19 0.16 0.15 0.13 0.12 0.11
Female 0.35 0.32 0.27 0.23 0.20 0.18 0.16 0.14 0.13
8 Male - 0.30 0.25 0.21 0.19 0.17 0.15 0.14 0.13
Female 0.40 0.36 0.30 0.26 0.23 0.20 0.18 0.17 0.15
9 Male - 0.34 0.28 0.24 0.21 0.19 0.17 0.15 0.14
Female 0.45 0.41 0.34 0.29 0.26 0.23 0.20 0.19 0.17
10 Male - 0.38 0.31 0.27 0.23 0.21 0.19 0.17 0.16
Female 0.51 0.45 0.38 0.32 0.28 0.25 0.23 0.21 0.19
Subtract approximately 0.01 every 40 minutes after drinking.

Binge drinking

The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) define the term "binge drinking" as a pattern of drinking that brings a person's blood alcohol concentration (BAC) to 0.08 grams percent or above. This typically happens when men consume five or more drinks, and when women consume four or more drinks, in about two hours.[8]

Units of measurement

There are several different units in use around the world for defining blood alcohol concentration. Each is defined as either a mass of alcohol per volume of blood or a mass of alcohol per mass of blood (never a volume per volume). 1 milliliter of blood has a mass of approximately 1.06 grams. Because of this, units by volume are similar but not identical to units by mass. In the U.S. the concentration unit 1% w/v (percent mass/volume, equivalent to 10 g/l or 1 g per 100 ml) is in use.

This is not to be confused with the amount of alcohol measured on the breath, as with a breathalyzer. The amount of alcohol measured on the breath is generally accepted as proportional to the amount of alcohol present in the blood at a rate of 1:2100. Therefore, a breathalyzer measurement of 0.10 mg/L of breath alcohol converts to 0.0001×2100 g/L, or 0.21 g/L of blood alcohol (the units of the BAC in the United States, this is equivalent to 0.21 permille). While a variety of units (or sometimes lack thereof) is used throughout the world, many countries use the g/L unit, which does not create confusion as percentages do. Usual units are highlighted in the table below.

Reference Unit Dimensions Equivalent to Used in
BAC by volume 1 percent (%) 1/100 g/mL = 1 g/dL 9.43 mg/g, 217.4 mmol/L United States, Australia, Canada
1 permille (?) 1/1000 g/mL = 1 g/L 0.943 mg/g, 21.7 mmol/L Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, France, Latvia, Lithuania, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Spain, Switzerland, Turkey
1 basis point (?) 1/10,000 g/mL = 10 mg/100 mL 94.3 ppm, 2.17 mmol/L United Kingdom
BAC by mass 1 percent (%) 1/100 g/g = 1 cg/g 1.06 cg/mL, 230 mmol/L
1 permille (?) 1/1000 g/g = 1 mg/g 1.06 mg/mL, 23 mmol/L Finland, Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Germany, Ireland, Russian Federation
1 part per million (ppm) 1/1,000,000 g/g = 1 ?g/g 1.06 ?g/mL, 23 ?mol/L

Legal limits

Map of Europe showing countries' blood alcohol limits as defined in g/dl for the general population

For purposes of law enforcement, blood alcohol content is used to define intoxication and provides a rough measure of impairment. Although the degree of impairment may vary among individuals with the same blood alcohol content, it can be measured objectively and is therefore legally useful and difficult to contest in court. Most countries disallow operation of motor vehicles and heavy machinery above prescribed levels of blood alcohol content. Operation of boats and aircraft is also regulated.

The alcohol level at which a person is considered legally impaired varies by country. The list below gives limits by country. These are typically blood alcohol content limits for the operation of a vehicle.


It is illegal to have any measurable alcohol in the blood while driving in these countries. Most jurisdictions have a tolerance slightly higher than zero to account for false positives and naturally occurring alcohol in the body. Some of the following jurisdictions have a general prohibition of alcohol.


  • China
  • Netherlands (for drivers in their first five years after gaining a driving license)[20]
  • Norway (road vehicles and sea vessels over 15 m),[21] alternatively 0.1 mg/L of breath.
  • Poland (0.02% - 0.05% is a petty offence, over 0.05% is a criminal offence)
  • Puerto Rico
  • Russia (0.018% since September 2013[18])
  • Serbia
  • Sweden 0.02
  • Ukraine
  • United States--drivers under the age of 21 must have 0.02% or less on the federal level; however, most states have Zero Tolerance laws emplaced. Otherwise the limit is 0.08%, except in Utah, where it is 0.05%.



  • Lithuania (0.00% for car drivers in their first three years after gaining a driving license, motorcycle and truck drivers)


  • Argentina: 0.02% for motorbikes, 0.00% for truck, taxi, and bus drivers, 0.00% in the provinces of Cordoba and Salta
  • Australia: 0.00% for Australian Capital Territory learner, provisional and convicted DUI drivers (changed down from 0.02% on December 1, 2010), 0.02% for truck/bus/taxi, 0.00% for learner drivers, provisional/probationary drivers (regardless of age), truck and bus drivers, driving instructors and DUI drivers in all other states)
  • Austria: no limit for pedestrians; 0.08% for cycling; 0.05% generally for cars <7.5 t (driving licence B) and motorbikes (A); but 0,01% during learning (for driver and teacher or L17-assistant). During probation period (at least the first 3 years) or up to the age of 21, when license was handed out after July 1, 2017, when older (at least the first 2 years) or up to the age of 20 (A1, AM, L17, F), trucks (C >7.5 t), bus (D), drivers of taxi and public transport [23][24]
  • Belgium (also for cyclists)
  • Bulgaria
  • Canada: Alberta, British Columbia, Ontario, Manitoba, Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick--provincial offence. Drivers have not committed a criminal offense, however a 3-day licence suspension and 3-day vehicle seizure occurs.
  • Costa Rica
  • Croatia: professional drivers, driving instructors and drivers of the vehicle categories C1, C1+E, C, C+E, D, D+E and H; the limit for other drivers is 0.50 mg/g, but they do get an additional separate fine if they cause an accident while having a blood alcohol level between 0 and 0,50 mg/g [25]
  • Denmark
  • Finland
  • France: 0.025% for bus drivers[26]
  • Germany (0.0% for learner drivers, all drivers 18-21 and newly licensed drivers of any age for first two years of licence; also, if the BAC exceeds 0.03%, driving is illegal if the driver is showing changes in behavior ("Relative Fahruntüchtigkeit"))
  • Greece (0.02% for drivers in their first two years after gaining a driving license)
  • Hong Kong
  • Iceland: New laws yet to take effect will change the limit to 0.02%.
  • Ireland: 0.02% for professional, learner and novice drivers(drivers in their first two years after gaining a driving license)[27]
  • Israel: 24 µg per 100 ml (0.024%) of breath (penalties only apply above 26 µg per 100 ml (0.026%) of breath due to lawsuits about sensitivity of devices used). This is equivalent to a BAC of 0.05. New drivers, drivers under 24 years of age and commercial drivers 5 µg per 100 ml of breath. This is equivalent to a BAC of 0.01.[16]
  • Italy: 0.00% for drivers in their first three years after gaining a driving license
  • Latvia: 0.02% for drivers in their first two years after gaining a driving license
  • Luxembourg
  • Malta: 0.02% for drivers with a probationary driving licence and drivers of commercial vehicles, and 0.00% for drivers of buses, coaches and other passenger carrying vehicles.[28]
  • Mauritius[29]
  • Netherlands: 0.02% for drivers in their first five years after gaining a driving license[20]
  • New Zealand
  • North Macedonia: 0.00% for drivers in their first two years after gaining a driving license
  • Peru
  • Philippines: 0.00% for taxicab and public transport drivers[30]
  • Portugal: 0.02% for drivers holding a driver's licence for less than three years, professional drivers, and drivers of taxis, heavy vehicles, emergency vehicles, public transport of children and carrying dangerous goods.
  • Scotland: Scotland's drink-drive limit was reduced, by law, on 5 December 2014 from 0.08 to any of the following: 22 mcg of alcohol in 100 ml of breath, 50 mg of alcohol in 100 ml of blood, or 67 mg of alcohol in 100 ml of urine[31]
  • Slovenia: 0.00% for drivers in their first two years after gaining a drivers licence, drivers under 21 and professional drivers, such as buses, trucks.
  • South Africa: 0.02% for professional drivers; to be changed for all to 0.00% by June 2020[32]
  • Spain (0.03% for drivers in their first two years after gaining a driving license and common carriers, such as buses and trucks)
  • Switzerland (0.00% for learner drivers, drivers which are in their first three years after gaining a drivers licence and for driving instructors)[33]
  • Thailand: 0.02% for drivers who (1) hold a probationary driving licence or; (2) have a licence for different vehicle category or; (3) are under 20 years old or; (4) are disqualified and attempt to drive illegally[34]
  • Taiwan: breath alcohol limit decreased from 0.25 to 0.15 from 13 June 2013
  • Turkey
  • United States - Utah[35]





Breath alcohol content

In certain countries, alcohol limits are determined by the breath alcohol content (BrAC), not to be confused with blood alcohol content (BAC).

  • In Greece, the BrAC limit is 250 micrograms of alcohol per litre of breath. The limit in blood is 0.50 g/l. The BrAC limit for drivers in their first two years after gaining a driving license and common carriers are more restricted to 100 micrograms per litre of breath.
    • BrAC 250-400 = EUR200 fine.
    • BrAC 400-600 = EUR700 fine, plus suspension of driving license for 90 days (introduced in 2007)[46]
    • BrAC >600 = 2 months imprisonment, plus suspension of driving license for 180 days, plus EUR1,200 fine
  • In Hong Kong, the BrAC limit is 220 micrograms per litre of breath (as well as other defined limits)
  • In The Netherlands and Finland, the BrAC limit is 220 micrograms of alcohol per litre of breath (?g/l, colloquially known as "ugl" because some types of breathalyzer show the ? as 'u' due to screen size limitations).
  • In New Zealand, the BrAC limit is 250 micrograms of alcohol per litre of breath for those aged 20 years or over, and zero (meaning illegal to have any measurable breath alcohol content) for those aged under 20 years.[47]
  • In Singapore, the BrAC limit is 350 micrograms of alcohol per litre of breath.[41]
  • In Spain the BrAC limit is 250 micrograms of alcohol per litre of breath and 150 micrograms per litre of breath for drivers in their first two years after gaining a driving license and common carriers.
  • In England and Wales the BrAC limit is 350 micrograms of alcohol per litre of breath (as well as the above defined blood alcohol content).
  • In Scotland the BrAC limit is 220 micrograms of alcohol per litre of breath (as well as the above defined blood alcohol content).
  • In Trinidad and Tobago the BrAC limit is 35 micrograms of alcohol per 100 millilitres of breath (as well as the above defined blood alcohol content).

Other limitation schemes

  • For South Korea, the penalties for different blood alcohol content levels include
    • 0.01-0.049 = No penalty
    • 0.05-0.09 = 100 days license suspension
    • >0.10 = Cancellation of car license.

Test assumptions

Blood alcohol tests assume the individual being tested is average in various ways. For example, on average the ratio of blood alcohol content to breath alcohol content (the partition ratio) is 2100 to 1. In other words, there are 2100 parts of alcohol in the blood for every part in the breath. However, the actual ratio in any given individual can vary from 1300:1 to 3100:1, or even more widely.[48] This ratio varies not only from person to person, but within one person from moment to moment. Thus a person with a true blood alcohol level of 0.08% but a partition ratio of 1700:1 at the time of testing would have a 0.10 reading on a Breathalyzer calibrated for the average 2100:1 ratio.


Retrograde extrapolation is the mathematical process by which someone's blood alcohol concentration at the time of driving is estimated by projecting backwards from a later chemical test. This involves estimating the absorption and elimination of alcohol in the interim between driving and testing. The rate of elimination in the average person is commonly estimated at 0.015 to 0.020 grams per deciliter per hour (g/dl/h),[49] although again this can vary from person to person and in a given person from one moment to another. Metabolism can be affected by numerous factors, including such things as body temperature, the type of alcoholic beverage consumed, and the amount and type of food consumed.

In an increasing number of states, laws have been enacted to facilitate this speculative task: the blood alcohol content at the time of driving is legally presumed to be the same as when later tested. There are usually time limits put on this presumption, commonly two or three hours, and the defendant is permitted to offer evidence to rebut this presumption.

Forward extrapolation can also be attempted. If the amount of alcohol consumed is known, along with such variables as the weight and sex of the subject and period and rate of consumption, the blood alcohol level can be estimated by extrapolating forward. Although subject to the same infirmities as retrograde extrapolation--guessing based upon averages and unknown variables--this can be relevant in estimating BAC when driving and/or corroborating or contradicting the results of a later chemical test.


Alcohol is absorbed throughout the gastrointestinal tract, but more slowly in the stomach than in the small or large intestine. For this reason, alcohol consumed with food is absorbed more slowly, because it spends a longer time in the stomach.[] Furthermore, alcohol dehydrogenase is present in the stomach lining. After absorption, the alcohol passes to the liver through the hepatic portal vein, where it undergoes a first pass of metabolism before entering the general bloodstream.[50]

Alcohol is removed from the bloodstream by a combination of metabolism, excretion, and evaporation. Alcohol is metabolized mainly by the group of six enzymes collectively called alcohol dehydrogenase. These convert the ethanol into acetaldehyde (an intermediate more toxic than ethanol). The enzyme acetaldehyde dehydrogenase then converts the acetaldehyde into non-toxic acetic acid.

Many physiologically active materials are removed from the bloodstream (whether by metabolism or excretion) at a rate proportional to the current concentration, so that they exhibit exponential decay with a characteristic half-life (see pharmacokinetics). This is not true for alcohol, however. Typical doses of alcohol actually saturate the enzymes' capacity, so that alcohol is removed from the bloodstream at an approximately constant rate. This rate varies considerably between individuals. Another sex-based difference is in the elimination of alcohol. People under 25[], women,[51] or people with liver disease may process alcohol more slowly. Falsely high BAC readings may be seen in patients with kidney or liver disease or failure.[]

Such persons also have impaired acetaldehyde dehydrogenase, which causes acetaldehyde levels to peak higher, producing more severe hangovers and other effects such as flushing and tachycardia. Conversely, members of certain ethnicities that traditionally did not use alcoholic beverages have lower levels of alcohol dehydrogenases and thus "sober up" very slowly but reach lower aldehyde concentrations and have milder hangovers. The rate of detoxification of alcohol can also be slowed by certain drugs which interfere with the action of alcohol dehydrogenases, notably aspirin, furfural (which may be found in fusel alcohol), fumes of certain solvents, many heavy metals, and some pyrazole compounds. Also suspected of having this effect are cimetidine, ranitidine, and acetaminophen (paracetamol).

Currently, the only known substance that can increase the rate of alcohol metabolism is fructose. The effect can vary significantly from person to person, but a 100 g dose of fructose has been shown to increase alcohol metabolism by an average of 80%. Fructose also increases false positives of high BAC readings in anyone with proteinuria and hematuria, due to kidney-liver metabolism.[52]

The peak of blood alcohol level (or concentration of alcohol) is reduced after a large meal.[53]

Highest levels

There have been reported cases of blood alcohol content higher than 1%:

  • In 1982, a 24-year-old woman was admitted to the UCLA emergency room with a serum alcohol content of 1.51%, corresponding to a BAC of 1.33%. She was alert and oriented to person and place.[54] Serum alcohol concentration is not equal to nor calculated in the same way as blood alcohol content.[55]
  • In 1984, a 30-year-old man survived a blood alcohol concentration of 1.5% after vigorous medical intervention that included dialysis and intravenous therapy with fructose.[56]
  • In 1995, a man from Wroc?aw, Poland, caused a car accident near his hometown. He had a blood alcohol content of 1.48% ; he was tested five times, with each test returning the same reading. He died a few days later of injuries from the accident.[57]
  • In 2004, an unidentified Taiwanese woman died of alcohol intoxication after immersion for twelve hours in a bathtub filled with 40% ethanol. Her blood alcohol content was 1.35%. It was believed that she had immersed herself as a response to the SARS epidemic.[58]
  • In South Africa, a man driving a Mercedes-Benz Vito light van containing 15 sheep allegedly stolen from nearby farms was arrested on December 22, 2010, near Queenstown in Eastern Cape. His blood had an alcohol content of 1.6%. Also in the vehicle were five boys and a woman, who were also arrested.[59]
  • On 26 October 2012, a man from Gmina Olszewo-Borki, Poland, who died in a car accident, recorded a blood alcohol content of 2.23%; however, the blood sample was collected from a wound and thus possibly contaminated.[57]
  • On 26 July 2013 a 40-year-old man from Alfredówka, Poland, was found by Municipal Police Patrol from Nowa D?ba lying in the ditch along the road in Tarnowska Wola. At the hospital, it was recorded that the man had a blood alcohol content of 1.374%. The man survived.[60][61]

See also



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    Stress causes the stomach to empty directly into the small intestine, where alcohol is absorbed even faster.
    Liquor mixed with soda or other bubbly drinks speeds up the passage of alcohol from the stomach to the small intestine, which increases the speed of absorption.
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General bibliography

  • Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh. Science and Technology Department. The Handy Science Answer Book. Pittsburgh: The Carnegie Library, 1997. ISBN 978-0-7876-1013-5.
  • Perham, Nick; Moore, Simon C.; Shepherd, Jonathan; Cusens, Bryany (2007). "Identifying drunkenness in the night-time economy". Addiction. 102 (3): 377-80. doi:10.1111/j.1360-0443.2006.01699.x. PMID 17298644.
  • Taylor, L., and S. Oberman. Drunk Driving Defense, 6th edition. New York: Aspen Law and Business, 2006. ISBN 978-0-7355-5429-0.

External links

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