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Originally inhabited by Native Americans, the region presently known as Bayonne was claimed by the Netherlands after Henry Hudson explored the Hudson River which is named after him. According to Royden Page Whitcomb's 1904 book, First History of Bayonne, New Jersey, the name Bayonne is speculated to have originated with Bayonne, France, from which Huguenots settled for a year before the founding of New Amsterdam. However, there is no empirical evidence for this notion, which is considered apocryphal. Whitcomb gives more credence to the idea that Erastus Randall, E.C. Bramhall and B.F. Woolsey, who bought the land owned by Jasper and William Cadmus for real estate speculation, named it Bayonne for purposes of real estate speculation, because it was located on the shores of two bays, Newark and New York.
Bayonne became one of the largest centers in the nation for refining crude oil and Standard Oil of New Jersey's facility - which had grown from its original establishment in 1877 - and its 6,000 employees made it the city's largest place of employment. Significant civil unrest arose during the Bayonne refinery strikes of 1915-1916, in which mostly Polish American workers staged labor actions against Standard Oil of New Jersey and Tidewater Petroleum, seeking improved pay and working conditions. Four striking workers were killed when strikebreakers protected by police fired into a crowd.
An 1837 map of Bayonne, oriented with North pointing to the right
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city had a total area of 11.09 square miles (28.72 km2), including 5.82 square miles (15.08 km2) of land and 5.27 square miles (13.64 km2) of water (47.50%).
Of the 25,237 households, 29.5% had children under the age of 18; 41.1% were married couples living together; 16.8% had a female householder with no husband present and 36.4% were non-families. Of all households, 31.6% were made up of individuals and 11.8% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.49 and the average family size was 3.16.
22.5% of the population were under the age of 18, 8.9% from 18 to 24, 28.1% from 25 to 44, 27.3% from 45 to 64, and 13.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38.4 years. For every 100 females, the population had 91.7 males. For every 100 females ages 18 and older there were 87.9 males.
The U.S. Census Bureau's 2006-2010 American Community Survey showed that (in 2010 inflation-adjusted dollars) median household income was $53,587 (with a margin of error of +/- $2,278) and the median family income was $66,077 (+/- $5,235). Males had a median income of $51,188 (+/- $1,888) versus $42,097 (+/- $1,820) for females. The per capita income for the city was $28,698 (+/- $1,102). About 9.9% of families and 12.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 20.5% of those under age 18 and 8.4% of those age 65 or over.
As of the 2000 Census, the most common reported ancestries of Bayonne residents were Italian (20.1%), Irish (18.8%) and Polish (17.9%).
There were 25,545 households, out of which 28.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 42.8% were married couples living together, 15.1% had a female householder with no husband present, and 37.3% were non-families. 32.8% of all households were made up of individuals, and 15.0% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.42 and the average family size was 3.10.
In the city the population was spread out, with 22.1% under the age of 18, 8.2% from 18 to 24, 30.7% from 25 to 44, 22.5% from 45 to 64, and 16.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 89.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 86.3 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $41,566, and the median income for a family was $52,413. Males had a median income of $39,790 versus $33,747 for females. The per capita income for the city was $21,553. About 8.4% of families and 10.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 11.9% of those under age 18 and 11.0% of those age 65 or over.
Portions of the city are part of an Urban Enterprise Zone (UEZ), one of 32 zones covering 37 municipalities statewide. Bayonne was selected in 2002 as one of a group of three zones added to participate in the program. In addition to other benefits to encourage employment and investment within the Zone, shoppers can take advantage of a reduced 3.3125% sales tax rate (half of the 6+5⁄8% rate charged statewide) at eligible merchants. Established in September 2002, the city's Urban Enterprise Zone status expires in December 2023. More than 200 businesses have registered to participate in the city's UEZ since it was first established.
The Bayonne Town Center, located within the Broadway shopping district, includes retailers, eateries, consumer and small business banking centers. The Bayonne Medical Center is a for-profit hospital that anchors the northern end of the Town Center. It is the city's largest employer, with over 1,200 employees. A 2013 study showed that the hospital charged the highest rates in the United States.
In August 2014, the Bayonne Hometown Fair, a popular tourist and community attraction that ceased in 2000, was revived by a local business owner and resident. The first revived Bayonne Hometown Fair took place from June 6-7, 2015.
The City of Bayonne has been governed within the Faulkner Act, formally known as the Optional Municipal Charter Law, under the Mayor-Council system of municipal government (Plan C), implemented based on the recommendations of a Charter Study Commission as of July 1, 1962, before which it was governed by a Board of Commissioners under the Walsh Act. The city is one of 71 municipalities (of the 565) statewide that use this form of government. The governing body is comprised of the Mayor and the five-member City Council, of which two seats are chosen at-large and three from wards, all of whom serve four-year terms of office on a concurrent basis and are chosen in balloting held as part of the May municipal election.
As of 2020[update], the Mayor of Bayonne is James M. "Jimmy" Davis, whose term of office ends June 30, 2022; Davis was first elected as mayor in a runoff election on June 10, 2014, against incumbent Mayor Mark Smith. Members of the Bayonne City Council are Council President Sharon Ashe-Nadrowski (At-Large), Neil Carroll III (1st Ward; appointed to serve an unexpired term), Salvatore Gullace (2nd Ward), Gary La Pelusa Sr. (3rd Ward) and Juan M. Perez (At-Large), all of whom are serving concurrent terms of office that end on June 30, 2022.
In November 2018, the City Council appointed Neil Carroll III to fill the 1st Ward seat vacated by Tommy Cotter, who resigned to take a position as the city's DPW director; at age 27, Carroll became the youngest councilmember in city history. In the November 2019 general election, Carroll was elected to serve the balance of the term of office.
Babcock & Wilcox Co. works in 1919, one of the many industrial sites that were once located in Bayonne
Bayonne is split between the 8th and 10th Congressional Districts and is part of New Jersey's 31st state legislative district. Prior to the 2010 Census, Bayonne had been split between the 10th Congressional District and the 13th Congressional District, a change made by the New Jersey Redistricting Commission that took effect in January 2013, based on the results of the November 2012 general elections. The split placed 33,218 residents living in the city's south and west in the 8th District, while 29,806 residents in the northeastern portion of the city were placed in the 10th District.
As of March 23, 2011, there were a total of 32,747 registered voters in Bayonne, of which 17,087 (52.2%) were registered as Democrats, 2,709 (8.3%) were registered as Republicans and 12,928 (39.5%) were registered as Unaffiliated. There were 23 voters registered to other parties.
In the 2012 presidential election, Democrat Barack Obama received 66.4% of the vote (13,467 cast), ahead of Republican Mitt Romney with 32.6% (6,605 votes), and other candidates with 1.0% (197 votes), among the 20,454 ballots cast by the city's 34,424 registered voters (185 ballots were spoiled), for a turnout of 59.4%. In the 2008 presidential election, Democrat Barack Obama received 57.0% of the vote here (13,768 cast), ahead of Republican John McCain with 40.6% (9,796 votes) and other candidates with 1.2% (283 votes), among the 24,139 ballots cast by the town's 35,823 registered voters, for a turnout of 67.4%. In the 2004 presidential election, Democrat John Kerry received 56.0% of the vote here (12,402 ballots cast), outpolling Republican George W. Bush with 42.2% (9,341 votes) and other candidates with 0.6% (184 votes), among the 22,135 ballots cast by the town's 32,129 registered voters, for a turnout percentage of 68.9.
In the 2013, gubernatorial election, Republican Chris Christie received 49.3% of the vote (5,322 cast), ahead of Democrat Barbara Buono with 49.1% (5,297 votes), and other candidates with 1.6% (169 votes), among the 10,987 ballots cast by the city's 34,957 registered voters (199 ballots were spoiled), for a turnout of 31.4%. In the 2009 gubernatorial election, Democrat Jon Corzine received 53.8% of the vote here (7,421 ballots cast), ahead of Republican Chris Christie with 38.7% (5,333 votes), Independent Chris Daggett with 4.8% (662 votes) and other candidates with 1.3% (183 votes), among the 13,781 ballots cast by the town's 32,588 registered voters, yielding a 42.3% turnout.
In December 2012, the autonomous agency entered into a water management agreement with the Bayonne Water Joint Venture (BWJV), a partnership between United Water and investment firm Kohlberg, Kravis, Roberts. The 40-year concession agreement is a public-private partnership between the city and the BWJV in which the private partners pay off the BMUA's $130 million debt and take over the operations, maintenance, and capital improvement of Bayonne's water and wastewater utilities in exchange for a regulated share of the revenue. United Water is managing the operations for the partnership, while KKR is providing 90% of the funding. A rate schedule was included in the agreement, and it contained an immediate 8.5% utility rate increase (the first rate increase since 2006), followed by two years without increases, followed by annual increases estimated to range between 2.5% - 4.5%. This partnership was sought for several reasons, including the BMUA's debt, its shortage of skilled employees, and its lagging rate revenue from years without rate increases and reduced demand. Part of this reduced demand stemmed from the closure of the Military Ocean Terminal at Bayonne, and the fact that the subsequent plans to redevelop the site with housing fell short. The BMUA's $130 million debt that was paid off by the BWJV represented over half of Bayonne's overall debt ($240 million) at the time, and in March 2013, Moody's Investors Service upgraded the credit rating of Bayonne from 'negative' to 'stable', citing the water deal.
Fire Station # 3
The city of Bayonne is protected on a full-time, around-the-clock basis by the 161 professional firefighters of the city of Bayonne Fire Department (BFD), which was founded on September 3, 1906, and operates out of five fire stations located throughout the city. The Bayonne Fire Dept operates a fleet of five engines, one squad (rescue-pumper), three ladder trucks, a heavy rescue truck (which is also part of the Metro USAR Collapse Rescue Strike Team), a large 4,000 gallon foam tanker truck, a haz-mat truck, a multi-service unit, a fireboat, as well as spare apparatus. Each tour is commanded by a battalion chief. 
The department is part of the Metro USAR Strike Team, which consists of nine North Jersey fire departments and other emergency services divisions working to address major emergency rescue situations.
Bayonne Free Public Library and Cultural Center
The Bayonne Board of Education serves students from pre-kindergarten through twelfth grade. As of the 2017-18 school year, the district, comprised of 13 schools, had an enrollment of 9,907 students and 689.2 classroom teachers (on an FTE basis), for a student-teacher ratio of 14.4:1. Schools in the district (with 2017-18 enrollment data from the National Center for Education Statistics) are
Henry E. Harris Community School No. 1 (683 students; in grades PreK-8),
Phillip G. Vroom Community School No. 2 (489; PreK-8),
Dr. Walter F. Robinson Community School No. 3 (777; PreK-8),
Mary J. Donohoe Community School No. 4 (471; PreK-8),
Lincoln Community School No. 5 (465; PreK-8),
Horace Mann Community School No. 6 (573; PreK-8),
William Shemin Midtown Community School No. 8 (1,179; PreK-8),
Washington Community School No. 9 (684; PreK-8),
Woodrow Wilson Community School No. 10 (700; PreK-8),
John M. Bailey Community School No. 12 (664; PreK-8),
Nicholas Oresko Community School No. 14 (462; PreK-8) an advanced school for gifted and talented students in academics, the arts, and physical education; and
Bayonne High School (2,668; 9-12). Bayonne High School is the only public school in the state to have an on-campus ice rink for its hockey team.
For the 2004-05 school year, Mary J. Donohoe No. 4 School was named a "Star School" by the New Jersey Department of Education, the highest honor that a New Jersey school can achieve. It is the fourth school in Bayonne to receive this honor. The other three are Bayonne High School in 1995-96, Midtown Community School in 1996-97 and P.S. #14 in the 1998-99 school year.
The November 16, 2010, episode of The Daily Show with Jon Stewart parodied former Alaska Governor Sarah Palin's reality television series, Sarah Palin's Alaska, in the form of a trailer for a fictional reality show called Jason Jones' Bayonne, New Jersey, whose portrayal of the city was characterized by prostitution, drugs, crime, pollution and a stereotypical Italian-American population. Bayonne Mayor Mark Smith criticized the sketch, saying, "Jon Stewart's unfortunate and inaccurate depiction of Bayonne represents a lame attempt at humor at the expense of a rock solid, all-American community."
The ABCsci-fi comedy television series The Neighbors is about a family that moves from Bayonne into a fictional gated community, Hidden Hills, that is populated by aliens from another planet posing as humans.
The Best Show with Tom Scharpling records near Bayonne, and the city is frequently mentioned due to Associate Producer Mike Lisk (a.k.a. AP Mike) being a Bayonne native, who tends bar at Massa's Tavern, a local bar.
Demjanovich church is a merger of St. Andrew and St. Mary Star of the Sea churches, with the merged congregation keeping the two sites for worship. Reverend Alexander Santora in the Jersey Journal wrote that due to the efforts of the pastor, the Demjanovich merger "went off, however, without a hitch."
Three other churches, Our Lady of the Assumption, Our Lady of Mt. Carmel, and St. Michael/St. Joseph, merged into John Paul II in 2016. There were unsuccessful protests to keep Assumption open, and the archdiocese committed to closing that church.
Roads and highways
View west along I-78 (New Jersey Turnpike Newark Bay Extension) in Bayonne
The Bayonne Bridge stretches 1,775 feet (541 m), connecting south to Staten Island over the Kill Van Kull. Originally constructed in 1931, the nridge underwent a Navigation Clearance Project that was completed in 2017 at a cost of $1.7 billion, that raised the bridge deck from 151 feet (46 m) above the water to 215 feet (66 m), allowing larger and more heavily laden ships to clear their way under the bridge.Kennedy Boulevard is a major thoroughfare along the west side of the city from the bridge north to Jersey City and North Hudson.
Route 440 runs along the east side of Bayonne, and the West Side of Jersey City, partially following the path of the old Morris Canal route. Although it has traffic lights it is usually the quickest route north-south within Bayonne. It connects to the Bayonne Bridge, I-78, and to Route 185 to Liberty State Park.
Bus transportation is provided on three main north-south streets of the city: Broadway, Kennedy Boulevard, and Avenue C, both by the state-operated NJ Transit and several private bus lines. The Broadway line runs solely inside Bayonne city limits, while bus lines on Avenue C and Kennedy Boulevard run to various end points in Jersey City. The NJ Transit 120 runs between Avenue C in Bayonne and Battery Park in Downtown Manhattan during rush hours in peak direction while the 81 provides service to Jersey City.
Anthony Chiappone (born 1957), politician who served in the New Jersey General Assembly, where he represented the 31st Legislative District from 2004 to 2005 and again from 2007 until his resignation in 2010.
^ abcElected Officials, City of Bayonne. Accessed November 12, 2019. "The City of Bayonne has been governed by the Faulkner Act, under the Mayor-Council system of municipal government (Plan C). This form of government was decided upon based on the recommendations of a Charter Study Commission of July 1, 1962. The governing body consists of a mayor and a five-member city council, of which two seats are elected at-large and three from wards."
^ abcHistory, City of Bayonne. Accessed November 12, 2019. "In 1877, the standard Oil Company took over a small refinery. By the 1920s, Standard Oil became the city's largest employer with over 6,000 workers. At that time, Bayonne was one of the largest oil refinery centers in the world."
^Griffin, Molly. "Bayonne Historical Society learns about the Lenape", NJ Advance Media for NJ.com, February 12, 2009, updated February 12, 2019. Accessed November 12, 2019. "Dr. Oeistreicher is a leading authority on the Lenape Indians, a tribe Hudson encountered when he explored what is now known as the Hudson River."
^History, Cape Liberty Cruise Port. Accessed November 12, 2019. "The 430 acre site in Lower New York Harbor was created by private developers in the 1930s as a man-made peninsula off the eastern end of Bayonne, New Jersey. Initially developed for industrial use, the U.S. War Department and the Department of the Navy became interested in the site as World War II approached.... The maiden sailing of the Voyager of the Seas was on May 14, 2004. The voyage marked the first time a passenger ship vessel had sailed from New Jersey in almost 40 years."
^Bayonne Urban Enterprise Zone (UEZ), City of Bayonne. Accessed November 19, 2019. "Bayonne is one of the State's newest Urban Enterprise Zones, and was first designated on September 12, 2002.Since its inception, over 213 businesses have registered in the Bayonne Urban Enterprise Zone program."
^The Memorial at Harbor View Park, 9/11 Monument. Accessed December 30, 2014. "Bayonne was a fitting location; the city was an arrival point for many New York City evacuees on 9/11, a staging area for rescuers and offered a direct view of the Statue of Liberty and the former World Trade Center towers."
^About Us, Henry Repeating Arms. Accessed December 6, 2011. "Today, the Henry Repeating Arms Company, a descendant of the venerable gunmaker, makes its home in Bayonne, New Jersey."
^McGeehan, Patrick. "Soft Real Estate Market Is a Key Ingredient at Brooklyn Brewery", The New York Times, November 1, 2009. Accessed December 6, 2011. "Still, other small manufacturers, like Henry Repeating Arms, have been leaving the city in search of less expensive places to operate.... They no longer are. Mr. Imperato, who lives in Bay Ridge, moved his company to Bayonne, N.J., last year after searching for a few years for adequate space to buy at a 'reasonable' price, he said. With some financial help from the State of New Jersey, the company bought a building on three acres in Bayonne for one-third of what it would have cost in Brooklyn, he said."
^Kaulessar, Ricardo. "The other waterfront walkway: 18-mile Hackensack RiverWalk in Hudson County still underdeveloped"Archived December 18, 2011, at the Wayback Machine, The Hudson Reporter, May 16, 2006. Accessed December 6, 2011. "While the Bayonne and Secaucus portions of the Hackensack RiverWalk have been developed substantially, the Jersey City portion that would make up the majority of the 18-mile walk is far from reality. Anyone who develops along this stretch of the Hackensack River is required to add to the public RiverWalk, a planned linkage of waterfront parks along the Hackensack.... The RiverWalk section in Bayonne, if fully completed, would run from the southwest corner of the town in an area where the Kill Van Kull meets the Newark Bay, to the northwestern point of the area.... Ryan pointed out last week that another piece of the RiverWalk will be unveiled when the North 40 Park, or Richard A. Rutkowski Park, is scheduled to open this week."
^Broadway National Bank of Bayonne v. Parking Authority, New Jersey Superior Court, Law Division decided August 2, 1962. Via FindACase.com. Accessed November 27, 2011. "The facts are undisputed. The City of Bayonne was governed by a board of commissioners in accordance with the Walsh Act until July 1, 1962.... Mayor-Council Plan C of the Faulkner Act (NJSA 40:69A-1 et seq.) was adopted by referendum in the City of Bayonne and took effect on July 1, 1962."
^Heinis, John. "As expected, Bayonne council appoints Carroll III to replace Cotter in the 1st Ward", Hudson County View, November 20, 2018. Accessed November 12, 2019. "As expected, the Bayonne City Council voted to appoint Neil Carroll III to replace Tommy Cotter as the 1st Ward councilman at a brief special meeting this evening.... He beat out more than a dozen other candidates and Cotter has moved on to the director of the Department of Public Works for a salary of $117,000 a year. At just 27 years old, Carroll is the youngest councilman in Bayonne history. When asked about the criticism of being too young to handle the job, he said that his situation is not completely unprecedented."
^Biography of Bob Menendez, United States Senate, January 26, 2015. "Menendez, who started his political career in Union City, moved in September from Paramus to one of Harrison's new apartment buildings near the town's PATH station.."
^. United States Senate. Accessed April 30, 2021. "Booker, Cory A. - (D - NJ) Class II; Menendez, Robert - (D - NJ) Class I"
^Bayonne Board of Education District Policy: Identification, Bayonne Board of Education. Accessed January 30, 2020. "Purpose: The Board of Education exists for the purpose of providing a thorough and efficient system of free public education in grades Pre-K through 12 in the Bayonne School District. Composition: The Bayonne School District is comprised of all the area within the municipal boundaries of the City of Bayonne."
^Library History, Free Public Library & Cultural Center of Bayonne. Accessed August 29, 2015. "The Bayonne Public Library, incorporated in 1890, moved into the present Carnegie-funded building at 697 Avenue C in 1904. In 1903, Andrew Carnegie donated $50,000 for construction of this library."
^Jones, Theodore (1997). Carnegie Libraries Across America. New York: John Wiley & Sons. ISBN0-471-14422-3.
^Sullivan, Al. "Bayonne High School is film set Bruce Willis will play principal in new movie", The Hudson Reporter, October 5, 2007. Accessed March 30, 2012. "When Demi Moore came to Bayonne in 1991 to make her film Mortal Thoughts, not many people may know that she brought her actor/husband, Bruce Willis, with her. Willis, who returned to Bayonne last week to film his segments in a new film, entitled The Assassination of a High School Principal or The Sophomore, was a big hit during his first visit, prompting one teacher - who was on the 1991 set at Horace Mann School - who hoped to catch a glimpse of him at the high school."
^Tahaney, Ed. "'Piranha' devours 'Ernie' comic"[permanent dead link], Daily News (New York), September 2, 1998. Accessed November 20, 2012. ""Ernie," the award-winning comic strip that has appeared in the Daily News since 1987, has decided to join the club 'The Piranha Club'.... The strip, set in Bayonne, N.J., is about an innocent guy whose world is filled with conniving thieves, crooks and swindlers, including his Uncle Sid, the ringleader of the anti-social Piranha Club."
^Sullivan, Al. "Home to aliens? New sci-fi TV series set in Bayonne"Archived December 30, 2013, at the Wayback Machine, The Hudson Reporter, October 17, 2012. Accessed December 30, 2014. "If you ever thought your neighbors might be from outer space, then the new show The Neighbors is right up your alley. Set in Bayonne, the show features a gated community in which most of the residents are aliens from outer space, with males who get pregnant and name their children after earthly sport stars."
^Bascome, Eric. "Bayonne Bridge rededication ceremony marks end of $1.7 billion project", Staten Island Advance, June 14, 2019. Accessed November 12, 2019. "The ceremony marked the completion of the Navigation Clearance Project, also known as Raise the Roadway, which began construction in 2013 and elevated the deck of the Bayonne Bridge from 151 feet to 215 feet in order to accommodate larger, 21st-century container ships that were unable to fit under the bridge's previous configuration.... The Bayonne Bridge, once the longest steel arch bridge in the world, opened to the public in 1931, paralleling an existing ferry service between Port Richmond, Staten Island and Bayonne, New Jersey.... When opened in 1931, the Bayonne Bridge was the longest steel arch bridge in the world, with the arch spanning 1,775 feet long and standing 325 feet high."
^Gargiulo, Joseph. "New Bus Ferries Staten Islanders", NYCity News Service, November 16, 2007. Accessed July 6, 2011. "The S89, the first interstate bus route run by New York City Transit, connects Eltingville, Staten Island, with the 34th Street Hudson-Bergen Light Rail station in Bayonne. It was created to improve Staten Island transportation and provide access to jobs in Jersey City and Hoboken."
^Middleton, Kathleen M. Bayonne Passages, p. 151. Arcadia Publishing, 1999. ISBN9780752405636. Accessed February 7, 2018. "Dwight Palmer had released a plan to reroute the mainline of the Jersey Central Railroad east of the town of Aldene. By shifting the mainline from Jersey City, the Palmer, or Aldene, plan all but finished passenger service through Bayonne. Despite the city's protest, the state enacted the plan in 1967."
^Burks, Edward C. "Bayonne May Lose Its Trains", The New York Times, May 27, 1973. Accessed February 7, 2018. "There were strong hints from the state's Department of Transportation last week that drastic curtailment or a complete cutoff of the Jersey Central's commuter service to Bayonne is imminent. Twenty times a day, a diesel car Shuttles between Bayonne and Cranford, on the Central's main line. But only two early-morning trips to Bayonne and two returning ones in the evening are heavily patronized."
^Shooters Island, New York City Department of Parks and Recreation. Accessed December 6, 2011. "Because of its importance as a habitat and breeding ground for birds, Shooter's Island was assigned to Parks on March 3, 1994 as a bird sanctuary. Nine of the island's 43 acres (17 ha) belong to New Jersey (Bayonne owns 7.5 acres (3 ha), Elizabeth owns 1.5 acres). New York State paid New Jersey $30,000 for the right to manage the whole of the island in perpetuity."
^Miller, Jonathan. "Art, or Something Like It, Brings Russian Leader to Bayonne", The New York Times, September 16, 2015. Accessed August 9, 2017. "It is not every day that the president of Russia comes to visit a blue collar New Jersey town, but here he was, Vladimir Putin, standing amid shipping containers and cracked, weed-choked asphalt, clasping hands with the mayor, and speaking of Russia's 'unity' with the United States. The reason? A 'groundbreaking' (though no ground was actually broken) for a beleaguered memorial from Russia commemorating the attack of Sept. 11, 2001 that initially had been offered to, and then rejected by, Jersey City."
^Dedication Ceremony: September 11, 2006, 911 Monument. Accessed August 9, 2017. "On September 11, 2006, the fifth anniversary of the tragedy, the monument To the Struggle Against World Terrorism was dedicated. The ceremony started with the performance of the National Anthems of the United States and the Russian Federation. Former United States President William Jefferson Clinton was the keynote speaker."
^Robbins Reef - Entrance to Kill Van Kull, New Jersey Lighthouse Society. Accessed August 6, 2013. "The original lighthouse was an white, octagonal stone tower built in 1839. In 1883 the tower was replaced by the present 46 foot, cast iron 'spark plug' tower built atop a granite foundation situated a few yards south of the old tower."
^Reichler, Joe via Associated Press. "Roberts Is Also 20 Game Winner", The Telegraph, August 20, 1952. Accessed October 29, 2013. "Dick Brodowski, of Bayonne, NJ, Boston Rod Sox pitcher, has his blood pressure taken by Lieut Vincent Pattlavina, of Quincy, Mass, at the Army Base induction center in Boston, the morning of August 18."
^"Clem Burke of Blondie talks to ZANI"Archived August 14, 2014, at the Wayback Machine, ZANI. Accessed October 29, 2013. "Clem Burke born 24th November 1954 Bayonne, New Jersey, is a drummer who has been in the forefront of popular music since 1976. He joined Blondie a year before in New York where he passed an audition under the watchful eye of Debbie Harry (Lead Singer and Songwriter) and Chris Stein (Guitar and Songwriter)."
^Hevesi, Dennis. "Robert B. Cohen, Hudson News Chain Founder, Dies at 86", The New York Times, February 5, 2012. Accessed October 29, 2013. "Robert Benjamin Cohen was born in Bayonne, N.J., on May 26, 1925, to Isaac and Lillian Goodman Cohen. His father, who once operated a newsstand and a home-delivery route in Brooklyn, started what was then called the Bayonne News Company in the early 1920s."
^Conte, Michaelangelo. "Former Bayonne Mayor Dennis P. Collins dies at 85", The Jersey Journal, December 7, 2009. Accessed October 29, 2013. "Former Bayonne Mayor Dennis P. Collins died yesterday, leaving a legacy of nearly three decades of public service that earned him the distinction of having the city's largest park and main post office named in his honor.... Collins amassed 28 years of public service, including 12 years on the City Council and a record four-term mayoralty, from 1974 to 1990, when he retired."
^Miniscule, Caroline. "The Thunder Child: Interviews Source Book - Tom De Haven: Author It's Superman, The Thunder Child, March 2006. Accessed September 20, 2017. "I was born in Bayonne, New Jersey, grew up in the same neighborhood you see in the first half hour of Steven Spielberg's War of the Worlds: that beautiful silvery bridge those aliens blast to undulating smithereens is the same Bayonne Bridge I used to ride my bike across (to Staten Island) in the late 1950s and early 1960s."
^Schlossberg, Tatiana. "A Nun From New Jersey Is on a Path to Sainthood", The New York Times, October 3, 2014. Accessed November 29, 2017. "Sister Miriam Teresa Demjanovich was a nun for only two years at a convent in New Jersey before she died in 1927 at the age of 26. But on Saturday she will edge closer to sainthood when she is beatified at a special Mass in Newark, the first time such a ceremony has been held in the United States.Sister Miriam Teresa was born in Bayonne in 1901, the youngest of seven children of immigrants from present-day Slovakia."
^Ojuitku, Mak. "Glover's camp as much about football as it is life", NJ Advance Media for NJ.com, July 13, 2016. Accessed July 23, 2019. "This week, college football Hall of Famer Rich Glover held his annual four-day All Access to Life Foundation football camp in conjunction with the Jersey City Department of Recreation.... For the former New York Giant who was born in Bayonne and raised in the Greenville section of Jersey City, the camp is a way of giving back to the community."
^Staff. "Thinker of the Unthinkable", Time, July 18, 1983. Accessed November 11, 2012. "Kahn was born in Bayonne, NJ, graduated from UCLA in 1945 and three years later joined the Rand Corp., the California think tank that helps the Pentagon develop defense strategies."
^Assembly Joint Resolution No. 47 State of New Jersey 208th Legislature, New Jersey General Assembly, June 15, 1998. Accessed August 2, 2016. "A Joint Resolution designating that portion of State Highway Route No. 169 in the City of Bayonne, Hudson County, as the 'Joseph A. LeFante Memorial Highway.' Whereas, Joseph A. LeFante was born on September 8, 1928 in the City of Bayonne and attended the Bayonne schools before attending St. Peter's Institute of Industrial Relations and graduating from the New Jersey Real Estate Institute"
^Jammal Lord, Nebraska Cornhuskers football. Accessed July 17, 2017. "Quarterback Jammal Lord was an ironman for Nebraska in his final two seasons, starting 27 consecutive games, while guiding one of the nation's most prolific rushing attacks. He made his way near the top of the Nebraska record book by the conclusion of his career. The Bayonne, N.J., native finished his senior season with 2,253 yards of total offense, pushing his career total to 5,421 yards, placing him in third on Nebraska's career list, trailing only Eric Crouch and Tommie Frazier."
^The Living Church, Volume 136, p. 148. Morehouse-Gorham Company, 1958. Accessed September 20, 2017. "The Rev. Donald MacAdie is 58 years of age, was born in Bayonne, N. Y. [sic], the son of John and Ella Jordan MacAdie."
^Ivry, Benjamin. "The Mensch Behind Batman Dies At 104", The Forward, March 1, 2018. Accessed June 9, 2020. "Although Hollywood history has been preserved by yentas, discretion was the better part of valor for Melniker, born in Bayonne, New Jersey in 1913."
^Rose, Lisa. "Retired N.J. teacher, 98, loses bid to clear name in McCarthy-era spy case", NJ Advance Media for NJ.com, December 4, 2014. Accessed July 31, 2018. "NPR.org profiled Miriam Moskowitz of Washington Township, who was convicted of conspiracy to obstruct justice in 1950 and served two years in prison.... The Bayonne native told NPR and the Star-Ledger that she wound up behind bars in a misguided effort to protect her boss, with whom she was having an affair."
^Staff. "New Jersey Sports; En Garde! Touchez!", The New York Times, April 3, 1973. Accessed February 7, 2018 ."As a result of his efforts and those of other fencing enthusiasts such as Evelyn Terhune of Mahwah, Irwin Bernstein of Westfield and Denise O'Connor of Bayonne-all top regional competitors-New Jersey now has a large number of devotees."
^Sullivan, Al. "'Beam me up, Scotty'; Local writer makes name in Star Trek universe"Archived March 20, 2017, at the Wayback Machine, The Hudson Reporter, March 28, 2008. Accessed March 19, 2017. "A resident of Bayonne since he was 10 years old, William Stape, 39, has become a part of the Star Trek universe, both as the author of scripts for The Next Generation and Deep Space Nine TV series, but also by recently unveiling details concerning the sets of the upcoming Star Trek movie.... Born in Jersey City, Stape moved with his family to the Toms River area before relocating to Bayonne."
^"Joseph W. Tumulty, 82, Jersey City Lawyer", The New York Times, December 26, 1996. Accessed September 2, 2019. "Joseph W. Tumulty, a former Democratic State Senator and member of a politically connected law firm in his native Jersey City, died Dec. 20 at Christ Hospital in Jersey City. He was 82 and lived in Bayonne."
^"Tales from the dark side - Offbeat, off-B'way player turns...", The Star-Ledger, April 17, 2005. "Urbaniak was born in Bayonne but moved to Marlboro Township when he was 7."
^"Ex-Bayonne resident and Batman executive producer gets honorary degree in comic books", The Jersey Journal, October 11, 2012, updated January 18, 2019. Accessed June 9, 2020. "A Jersey City native who was raised in Bayonne today received the world's first doctorate in comic books from Monmouth University, his alma mater, it was reported by nj.com. Michael E. Uslan, 61, bought the movie rights to the Batman comic books in 1979 along with fellow New Jersey native Benjamin Melniker after he was outraged at the campy 1960s television series bases on his beloved comic book hero."
^Miller, Jonathan. "The Week; Bayonne Bleeder vs. 'Rocky': The Final Round", The New York Times, August 13, 2006. Accessed August 14, 2012. "So nearly three years ago, Mr. Wepner, who was known in the ring as the Bayonne Bleeder, sued Mr. Stallone for $15 million. This month, Mr. Wepner, 67, who still lives in Bayonne and is a wholesale liquor salesman, settled with Mr. Stallone for an undisclosed amount."