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The Saint Anne Church in Bar
|First mentioned||1401 (as Rov castle)|
|Named for||Bari in Italy|
|o City Head||Artur Anatoliyovych Tsitsyurs'ky|
|o Total||5.95 km2 (2.30 sq mi)|
|o Density||2,700/km2 (6,900/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+2 (EET)|
|o Summer (DST)||UTC+3 (EEST)|
|Sister cities||Kwidzyn in Poland, Bari in Italy|
Bar (Ukrainian: ; Polish: Bar; Russian: ) is a town located on the Riv River in the Vinnytsia Oblast (province) of central Ukraine. It is the administrative center of the Bar Raion (district), and is part of the historic region of Podolia. The town's estimated population is 
Bar began as a small trade outpost known as Rov, within the Duchy of Podolia in the 13th century. Rov was noted for the first time in 1401. In 1537, the Polish Queen Bona Sforza renamed the settlement Bar, after her hometown of Bari, Italy. Bar's highest mountain was renamed after Queen Sforza in 2018 to commemorate her role in naming the town. In 1540, King Sigismund I the Old of Poland granted the nearby town city rights.
In the 1630s, Guillaume Le Vasseur de Beauplan built a fortress in Bar and made note of the town his book Description d'Ukranie. The Bar fortress was besieged several times in its history. In 1648, during the Khmelnytsky Uprising, was captured by Cossacks led by Maxym Kryvonis and was severely damaged.
In 1672, Bar was captured by the Ottoman Empire and became a seat of the sanjak in Podolia Eyalet with nahiyas of Bar, D?rajna, Zinkuv and Popovçi. On November 12, 1674, the town and the fortress were liberated by John III of Poland after a four-day siege. However, the Ottomans would then recapture the city in 1675 and hold it until 1686, with nominal control through 1699.
On February 29, 1768, the Bar Confederation, an alliance of Polish nobles, was founded by Adam Krasi?ski, Bishop of Kamenets, Karol Stanis?aw Radziwi, Casimir Pulaski, Moritz Benyowszki and Micha? Krasi?ski within the Bar fortress. After the Second Partition of Poland, the town was ceded to the Russian Empire and made part of the Podolia Governorate.
The town had a historical Jewish population, with 3,869 Jews within the city in 1939. On July 16, 1941, during World War II, Nazi Germany occupied the town and established ghettos, killing many of Bar's Jewish residents. In 1999, there was an estimated Jewish population of 199.
Bar currently has two large memorials situated within the city center, which are dedicated to those killed during WWII.
Bar has a museum which documents the city's history. The museum includes an exhibits on topics such as Queen Bona Sforza, Ukrainian culture, and the WWII era. It attracts both domestic and foreign visitors. The museum's collection includes historical clothing, ceramics, coins, and other artifacts.
The town has a historic site centered around the Bar Fortress, originally built in 1537 and later re-designed by Guillaume Le Vasseur de Beauplan. The fortress currently stands in ruins. The fortress was built on the Riv River, and the historic site is now surrounded by historic religious buildings, including cathedrals. The site also includes trails surrounded by trees.
Winters in Bar are relatively cold, with snow. The early spring is generally warm, while the summer is sunny and humid. Autumn in Bar is generally characterized by clouds and rain, with precipitation being caused by Atlantic hurricanes.
The town has instituted several programs to combat climate change, including the introduction of a waste management program, the optimization of public transportation, the minimization of air pollution by industrial plants, the thermal isolation of buildings, encouragement of bicycle transportation, and support of renewable energy initiatives.
|Bar, Vinnytsia Region, Ukraine|
|Climate chart (explanation)|
The central part of the city has a number of the historical cathedrals and the modern architecture buildings. There is a central square with a fountain, which is surrounded by the history museum, cinema, culture palace, trade center, modern hotel, city library, employment center building and some other governmental buildings in the downtown.
There is a sport stadium for football, basketball, volleyball in the center of the city. There is a swimming pool building not far away from the stadium. The local football team plays the football games at the stadium regularly. The pop music performances by various artists from Ukraine take place at the stadium from time to time.
The main educational institutions, including the Humanitarian-Pedagogical College and the Automobiles and Roads College are situated in close proximity to the downtown. Also, there are many secondary schools in the central district in the city.
The modern big residential apartments buildings, made of the red and white bricks, can be found around the city.
The Bar city library, which is located in a modern architecture building, has a digital library with Internet access.
Bar is known as a little piece of Italy in Ukraine
The historical population is accurately characterized in the following chart:
|Historic population data in Bar|
|Year||Total population||Ukrainian-speaking||Russian-speaking||Orthodox||Catholic||Other||Jewish||Islamic||No religion given||Ukrainian||Non-Ukrainian|
The percentage of people, who know how to speak, read, write the Ukrainian language in Bar is (95.5%). In real life, the local population (100.0%) primarily speaks Ukrainian (70.6%), Russian (20.0%), Polish (9.0%), Italian (0.1%), Hebrew (0.1%), German (0.1%) and English (0.1%). 
Originally, the entire population spoke the old Slavic languages mainly, however the various historical events and the increasing international trade led to the situation, when the local population was able to get the other foreign languages skills.
English is also studied at the advanced level at English Language Faculty at Humanitarian - Pedagogical College in Bar.
A big collection of the American books, textbooks, dictionaries and various magazines was donated to the central city library by Dr. Margaret Hankamp, JD, New York Law School, New York University, USA a few years ago. In addition, the numerous computers with the audio-headsets were installed and connected to the Internet at the central city library due to both the personal efforts of Hankamp and the Bibliomist program. Therefore, it is possible to learn English at the central city library.
The Bar municipality is administratively subdivided into a number of municipal districts.
The mayor is elected by direct public election, while the heads of other directorates are assigned by the collegiate. The Mayor of Bar has the executive powers; the City Council has the administrative powers to check the mayor's decisions, and the City Assembly can accept or reject the mayor's urban development strategy, city budget and city modernization proposals each year.
The City Council constitutes the executive government of the City of Bar, operating as a collegiate authority. The City Council is composed of a few respected councilors, each heading the corresponding departments and bureaus. Departmental tasks, coordination measures and implementation of laws, decreed by the City Assembly, are carried by the City Council.
The regular election of the City Assembly by any inhabitant valid to vote is held every four years. Any resident of Bar, allowed to vote, can be elected as a member of the City Assembly.
The mayor, city council, city assembly hold their regular meetings in the City Hall in Bar.
There are a few educational institutions in the Bar city, for example:
There is a modern central city library in downtown, which provides the library services to the local people and the foreign visitors in Bar's district.
Dr. Margaret Hankamp, JD, New York Law School, New York University, USA worked on the Bibliomist program to modernize the modern central city library and the one library for the young people in Bar. The Bibliomist is a part of Global Libraries initiative of Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation (BMGF).
Also, there are the two small libraries for the young readers, one is located in downtown and another one near the medical hospital in Bar. In addition, there are the libraries at the Hrushevsky Humanitarian Pedagogical College and at the Automobiles and Roads College in Bar. There is an interconnected network of small remote libraries with Internet access at the villages in Bar's district.
Bar has a lot of religious traditions. It is a center of Ukrainian culture and an attractive tourist destination with a large number of old Ukrainian cathedrals and the new churches such as:
The Assumption Orthodox Cathedral is considered as one of the most remarkable architectural achievements and one of the oldest buildings in Bar, Ukraine, which has changed, reflecting the historical developments in Ukraine over the centuries. The old altar at the Assumption Orthodox Cathedral is made of special wood with the metallic decorations and the religious paintings.
The Holy Trinity Orthodox Church was founded in the early 17th century. The first written memories about the Assumption Orthodox Cathedral (the St. Uspensky Orthodox Church), which was created at the Trinity Orthodox Church place, are related to 1719. The interesting fact is that the new architectural design of the St. Uspensky Orthodox Cathedral was developed, and then, the actual cathedral was constructed, using the stone, in 1755 - 1757. As it is described in the historical documents in 1771 and 1783, the Assumption Orthodox Cathedral had a high altar with the Savior icon and the two other altars.
Vasyl Matkovsky was a priest at the Assumption Orthodox Church in Bar on that time. In 1795-1809, Ioan Sinitsky became a priest at the Assumption Orthodox Church in Bar. At the same time, Fedir Batulinsky, priest (1800-1802) and Stefan Batulinsky, priest (1804-1820) conducted their religious missions at the Assumption Orthodox Church in Bar. Pavlo Batulinsky (1838-1844) served as a priest at the Assumption Orthodox Church in Bar, and then he became a key owner and a cathedral bishop in Kamyanets soon after that. Vasyl Kuzminsky, as a priest in 1844-1849 and Simeon Karchevsky, as a priest in 1849-1861 worked to continue the religious missions at the Assumption Orthodox Church in Bar. In addition, Simeon Karchevsky was a head of the Bar Orthodox Religion School at the same time. Hryhoriy Yankovsky, as a priest in 1861-1881, Ivan Korchynsky, as a priest (1881-1892), Pavlo Savluchynsky, as a priest (1892), Afanasiy Dvernytsky, as a priest (1892-) were recognized for their outstanding religious mission services at the Assumption Orthodox Church in Bar.
The Assumption Orthodox Church was closed for the renovation in 1838-1851. The full restoration of the Assumption Cathedral was also done in 1975. The "gold plated" domes were installed and the façade renovation works were completed at the Assumption Orthodox Cathedral in 2013.
At present time, there are the two old icons at the Assumption Orthodox Cathedral in Bar, Ukraine: The St. Michael Myrlikiys'ky Miracle Man icon, created in Bari, Italy in the 16th century and presented by Bona Sforza; and The God's Mother icon with the silver frame, created in the 17th century, which saved the cathedral from the fire in 1737 and 1760.
Presently, all the Orthodox church members strictly follow the Orthodox religion old traditions in Bar.
The first international conference: "Spiritual Treasure of Podillya" to celebrate the 260 years anniversary from the moment of St. Assumption Orthodox Church foundation as well as the 130 years anniversary from the moment of "The God's Mother" icon recognition as a miracle creating icon was held in Bar on October 12, 2017. 
The Bar Orthodox Women Monastery, made of red bricks, was in the process of construction under the management by Viktor Terletsky, priest and under the patronage by Simeon, Archbishop of Vinnytsia and Bar (former Archbishop of Vinnytsia and Mohyliv-Podilsky) at Harmaky near Bar since December 10, 2002. The St. Bar Orthodox Women Monastery is intended for the females only. It was opened in Bar in 2018.
The Roman Catholic St. Michael Cathedral, built in 1550 (the soft wood); and then, it was renamed as The Roman Catholic St. Anna Cathedral, re-built in 1811 (the stone); it was renovated by Y. Tamanchuk, architect, in 1900 - July 26, 1906 (the red bricks) The old altar at the St. Anna Catholic Cathedral is made of the stone and special wood with the old religious icon placed on the top of altar.
There is an organ to perform the organ music at the religious ceremonies at the Roman Catholic St. Anna Cathedral. A number of the professional organ musicians can play the organ music at the religious ceremonies at the Roman Catholic St. Anna Cathedral.
The Dekanat of Bar includes the following The Ukrainians with the Polish and Italian family roots, who belong to the Roman Catholic religion, like to visit the Roman Catholic St. Anna Cathedral regularly. Polish and Italian tourists visit the Roman Catholic St. Anna Cathedral occasionally. The Polish young volunteers of the Roman Catholic religion come to Roman Catholic St. Anna Cathedral with the aim to help with the reconstruction and renovation works during the Summer time frequently.
The former St. Pokrovsky Monastery, which is now known as the Benedictine Sisters-Missioners Monastery. In the beginning, the first monastery was founded by Knight Vereshagin in the woods near Semenivky not so far away from Bar. Then, the monastery was initially founded and built by Karmelits in Bar in 1551. It was re-built by Karmelits under Zholtkevsky supervision in 1616. It was re-built, using the stone, by Dominicans in 1701-1787. The history of old monastery has the four periods: 1) Karmelits' period, 2) the Dominican perioid, 3) the Orthodox period (since 1838), 4) the Catholic Basilian period (since 1991). During the newest historical period, Cyril Podolsky initiated the foundation of the St. Pokrovsky orthodox monastery for males in 1837. The monastery was re-organized for females and chaired by Sister Melitina on July 20, 1881. The red bricks cathedral with the bells was built in 1908. The monastery was closed in 1959-1991. The Benedictine Sisters-Missioners of Bar re-opened the monastery in 1996.
The Old Bar Fortress, initially built in 1537, and later re-designed by Guillaume Le Vasseur de Beauplan in the 1630s. The Old Bar Fortress is surrounded by the old cathedrals and other religious buildings. There is an old green trees park with the numerous pathways inside the fortress.
The Greek-Catholic church, opened in a newly reconstructed cathedral in 1996. The new altar at the Greek Catholic Cathedral is made of wood with the metallic decorations.
The St. Michael Orthodox Church in the beginning of vulytsia Bunyakovska is being re-built. The idea is to re-create the old St. Michael church, which was built at this place a few hundreds years ago. Mr. Pogrebnyak, businessman is a main sponsor of construction works.
The old historical castles in Bar require more investments.
The Synagogue The Bar's Jewish people community is well known for its contributions to the social, cultural, financial, economical and political fields in the Ukrainian society and abroad. The information on the Bar's Jewish people community is collected at various resources.
According to the Encyclopaedia Vocabulary by Andreevsky I E (editor) published in St. Petersburg, Russia in 1891, the total population was 13,761 people, and the Jewish population was 51% of total population in 1891 in Bar. In 1900 in Bar, the total population included: 7865 Jewish people, 2803 Orthodox people, 765 Catholic people. The Jewish community was some of the tens of thousands people in Bar before the World War II (5720 people in 1926). There were many old synagogues in Bar before the World War II. The five thousands people were killed by the fascists during the period of occupation in Bar, Ukraine in 1941-1942. A special commemoration ceremony is usually organized in connection with the Holocaust Memorial Day in Bar, Ukraine on January 27 every year. Recently, Mr. Cor Roos, accountant and writer from The Desert Rose Foundation in The Netherlands presented his historical books about the Holocaust in Ukraine in 1941 - 1944 during his visit to the Bar city library.
Presently, there is a growing collaboration between the Bar Jewish community and the Vinnytsia Jewish community, aiming to recognize the famous American Jewish people from Ukraine, tell stories about the many other famous Jewish people around the World  and build a new synagogue in Bar. 
The Baptist Church was established in Bar in the 1990s. The red-bricks cathedral is in a process of construction at the end of Bunyakovsky Street in Bar since 2000.
The Evangelist Church is situated in a small building in Bar since the beginning of the 1990s.
The Ukrainian culture is created on the base of the old Slavic culture. The Ukrainian culture was strongly influenced by the Italian, Polish and Russian cultures.
The Ukrainian traditional songs, dances, paintings, poetry and literature are present in Bar. Notable tourist destinations include the St. Uspensky Orthodox Cathedral, St. Anna Rome Catholic Cathedral, St. Pokrovsky Orthodox Cathedral, old fortress, central park with the old green trees, Ukrainian music/dances folk festivals, history museum, central city library, etc. in Bar.
The Bar City Day is celebrated in September every year.
The Bar District Day is celebrated in August every year.
The Apple Bar Festival was conducted in Bar in 2018.
The International Scientific Conference "Bar's Land Podill'ya: European Heritage and Innovative Development Perspectives," was held in Bar in September 2014.
The Bar is known as a historical center of Polish culture in Ukraine. There is the Polish House, where the Polish cultural events are conducted. The Polish House was officially opened on May 22, 2016.        
A number of scientists have lived and/or worked in Bar, including:
1. physicist and mathematician Viktor Bunyakovsky, who created the scientific school in the physics and mathematics, and
2. medical doctor Nikolay Ivanovich Pirogov, who created the scientific school in the medicine.
The economy includes the ten main sectors such as the agriculture, building construction industry, machine design industry, information technologies (IT) industry, food processing industry, wood processing industry, public utilities industry, domestic/international trade, transportation services industry, financial services industry, tourism industry, education industry.
Industrial companies in Bar include the Bar Industrial Machinery Plant.
The food processing industry is represented by the Pfanner apple juice international firm, which exports the concentrated apple juice to Austria mainly. There is the Barchanka big bottled mineral water company. There is the Solodka Planeta cakes producing company. There are the milk processing factory, the meat processing factory, and the fish processing factory in Bar.
The IT industry includes a number of small IT services companies (the software design) and Internet providing companies (the optical/wireline/wireless access to the Internet).
The financial industry is represented by a number of Ukrainian banks, which provide the corporate finance services and the personal finance services in the city.
The tourism industry includes several hotels and motels.
A relatively short distance from Bar, there is a natural gas compressor station, which pumps natural gas over the transcontinental Urengoy-Pomary-Uzhgorod pipeline and the Union pipeline to the Polish, German and other European customers,.
There is the Bar City Council, which is located at newly renovated building in the central district.
There is the Bar District Administration, which works at modern building in downtown.
There is the Bar Tax Authorities Administration, which functions at modern building in a central part of city.
There is the Pension Fund, which is situated in a newly redesigned building in downtown.
There is the State Archive, which keeps the information about the historical developments in Bar.
There is an Air Traffic Control Center with the beyond-visual-range-radar nearby, which provides air traffic control services in the English language for aircraft in the Vinnytsia region of Ukraine. There is also a city airport, which helicopters and light airplanes can use.
The Jewish community hospital for 10 patient places, headed by Dr. Mareinis, licensed medical doctor, was in operation in Bar, Ukraine before 1920. Also, there were the three small medical hospitals for 15-20 patient places in Yaltushkov, Man'kovka and Kopaigorod villages in Bar's district before 1920.
The medical hospital with 25 patient places was functional in Bar, Ukraine before 1940, but it is necessary to note a grim historical fact that Dr. Shamis, licensed medical doctor and Dr. Burstein, licensed medical doctor, including their Jewish families, were killed by German fascists in Bar, Ukraine at an occupation period during the World War II in 1940-1945.
On August 1, 1945, the medical hospital of 70 patient places and with 72 medical workers was re-opened in Bar, Ukraine. The therapeutic, infectious, maternity, gynecologic, surgical, children's and x-ray diagnostic departments operated at the medical hospital in Bar, Ukraine on that time.
The ambulance department at the medical hospital in Bar, Ukraine was opened on February 1, 1955. The tuberculosis treatment department at the medical hospital in Bar, Ukraine was established on November 30, 1970. The blood transfusion department at the medical hospital in Bar, Ukraine was in operation since October 1, 1973. The medical clinics was opened in Bar, Ukraine on April 7, 1986. The psychoneurological department at the medical hospital in Bar, Ukraine was founded on April 4, 1989. The children's, therapeutic, neurologic, resuscitation departments at the medical hospital in Bar, Ukraine are situated in a new building, which was built in 1992.
Around 10,000 patients undergo the medical treatments at the medical hospital, and around 210,000 patients visit the medical clinic in Bar, Ukraine every year.
There is park at the old Bar fortress on the Riv River, near the center of the town.
There are the Ukrainian traditional dancing and music clubs, functioning at the Culture Palace and at the Humanitarian Pedagogical College in downtown Bar, including the "Barvy" traditional music group.
Fishing is popular along the Riv River. Bicycling is also popular in Bar.
Bar has facilities for many recreational activities, including tennis courts, a football stadium, a basketball arena, and a swimming pool.
There is a small airport for the light business jets and helicopters, which is equipped with all kinds of navigation devices and systems in Bar. At the same location, there is a big beyond-visual range radar, which provides the air traffic control and navigation services in Ukrainian, Russian and English languages for various airplanes and helicopters.
There is an inter-city bus station in the center of Bar.
The electric cars are becoming very popular in Bar. There are several modern electric automobiles power charging stations in the city, which are situated near the "Barselona" hotel, the Bar College of Transport and Construction, etc.
The main local newspaper is Barchany (name for the city residents), which discusses local news mostly.
There is an optical cable TV station[which?] with the modern digital electronic equipment and multiple satellite antennas to produce the local / international news programs for many thousands of householders.
There is the Bar City News channel at YouTube.
Many cities provide the encyclopedic information on the cuisine, created in the course of history. The Ukrainian cuisine has formed and evolved in the historical process of the food selection and preparation through many centuries.
Bar's traditional cuisine includes pork, beef, chicken, fish, potato, grains, rice, mushrooms and various vegetables. Bar's cuisine, includes borsch or Ukrainian red soup with meat, beets, cabbage, mushrooms, potato; the Ukrainian ukha soup with the fish; the Ukrainian "shi" soup with sauerkraut; Ukrainian varenyky with meat, potato and cheese; the Ukrainian holubtsi with pork and beef, rice, carrot; the Ukrainian kotleta-po-Kyivs'ky with the pork and beef meet, the Ukrainian pork and beef sausages; Ukrainian smoked pork and beef sausages; Ukrainian shashlyk with pork and beef meat prepared on an open fire; grilled chicken with red pepper sauce; grilled duck with apples and black pepper; Ukrainian pierogi with meat, apples, and cherries; Ukrainian pizza with meat, vegetables and cheese.
Potato with mushrooms, or macaroni and cheese, or pasta with cheese, or "kartoplyanyky" / "deruny" / "draniki" with grated potato and onions, or rice with green peas are normally provided as the garnish.
Bar's Jews have their own cuisine, based on the fish, chicken and vegetables products mainly. Stuffed pike from Riv river, cooked in the oven and liverwurst is also eaten.
There are many restaurants and cafés, which serve the Ukrainian traditional food, tea, coffee in the city.
The map of Ukraine was created by using the "kartoplyanyky" / "deruny" / "draniki", made of potato, in Bar in 2018.
According to the Statistics Department, there are the following race groups in the city (see the diagram). Bar population has the White, Asian, Black, Yellow, Mixed, Arab and other racial groups. Bar is also considered to be a cosmopolitan city.
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