Beeson Divinity was established on February 9, 1988. It is named for Ralph Waldo Beeson (1900-1990), who gave one of the largest donations (70 Million USD) in Samford history to create the first divinity school at a Baptist college in the US, and for his father, John Wesley Beeson. Ralph Beeson wanted the donation to remain anonymous, but relented to the naming of the school after his father at the suggestion of Samford's board of trustees.
The focal point of the divinity school is Andrew Gerow Hodges Chapel, dedicated in 1995 and named in honor of Andrew Gerow Hodges in 2002. Though an original design by Neil Davis of Davis Architects, it was inspired by Il Redentore in Venice designed by Andrea Palladio. The interior features three cycles of iconography designed by Petru Botezatu, a modern Romanian fresco master. In the dome are sixteen prominent figures from Christian history representing a variety of theological traditions. It was inspired by a passage in chapter 12 of Hebrews. In the crossing and aisles are six busts of 20th-century Christian martyrs from each of the six inhabited continents. in the transept apses are ten painting depicting days or seasons of the Christian year, beginning with Advent and ending with Reformation Day.
Beeson has hosted a number of theology conferences, including "The Will to Believe and the Need for Creed" (2009), "J.I. Packer and the Evangelical Future" (2006), and "God The Holy Trinity" (2004). Lectures from these conferences have been published by Baker Academic Publishing as the Beeson Divinity Studies series.