Ayn Rand
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Ayn Rand

Ayn Rand
Monochrome photograph of a woman
Rand in 1943
Native name
BornAlisa Zinovyevna Rosenbaum
(1905-02-02)February 2, 1905
St. Petersburg, Russian Empire
DiedMarch 6, 1982(1982-03-06) (aged 77)
New York City, New York, U.S.
Resting placeKensico Cemetery, Valhalla, New York, United States
Pen nameAyn Rand
Alma materPetrograd State University (diploma in history, 1924)
Notable works
Notable awardsPrometheus Award - Hall of Fame
1983 Atlas Shrugged
1987 Anthem
Frank O'Connor
(m. 1929; died 1979)
SignatureAyn Rand

Alice O'Connor (born Alisa Zinovyevna Rosenbaum;[a] February 2, [O.S. January 20] 1905 - March 6, 1982), better known by her pen name Ayn Rand ,[2] was an American writer and philosopher.[3][4] She is known for her fiction and for developing a philosophical system she named Objectivism. Born and educated in Russia, she moved to the United States in 1926. She had a play that opened on Broadway in 1935. After two early novels that were initially unsuccessful, she achieved fame with her 1943 novel, The Fountainhead. In 1957, Rand published her best-known work, the novel Atlas Shrugged. Afterward, she turned to non-fiction to promote her philosophy, publishing her own periodicals and releasing several collections of essays until her death in 1982.

Rand advocated reason as the only means of acquiring knowledge and rejected faith and religion. She supported rational and ethical egoism and rejected altruism. In politics, she condemned the initiation of force as immoral[5][6] and opposed collectivism, statism, and anarchism. Instead she supported laissez-faire capitalism, which she defined as the system based on recognizing individual rights, including property rights.[7] Although she was opposed to libertarianism, which she viewed as anarchism, she is often associated with the modern libertarian movement.[8] In art, Rand promoted romantic realism. She was sharply critical of most philosophers and philosophical traditions known to her, except for Aristotle, Thomas Aquinas and classical liberals.[9][10]

Literary critics received Rand's fiction with mixed reviews.[11] Although academic interest in her ideas has grown since her death,[12][13] academic philosophers have generally ignored or rejected her philosophy due to her polemical approach and lack of methodological rigor.[4] Her writings have had political influence among libertarians and some conservatives.[14][15] The Objectivist movement attempts to spread her ideas, both to the public and in academic settings.[16]


Early life

Rand was born Alisa Zinovyevna Rosenbaum on February 2, 1905, to a Russian-Jewish bourgeois family living in Saint Petersburg.[17] She was the eldest of three daughters of Zinovy Zakharovich Rosenbaum, a pharmacist, and Anna Borisovna (née Kaplan).[18] Rand later said she found school unchallenging and began writing screenplays at the age of eight and novels at the age of ten.[19] At the prestigious Stoiunina Gymnasium [ru], her closest friend was Vladimir Nabokov's younger sister, Olga; the two girls shared an intense interest in politics.[20][21]

The Twelve Collegia buildings of Petrograd State University
Rand completed a three-year program at Petrograd State University.

She was twelve at the time of the February Revolution of 1917, during which she favored Alexander Kerensky over Tsar Nicholas II. The subsequent October Revolution and the rule of the Bolsheviks under Vladimir Lenin disrupted the life the family had previously enjoyed. Her father's business was confiscated, and the family fled to the Crimean Peninsula, which was initially under control of the White Army during the Russian Civil War. While in high school there, she concluded that she was an atheist and valued reason above any other virtue. After graduating in June 1921, she returned with her family to Petrograd (as Saint Petersburg was renamed at that time), where they faced desperate conditions, on occasion nearly starving.[22][23]

After the Russian Revolution, universities were opened to women, allowing her to be in the first group of women to enroll at Petrograd State University.[24] At the age of 16, she began her studies in the department of social pedagogy, majoring in history.[25] At the university she was introduced to the writings of Aristotle and Plato;[26] she came to see their differing views on reality and knowledge as the primary conflict within philosophy.[27] She also studied the philosophical works of Friedrich Nietzsche.[28]

Book cover with black-and-white drawings and text in Russian
Rand's first published work was a monograph in Russian about actress Pola Negri.

Along with many other bourgeois students, she was purged from the university shortly before graduating. After complaints from a group of visiting foreign scientists, many of the purged students were allowed to complete their work and graduate,[29][30] which she did in October 1924.[31] She then studied for a year at the State Technicum for Screen Arts in Leningrad. For an assignment, she wrote an essay about the Polish actress Pola Negri, which became her first published work.[32]

By this time, she had decided her professional surname for writing would be Rand,[33] possibly because it is graphically similar to a vowelless excerpt ? of her birth surname in Cyrillic handwriting,[34][35] and she adopted the first name Ayn.[b]

Arrival in the United States

In late 1925, Rand was granted a visa to visit relatives in Chicago.[39] She departed on January 17, 1926.[40] When she arrived in New York City on February 19, 1926, she was so impressed with the skyline of Manhattan that she cried what she later called "tears of splendor".[41] Intent on staying in the United States to become a screenwriter, she lived for a few months with her relatives, one of whom owned a movie theater and allowed her to watch dozens of films free of charge. She then left for Hollywood, California.[42]

In Hollywood, a chance meeting with famed director Cecil B. DeMille led to work as an extra in his film The King of Kings and a subsequent job as a junior screenwriter.[43] While working on The King of Kings, she met an aspiring young actor, Frank O'Connor; the two were married on April 15, 1929. She became a permanent American resident in July 1929 and an American citizen on March 3, 1931.[44][45][c] She made several attempts to bring her parents and sisters to the United States, but they were unable to acquire permission to emigrate.[48][49]

During these early years of her career, Rand wrote a number of screenplays, plays, and short stories that were not produced or published during her lifetime, some of which were later published in The Early Ayn Rand.[50]

Early fiction

Poster for the play Night of January 16th
Rand's play Night of January 16th opened on Broadway in 1935.

Rand's first literary success came with the sale of her screenplay Red Pawn to Universal Studios in 1932, although it was never produced.[51] This was followed by the courtroom drama Night of January 16th, first produced by E. E. Clive in Hollywood in 1934 and then successfully reopened on Broadway in 1935. Each night a jury was selected from members of the audience; based on the jury's vote, one of two different endings would be performed.[52][d]

Rand's first published novel, the semi-autobiographical We the Living, was published in 1936. Set in Soviet Russia, it focused on the struggle between the individual and the state. Initial sales were slow and the American publisher let it go out of print,[55] although European editions continued to sell.[56] She adapted the story as a stage play, but producer George Abbott's Broadway production was a failure that closed in less than a week.[57][e] After the success of her later novels, Rand was able to release a revised version in 1959 that has since sold over three million copies.[59] In a foreword to the 1959 edition, Rand stated that We the Living "is as near to an autobiography as I will ever write. ... The plot is invented, the background is not ..."[60]

Her novella Anthem was written during a break from the writing of her next major novel, The Fountainhead. It presents a vision of a dystopian future world in which totalitarian collectivism has triumphed to such an extent that even the word 'I' has been forgotten and replaced with 'we'.[61][62] It was published in England in 1938, but Rand initially could not find an American publisher. As with We the Living, Rand's later success allowed her to get a revised version published in 1946, which has sold more than 3.5 million copies.[63]

The Fountainhead and political activism

During the 1940s, Rand became politically active. She and her husband worked as full-time volunteers for the 1940 presidential campaign of Republican Wendell Willkie. This work led to Rand's first public speaking experiences; she enjoyed fielding sometimes hostile questions from New York City audiences who had viewed pro-Willkie newsreels.[64] This activity brought her into contact with other intellectuals sympathetic to free-market capitalism. She became friends with journalist Henry Hazlitt, who introduced her to the Austrian School economist Ludwig von Mises. Despite her philosophical differences with them, Rand strongly endorsed the writings of both men throughout her career, and both of them expressed admiration for her. Mises once referred to Rand as "the most courageous man in America", a compliment that particularly pleased her because he said "man" instead of "woman".[65][66] Rand also became friends with libertarian writer Isabel Paterson. Rand questioned Paterson about American history and politics long into the night during their many meetings and gave Paterson ideas for her only non-fiction book, The God of the Machine.[67]

Front cover of The Fountainhead
The Fountainhead was Rand's first bestseller.

Rand's first major success as a writer came in 1943 with The Fountainhead, a romantic and philosophical novel that she wrote over a period of seven years.[68] The novel centers on an uncompromising young architect named Howard Roark and his struggle against what Rand described as "second-handers"--those who attempt to live through others, placing others above themselves. It was rejected by twelve publishers before finally being accepted by the Bobbs-Merrill Company on the insistence of editor Archibald Ogden, who threatened to quit if his employer did not publish it.[69] While completing the novel, Rand was prescribed the amphetamine Benzedrine to fight fatigue.[70] The drug helped her to work long hours to meet her deadline for delivering the novel, but afterwards she was so exhausted that her doctor ordered two weeks' rest.[71] Her use of the drug for approximately three decades may have contributed to what some of her later associates described as volatile mood swings.[72][73]

The Fountainhead became a worldwide success, bringing Rand fame and financial security.[74] In 1943, Rand sold the film rights to Warner Bros. and she returned to Hollywood to write the screenplay. Afterwards she was hired by producer Hal B. Wallis as a screenwriter and script-doctor. Her work for Wallis included the screenplays for the Oscar-nominated Love Letters and You Came Along.[75] Rand also worked on other projects, including a never-completed nonfiction treatment of her philosophy to be called The Moral Basis of Individualism.[76][77][f]

Rand extended her involvement with free-market and anti-communist activism while working in Hollywood. She became involved with the anti-Communist Motion Picture Alliance for the Preservation of American Ideals and wrote articles on the group's behalf. She also joined the anti-Communist American Writers Association.[78] A visit by Paterson to meet with Rand's California associates led to a falling out between the two when Paterson made comments, which Rand considered rude, to valued political allies.[79][80] In 1947, during the Second Red Scare, Rand testified as a "friendly witness" before the United States House Un-American Activities Committee. Rand testified that the 1944 film Song of Russia grossly misrepresented conditions in the Soviet Union, portraying life there as much better and happier than it was.[81] She wanted to also criticize the lauded 1946 film The Best Years of Our Lives for what she interpreted as its negative presentation of the business world, but she was not allowed to testify about it.[82] When asked after the hearings about her feelings on the effectiveness of the investigations, Rand described the process as "futile".[83]

After several delays, the film version of The Fountainhead was released in 1949. Although it used Rand's screenplay with minimal alterations, she "disliked the movie from beginning to end", and complained about its editing, acting, and other elements.[84]

Atlas Shrugged and Objectivism

Magazine cover shows a shirtless man holding lightning bolts
Rand's novella Anthem was reprinted in the June 1953 issue of the pulp magazine Famous Fantastic Mysteries.

Following the publication of The Fountainhead, Rand received numerous letters from readers, some of whom the book profoundly influenced.[85] In 1951, Rand moved from Los Angeles to New York City, where she gathered a group of these admirers around her. This group (jokingly designated "The Collective") included future Chair of the Federal Reserve Alan Greenspan, a young psychology student named Nathan Blumenthal (later Nathaniel Branden) and his wife Barbara, and Barbara's cousin Leonard Peikoff. Initially the group was an informal gathering of friends who met with Rand on weekends at her apartment to discuss philosophy. She later began allowing them to read the drafts of her new novel, Atlas Shrugged, as the manuscript was written.[86] In 1954, Rand's close relationship with Nathaniel Branden turned into a romantic affair, with the knowledge of their spouses.[87]

Atlas Shrugged, published in 1957, was considered Rand's magnum opus.[88][89] Rand described the theme of the novel as "the role of the mind in man's existence--and, as a corollary, the demonstration of a new moral philosophy: the morality of rational self-interest".[90] It advocates the core tenets of Rand's philosophy of Objectivism and expresses her concept of human achievement. The plot involves a dystopian United States in which the most creative industrialists, scientists, and artists respond to a welfare state government by going on strike and retreating to a hidden valley where they build an independent free economy. The novel's hero and leader of the strike, John Galt, describes the strike as "stopping the motor of the world" by withdrawing the minds of the individuals most contributing to the nation's wealth and achievement. With this fictional strike, Rand intended to illustrate that without the efforts of the rational and productive, the economy would collapse and society would fall apart. The novel includes elements of mystery, romance, and science fiction,[91][92] and it contains an extended exposition of Objectivism in a lengthy monologue delivered by Galt.[93]

Despite many negative reviews, Atlas Shrugged became an international bestseller.[94] However, Rand was discouraged and depressed by the reaction of intellectuals to the novel.[72][95] Atlas Shrugged was Rand's last completed work of fiction; it marked the end of her career as a novelist and the beginning of her role as a popular philosopher.[96]

In 1958, Nathaniel Branden established Nathaniel Branden Lectures, later incorporated as the Nathaniel Branden Institute (NBI), to promote Rand's philosophy. Collective members gave lectures for NBI and wrote articles for Objectivist periodicals that Rand edited. She later published some of these articles in book form. Rand was unimpressed with many of the NBI students[97] and held them to strict standards, sometimes reacting coldly or angrily to those who disagreed with her.[98][99][100] Critics, including some former NBI students and Branden himself, later described the culture of NBI as one of intellectual conformity and excessive reverence for Rand. Some described NBI or the Objectivist movement generally as a cult or religion.[101][102] Rand expressed opinions on a wide range of topics, from literature and music to sexuality and facial hair, and some of her followers mimicked her preferences, wearing clothes to match characters from her novels and buying furniture like hers.[103] However, some former NBI students believed the extent of these behaviors was exaggerated, and the problem was concentrated among Rand's closest followers in New York.[100][104]

Later years

Throughout the 1960s and 1970s, Rand developed and promoted her Objectivist philosophy through her nonfiction works and by giving talks to students at institutions such as Yale, Princeton, Columbia,[105] Harvard, and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.[106] She also began delivering annual lectures at the Ford Hall Forum, responding afterwards to questions from the audience.[107] During these appearances, she often took controversial stances on political and social issues of the day. These included supporting abortion rights,[108] opposing the Vietnam War and the military draft (but condemning many draft dodgers as "bums"),[109][110] supporting Israel in the Yom Kippur War of 1973 against a coalition of Arab nations as "civilized men fighting savages",[111][112] saying white colonists had the right to invade and take land inhabited by American Indians,[112][113] and calling homosexuality "immoral" and "disgusting", while also advocating the repeal of all laws about it.[114] She also endorsed several Republican candidates for President of the United States, most strongly Barry Goldwater in 1964, whose candidacy she promoted in several articles for The Objectivist Newsletter.[115][116]

Twin gravestone bearing the names "Frank O'Connor" and "Ayn Rand O'Connor"
Grave marker for Rand and her husband at Kensico Cemetery in Valhalla, New York

In 1964, Nathaniel Branden began an affair with the young actress Patrecia Scott, whom he later married. Nathaniel and Barbara Branden kept the affair hidden from Rand. When she learned of it in 1968, though her romantic relationship with Branden had already ended,[117] Rand terminated her relationship with both Brandens, and NBI was closed.[118] Rand published an article in The Objectivist repudiating Nathaniel Branden for dishonesty and other "irrational behavior in his private life".[119] In subsequent years, Rand and several more of her closest associates parted company.[120]

Rand underwent surgery for lung cancer in 1974 after decades of heavy smoking.[121] In 1976, she retired from writing her newsletter and, after her initial objections, she allowed an employee of her attorney to enroll her in Social Security and Medicare.[122][123] During the late 1970s her activities within the Objectivist movement declined, especially after the death of her husband on November 9, 1979.[124] One of her final projects was work on a never-completed television adaptation of Atlas Shrugged.[125]

Rand died of heart failure on March 6, 1982, at her home in New York City,[126] and was interred in the Kensico Cemetery, Valhalla, New York.[127] At her funeral, a 6-foot (1.8 m) floral arrangement in the shape of a dollar sign was placed near her casket.[128] In her will, Rand named Peikoff to inherit her estate.[129]

Literary method and influences

Rand described her own approach to literature as "romantic realism".[130] She wanted her fiction to present the world "as it could be and should be", rather than as it was.[131] This approach led her to create highly stylized situations and characters. Her fiction typically has protagonists who are heroic individualists and depicted as fit and attractive.[132] The villains in her writing support duty and collectivist moral ideals. They are often described as unattractive and sometimes have names that suggest negative traits, such as Wesley Mouch in Atlas Shrugged.[133]

Rand considered plot a critical element for literature,[134] and her stories typically have what biographer Anne Heller described as "tight, elaborate, fast-paced plotting".[135] Romantic triangles are a common plot element in Rand's fiction; in most of her novels and plays, the main female character is romantically involved with at least two different men.[136][137]


Black and white photo of Victor Hugo
Rand admired the novels of French author Victor Hugo.

In school she read works by Fyodor Dostoevsky, Victor Hugo, Edmond Rostand, and Friedrich Schiller, who became her favorites.[138] She considered them to be among the "top rank" of Romantic writers because of their focus on moral themes and their skill at constructing plots.[139] Hugo in particular was an important influence on her writing, especially her approach to plotting. She called him "the greatest novelist in world literature" in the introduction she wrote for an English-language edition of his novel Ninety-Three.[140]

Although Rand disliked Russian literature, her deptictions of her heroes show the influence of the Russian Symbolists[141] and other nineteenth-century Russian writing, most notably the 1863 novel What Is to Be Done? by Nikolay Chernyshevsky.[142][143] Rand's experience of the Russian Revolution and early Communist Russia influenced the portrayal of her villains. This is most obvious in We the Living, which is set in Russia, but it is also reflected in the ideas and rhetoric of Ellsworth Toohey in The Fountainhead[144] and the destruction of the economy by the looters in Atlas Shrugged.[145][146]

Rand's descriptive style reflects her early career writing scenarios and scripts for movies; her novels have many narrative descriptions that resemble early Hollywood movie scenarios. They often follow common film editing conventions, such as having a broad establishing shot description of a scene followed by close-up details, and her descriptions of women characters often take a "male gaze" perspective.[147]


Rand called her philosophy "Objectivism", describing its essence as "the concept of man as a heroic being, with his own happiness as the moral purpose of his life, with productive achievement as his noblest activity, and reason as his only absolute".[148] She considered Objectivism a systematic philosophy and laid out positions on metaphysics, epistemology, ethics, political philosophy, and aesthetics.[149]

In metaphysics, Rand supported philosophical realism, and opposed anything she regarded as mysticism or supernaturalism, including all forms of religion.[150]

In epistemology, she considered all knowledge to be based on sense perception, the validity of which she considered axiomatic,[151][152] and reason, which she described as "the faculty that identifies and integrates the material provided by man's senses".[153] She rejected all claims of non-perceptual or a priori knowledge, including "'instinct,' 'intuition,' 'revelation,' or any form of 'just knowing'".[154] In her Introduction to Objectivist Epistemology, Rand presented a theory of concept formation and rejected the analytic-synthetic dichotomy.[155][156]

In ethics, Rand argued for rational and ethical egoism (rational self-interest), as the guiding moral principle. She said the individual should "exist for his own sake, neither sacrificing himself to others nor sacrificing others to himself".[157] She referred to egoism as "the virtue of selfishness" in her book of that title,[3] in which she presented her solution to the is-ought problem by describing a meta-ethical theory that based morality in the needs of "man's survival qua man".[4][158] She condemned ethical altruism as incompatible with the requirements of human life and happiness,[4] and held that the initiation of force was evil and irrational, writing in Atlas Shrugged that "Force and mind are opposites."[159][160]

Rand's political philosophy emphasized individual rights (including property rights), and she considered laissez-faire capitalism the only moral social system because in her view it was the only system based on the protection of those rights.[7] She opposed statism, which she understood to include theocracy, absolute monarchy, Nazism, fascism, communism, democratic socialism, and dictatorship.[161] Rand believed that natural rights should be protected by a constitutionally limited government.[162] Although her political views are often classified as conservative or libertarian, she preferred the term "radical for capitalism". She worked with conservatives on political projects, but disagreed with them over issues such as religion and ethics.[163][164] She denounced libertarianism, which she associated with anarchism.[8][165] She rejected anarchism as a naïve theory based in subjectivism that could only lead to collectivism in practice.[166]

In aesthetics, Rand defined art as a "selective re-creation of reality according to an artist's metaphysical value-judgments". According to her, art allows philosophical concepts to be presented in a concrete form that can be easily grasped, thereby fulfilling a need of human consciousness.[167] As a writer, the art form Rand focused on most closely was literature, where she considered romanticism to be the approach that most accurately reflected the existence of human free will.[168]

Rand said her most important contributions to philosophy were her "theory of concepts, ethics, and discovery in politics that evil--the violation of rights--consists of the initiation of force".[169] She believed epistemology was a foundational branch of philosophy and considered the advocacy of reason to be the single most significant aspect of her philosophy,[170] stating: "I am not primarily an advocate of capitalism, but of egoism; and I am not primarily an advocate of egoism, but of reason. If one recognizes the supremacy of reason and applies it consistently, all the rest follows."[171]


Rand's ethics and politics are the most criticized areas of her philosophy.[172] Multiple authors, including Robert Nozick and William F. O'Neill in some of the earliest academic critiques of her ideas,[173] said she failed in her attempt to solve the is-ought problem.[174] Her definitions of egoism and altruism have been called biased and inconsistent with normal usage.[175] Critics from religious traditions oppose her rejection of altruism in addition to her atheism.[176]

Multiple critics, including Nozick, have said her attempt to justify individual rights on the basis of egoism fails.[177] Others, such as Michael Huemer, have gone further, saying that her support of egoism and her support of individual rights are fundamentally inconsistent positions.[178] Other critics, such as Roy Childs, have said that her opposition to the initiation of force should lead to support of anarchism, rather than limited government.[179][180]

Rand's focus on the importance of reason has been criticized by commentators including Hazel Barnes, Albert Ellis, and Nathaniel Branden, who said this emphasis led her to denigrate emotions and created unrealistic expectations about how consistently rational human beings should be.[181]

Relationship to other philosophers

Marble statue of Aristotle.
Painting of Immanuel Kant.
Rand claimed Aristotle (left) as her primary philosophical influence, and strongly criticized Immanuel Kant (right).

Rand was sharply critical of most philosophers and philosophical traditions known to her, except for Aristotle, Thomas Aquinas and classical liberals.[9][10] She acknowledged Aristotle as her greatest influence[94] and remarked that in the history of philosophy she could only recommend "three A's"--Aristotle, Aquinas, and Ayn Rand.[182] In a 1959 interview with Mike Wallace, when asked where her philosophy came from she responded: "Out of my own mind, with the sole acknowledgement of a debt to Aristotle, the only philosopher who ever influenced me. I devised the rest of my philosophy myself."[183]

In an article for the Claremont Review of Books, political scientist Charles Murray criticized her claim that her only "philosophical debt" was to Aristotle, instead asserting that her ideas were derivative of previous thinkers such as John Locke and Friedrich Nietzsche.[184] Rand did find early inspiration from Nietzsche,[185][186][187] and scholars have found indications of this in Rand's private journals. In 1928, she alluded to Nietzsche's idea of the "superman" in notes for an unwritten novel whose protagonist was inspired by the murderer William Edward Hickman.[188][189][190] There are other indications of Nietzsche's influence in passages from the first edition of We the Living (which Rand later revised),[191][192] and in her overall writing style.[4][193] By the time she wrote The Fountainhead, Rand had turned against Nietzsche's ideas,[185][194] and the extent of his influence on her even during her early years is disputed.[195][196][197]

Rand considered her philosophical opposite to be Immanuel Kant, whom she referred to as "the most evil man in mankind's history";[198] she believed his epistemology undermined reason and his ethics opposed self-interest.[199] Philosophers George Walsh[200] and Fred Seddon[201] have argued that she misinterpreted Kant and exaggerated their differences.

Reception and legacy

Critical reception

Photo of Rand
Rand in 1957

The first reviews Rand received were for Night of January 16th. Reviews of the Broadway production were largely positive, but Rand considered even positive reviews to be embarrassing because of significant changes made to her script by the producer.[202] Rand believed that her novel We the Living was not widely reviewed, but it received approximately 125 different reviews published in more than 200 publications. Overall these reviews were more positive than those she received for her later work.[203] Her 1938 novella Anthem received little attention from reviewers, both for its first publication in England and for subsequent re-issues.[204]

Rand's first bestseller, The Fountainhead, received far fewer reviews than We the Living, and reviewers' opinions were mixed.[205] Lorine Pruette's positive review in The New York Times was one that Rand greatly appreciated.[206] Pruette called Rand "a writer of great power" who wrote "brilliantly, beautifully and bitterly", and stated that "you will not be able to read this masterful book without thinking through some of the basic concepts of our time".[207] There were other positive reviews, but Rand dismissed most of them as either not understanding her message or as being from unimportant publications.[205] Some negative reviews focused on the length of the novel,[11] such as one that called it "a whale of a book" and another that said "anyone who is taken in by it deserves a stern lecture on paper-rationing". Other negative reviews called the characters unsympathetic and Rand's style "offensively pedestrian".[205]

Atlas Shrugged was widely reviewed and many of the reviews were strongly negative.[11][208] In National Review, conservative author Whittaker Chambers called the book "sophomoric" and "remarkably silly".[209] He described the tone of the book as "shrillness without reprieve" and accused Rand of supporting a godless system (which he related to that of the Soviets), claiming "From almost any page of Atlas Shrugged, a voice can be heard, from painful necessity, commanding: 'To a gas chamber--go!'".[210] Atlas Shrugged received positive reviews from a few publications, including praise from the noted book reviewer John Chamberlain,[208] but Rand scholar Mimi Reisel Gladstein later wrote that "reviewers seemed to vie with each other in a contest to devise the cleverest put-downs", saying it was "execrable claptrap", "written out of hate", and showed "remorseless hectoring and prolixity".[11]

Rand's nonfiction received far fewer reviews than her novels. The tenor of the criticism for her first nonfiction book, For the New Intellectual, was similar to that for Atlas Shrugged.[211][212] Philosopher Sidney Hook likened her certainty to "the way philosophy is written in the Soviet Union",[213] and author Gore Vidal called her viewpoint "nearly perfect in its immorality".[214] Her subsequent books got progressively less attention from reviewers.[211]

In 2005, on the 100th anniversary of Rand's birth, Edward Rothstein, writing for The New York Times, referred to her fictional writing as quaint utopian "retro fantasy" and programmatic neo-Romanticism of the misunderstood artist while criticizing her characters' "isolated rejection of democratic society".[215]

Popular interest

Book cover depicting railroad tracks
Atlas Shrugged has sold more than nine million copies.[216]

Rand's books continue to be widely sold and read, with over 30 million copies sold as of 2015.[g] In 1991, a survey conducted for the Library of Congress and the Book-of-the-Month Club asked club members what the most influential book in the respondent's life was. Rand's Atlas Shrugged was the second most popular choice, after the Bible.[219] Although Rand's influence has been greatest in the United States, there has been international interest in her work.[220][221]

Rand's contemporary admirers included fellow novelists, such as Ira Levin, Kay Nolte Smith and L. Neil Smith; and later writers such as Erika Holzer and Terry Goodkind have been influenced by her.[222] Other artists who have cited Rand as an important influence on their lives and thought include comic book artist Steve Ditko[223] and musician Neil Peart of Rush,[224] although he later distanced himself. Rand provided a positive view of business and subsequently many business executives and entrepreneurs have admired and promoted her work.[225] John Allison of BB&T and Ed Snider of Comcast Spectacor have funded the promotion of Rand's ideas,[226][227] while Mark Cuban (owner of the Dallas Mavericks) as well as John P. Mackey (CEO of Whole Foods) among others have said they consider Rand crucial to their success.[228]

Rand and her works have been referred to in a variety of media: on television shows including animated sitcoms, live-action comedies, dramas, and game shows,[229] as well as in movies and video games.[230] Throughout her life she was the subject of many articles in popular magazines,[231] as well as book-length critiques from authors such as the psychologist Albert Ellis[232] and Trinity Foundation president John W. Robbins.[233] Rand or characters based on her figure prominently (in positive and negative lights) in literary and science fiction novels by prominent American authors.[234] Nick Gillespie, former editor in chief of Reason, remarked that "Rand's is a tortured immortality, one in which she's as likely to be a punch line as a protagonist. Jibes at Rand as cold and inhuman run through the popular culture."[235] Two movies have been made about Rand's life. A 1997 documentary film, Ayn Rand: A Sense of Life, was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Documentary Feature.[236] The Passion of Ayn Rand, a 1999 television adaptation of the book of the same name, won several awards.[237] Rand's image also appears on a 1999 U.S. postage stamp illustrated by artist Nick Gaetano.[238]

Rand's works have also found a foothold in classrooms. Since 2002, the Ayn Rand Institute has provided free copies of Rand's novels to high school teachers who promise to include the books in their curriculums.[239] They had distributed 4.5 million copies in the US and Canada by the end of 2020.[218] In 2017, Rand was added to the required reading list for the A Level Politics exam in the United Kingdom.[240]

Political influence

Although she rejected the labels "conservative" and "libertarian",[241][242] Rand has had continuing influence on right-wing politics and libertarianism.[14][15] Jim Powell, a senior fellow at the Cato Institute, considers Rand one of the three most important women (along with Rose Wilder Lane and Isabel Paterson) of modern American libertarianism,[243] and David Nolan, one of the founders of the Libertarian Party, stated that "without Ayn Rand, the libertarian movement would not exist".[244] In his history of the libertarian movement, journalist Brian Doherty described her as "the most influential libertarian of the twentieth century to the public at large"[219] and historian Jennifer Burns referred to her as "the ultimate gateway drug to life on the right".[14]

Man holding a poster that says "I am John Galt"
A protester's sign at a 2009 Tea Party rally refers to John Galt, the hero of Rand's Atlas Shrugged.

The political figures who cite Rand as an influence are usually conservatives (often members of the Republican Party),[245] despite Rand taking some positions that are atypical for conservatives, such as being pro-choice and an atheist.[246] She faced intense opposition from William F. Buckley Jr. and other contributors for the conservative National Review magazine, which published numerous criticisms of her writings and ideas.[247] Nevertheless, a 1987 article in The New York Times referred to her as the Reagan administration's "novelist laureate".[248] Republican Congressmen and conservative pundits have acknowledged her influence on their lives and have recommended her novels.[249][250][251][252] She has also influenced some conservative politicians outside the US, such as Sajid Javid in the United Kingdom,[253] Siv Jensen in Norway,[254] and Ayelet Shaked in Israel.[255]

The financial crisis of 2007-2008 spurred renewed interest in her works, especially Atlas Shrugged, which some saw as foreshadowing the crisis.[256][257][258] Opinion articles compared real-world events with the plot of the novel.[245][258] Signs mentioning Rand and her fictional hero John Galt appeared at Tea Party protests.[257] There was also increased criticism of her ideas, especially from the political left, with critics blaming the economic crisis on her support of selfishness and free markets, particularly through her influence on Alan Greenspan.[252] In 2015, Adam Weiner said that through Greenspan, "Rand had effectively chucked a ticking time bomb into the boiler room of the US economy".[259] Lisa Duggan said that Rand's novels had "incalculable impact" in encouraging the spread of neoliberal political ideas.[260] In 2021, Cass Sunstein said Rand's ideas could be seen in the tax and regulatory policies of the Trump administration, which he attributed to "Rand's enduring influence ... from her fiction".[261]

Academic reaction

During Rand's lifetime, her work received little attention from academic scholars.[16] Since Rand's death, interest in her work has gradually increased.[262][263] In 2009, historian Jennifer Burns identified "three overlapping waves" of scholarly interest in Rand, including "an explosion of scholarship" since the year 2000.[264] However, as of that same year, few universities included Rand or Objectivism as a philosophical specialty or research area, with many literature and philosophy departments dismissing her as a pop culture phenomenon rather than a subject for serious study.[265] From 2002 to 2012, more than 60 colleges and universities accepted grants from the charitable foundation of BB&T Corporation that required teaching Rand's ideas or works; in some cases the grants were controversial or even rejected because of the requirement to teach about Rand.[266][267] In 2020, media critic Eric Burns said that "Rand is surely the most engaging philosopher of my lifetime", [268] but "nobody in the academe pays any attention to her, neither as an author nor a philosopher".[269] That same year, the editor of a collection of critical essays about Rand said academics who disapproved of her ideas had long held "a stubborn resolve to ignore or ridicule" her work,[270] but he believed more academic critics were engaging with her work in recent years.[12]

To her ideas

Photo of Tara Smith
Photo of Tibor Machan
Academics such as Tara Smith (left) and Tibor Machan (right) have written books about Rand's ideas.

In 1967, John Hospers discussed Rand's ethical ideas in the second edition of his textbook An Introduction to Philosophical Analysis. That same year, Hazel Barnes included a chapter critiquing Objectivism in her book An Existentialist Ethics.[271] When the first full-length academic book about Rand's philosophy appeared in 1971, its author declared writing about Rand "a treacherous undertaking" that could lead to "guilt by association" for taking her seriously.[272] A few articles about Rand's ideas appeared in academic journals before her death in 1982, many of them in The Personalist.[273] One of these was "On the Randian Argument" by libertarian philosopher Robert Nozick, who criticized her meta-ethical arguments.[174][274] Other philosophers, writing in the same publication, argued that Nozick misstated Rand's case.[273] In an article responding to Nozick, Douglas Den Uyl and Douglas B. Rasmussen defended her positions, but described her style as "literary, hyperbolic and emotional".[275]

The Philosophic Thought of Ayn Rand, a 1984 collection of essays about Objectivism edited by Den Uyl and Rasmussen, was the first academic book about Rand's ideas published after her death.[233] In one of the essays, political writer Jack Wheeler wrote that despite "the incessant bombast and continuous venting of Randian rage", Rand's ethics are "a most immense achievement, the study of which is vastly more fruitful than any other in contemporary thought".[276] In 1987 Allan Gotthelf, George Walsh, and David Kelley co-founded the Ayn Rand Society, a group affiliated with the American Philosophical Association.[277][278]

In a 1995 entry about Rand in Contemporary Women Philosophers, Jenny A. Heyl described a divergence in how Rand was viewed in different academic specialties. She said that Rand's philosophy "is regularly omitted from academic philosophy. Yet, throughout literary academia, Ayn Rand is considered a philosopher."[279] Writing in the 1998 edition of the Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy, political theorist Chandran Kukathas summarized the mainstream philosophical reception of her work in two parts. He said her ethical argument is viewed by most commentators as an unconvincing variant of Aristotle's ethics, and her political theory "is of little interest" because it is marred by an "ill-thought out and unsystematic" effort to reconcile her hostility to the state with her rejection of anarchism.[3] The Journal of Ayn Rand Studies, a multidisciplinary, peer-reviewed academic journal devoted to the study of Rand and her ideas, was established in 1999. R. W. Bradford, Stephen D. Cox, and Chris Matthew Sciabarra were its founding co-editors.[280]

In a 2010 essay for the Cato Institute, libertarian philosopher Michael Huemer argued that very few people find Rand's ideas convincing, especially her ethics. He attributed the attention she receives to her being a "compelling writer", especially as a novelist, noting that Atlas Shrugged outsells Rand's non-fiction works as well as the works of other philosophers of classical liberalism.[281] In 2012, the Pennsylvania State University Press agreed to take over publication of The Journal of Ayn Rand Studies,[282] and the University of Pittsburgh Press launched an "Ayn Rand Society Philosophical Studies" series based on the proceedings of the Society.[283] That same year, political scientist Alan Wolfe dismissed Rand as a "nonperson" among academics.[13] The Fall 2020 update to the entry about Rand in the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy said that "only a few professional philosophers have taken her work seriously".[4]

To her fiction

Academic consideration of Rand as a literary figure during her life was even more limited than the discussion of her philosophy. Mimi Reisel Gladstein was unable to find any scholarly articles about Rand's novels when she began researching her in 1973, and only three such articles appeared during the rest of the 1970s.[284] Since her death, scholars of English and American literature have continued to largely ignore her work,[285] although attention to her literary work has increased since the 1990s.[286] Rand and her works are covered in several academic book series about important authors, including Twayne's United States Authors (Ayn Rand by James T. Baker), Twayne's Masterwork Studies (The Fountainhead: An American Novel by Den Uyl and Atlas Shrugged: Manifesto of the Mind by Gladstein), and Re-reading the Canon (Feminist Interpretations of Ayn Rand, edited by Gladstein and Sciabarra), as well as in popular study guides such as CliffsNotes and SparkNotes.[287] In the Literary Encyclopedia entry for Rand written in 2001, John David Lewis declared that "Rand wrote the most intellectually challenging fiction of her generation".[288] In 2019, Lisa Duggan described Rand's fiction as popular and influential on many readers, despite being easy to criticize for "her cartoonish characters and melodramatic plots, her rigid moralizing, her middle- to lowbrow aesthetic preferences ... and philosophical strivings".[289]

Objectivist movement

Black and white photo of Leonard Peikoff
Rand's heir Leonard Peikoff co-founded the Ayn Rand Institute.

After the closure of the Nathaniel Branden Institute, the Objectivist movement continued in other forms. In the 1970s, Leonard Peikoff began delivering courses on Objectivism.[290] In 1979, Objectivist writer Peter Schwartz started a newsletter called The Intellectual Activist, which Rand endorsed.[291][292] She also endorsed The Objectivist Forum, a bimonthly magazine founded by Objectivist philosopher Harry Binswanger, which ran from 1980 to 1987.[293]

In 1985, Peikoff worked with businessman Ed Snider to establish the Ayn Rand Institute, a nonprofit organization dedicated to promoting Rand's ideas and works. In 1990, after an ideological disagreement with Peikoff, philosopher David Kelley founded the Institute for Objectivist Studies, now known as The Atlas Society.[294][295] In 2001, historian John McCaskey organized the Anthem Foundation for Objectivist Scholarship, which provides grants for scholarly work on Objectivism in academia.[296]

Selected works

Fiction and drama:



  1. ^ Russian: ? , [a'lsa z'novvn? r?zn'ba?m]. Most sources transliterate her given name as either Alisa or Alissa.[1]
  2. ^ Rand said Ayn was adapted from a Finnic name.[36] Some biographical sources question this, suggesting it may come from a nickname based on the Hebrew word (ayin, meaning "eye").[37] Letters from Rand's family do not use such a nickname for her.[38]
  3. ^ Rand's immigration papers anglicized her given name as Alice,[41] so her legal married name became Alice O'Connor, but she did not use that name in public or with friends.[46][47]
  4. ^ In 1941, Paramount Pictures produced a movie loosely based on the play. Rand did not participate in the production and was highly critical of the result.[53][54]
  5. ^ In 1942, the novel was adapted without Rand's permission into a pair of Italian films, Noi vivi and Addio, Kira. After Rand's post-war legal claims over the piracy were settled, her attorney purchased the negatives. The films were re-edited with Rand's approval and released as We the Living in 1986.[58]
  6. ^ A condensed version of the unfinished book was published as an essay titled "The Only Path to Tomorrow" in the January 1944 issue of Reader's Digest.
  7. ^ This total includes 3.6 million purchased for free distribution to schools by the Ayn Rand Institute (ARI), but does not include editions in languages other than English.[217] By 2020, the total for ARI's free distribution programs had increased to 4.5 million.[218]


  1. ^ Gladstein 1999, p. 121.
  2. ^ Gladstein 1999, p. 9.
  3. ^ a b c Kukathas 1998, p. 55.
  4. ^ a b c d e f Badhwar & Long 2020.
  5. ^ Sciabarra 1995, p. 298.
  6. ^ Gotthelf 2000, p. 91.
  7. ^ a b Gotthelf 2000, pp. 91-92.
  8. ^ a b Sciabarra 1995, pp. 266-267.
  9. ^ a b O'Neill 1977, pp. 18-20.
  10. ^ a b Sciabarra 1995, pp. 12, 118.
  11. ^ a b c d Gladstein 1999, pp. 117-119.
  12. ^ a b Cocks 2020, p. 15.
  13. ^ a b Murnane 2018, p. 3.
  14. ^ a b c Burns 2009, p. 4.
  15. ^ a b Gladstein 2009, pp. 107-108, 124.
  16. ^ a b Sciabarra 1995, pp. 1-2.
  17. ^ Heller 2009, p. xiii.
  18. ^ Heller 2009, pp. 3-5.
  19. ^ Sciabarra 1995, p. 68.
  20. ^ Sciabarra 1995, pp. 69, 367-368.
  21. ^ Gladstein 2009, p. 2.
  22. ^ Branden 1986, pp. 35-39.
  23. ^ Britting 2004, pp. 14-20.
  24. ^ Burns 2009, p. 15.
  25. ^ Sciabarra 1995, p. 77.
  26. ^ Sciabarra 1999, pp. 5-8.
  27. ^ Lennox, James G. "'Who Sets the Tone for a Culture?' Ayn Rand's Approach to the History of Philosophy". In Gotthelf & Salmieri 2016, p. 325.
  28. ^ Britting 2004, pp. 17-18, 22-24.
  29. ^ Heller 2009, p. 47.
  30. ^ Britting 2004, p. 24.
  31. ^ Sciabarra 1999, p. 1.
  32. ^ Heller 2009, pp. 49-50.
  33. ^ Britting 2004, p. 33.
  34. ^ Gladstein 2009, p. 7.
  35. ^ Heller 2009, p. 55.
  36. ^ Burns 2009, pp. 19, 301.
  37. ^ Heller 2009, pp. 55-57.
  38. ^ Milgram, Shoshana. "The Life of Ayn Rand: Writing, Reading, and Related Life Events". In Gotthelf & Salmieri 2016, p. 39.
  39. ^ Burns 2009, pp. 18-19.
  40. ^ Heller 2009, pp. 50-51.
  41. ^ a b Heller 2009, p. 53.
  42. ^ Heller 2009, pp. 57-60.
  43. ^ Britting 2004, pp. 34-36.
  44. ^ Britting 2004, p. 39.
  45. ^ Heller 2009, p. 71.
  46. ^ Milgram, Shoshana. "The Life of Ayn Rand: Writing, Reading, and Related Life Events". In Gotthelf & Salmieri 2016, p. 24.
  47. ^ Branden 1986, p. 72.
  48. ^ Heller 2009, pp. 96-98.
  49. ^ Britting 2004, pp. 43-44, 52.
  50. ^ Burns 2009, p. 22.
  51. ^ Britting 2004, pp. 40, 42.
  52. ^ Heller 2009, pp. 76, 92.
  53. ^ Heller 2009, p. 78.
  54. ^ Gladstein 2009, p. 87.
  55. ^ Gladstein 2009, p. 13.
  56. ^ Ralston, Richard E. "Publishing We the Living". In Mayhew 2004, p. 141.
  57. ^ Britting, Jeff. "Adapting We the Living". In Mayhew 2004, p. 164.
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  59. ^ Ralston, Richard E. "Publishing We the Living". In Mayhew 2004, p. 143.
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  62. ^ Heller 2009, p. 102.
  63. ^ Ralston, Richard E. "Publishing Anthem". In Mayhew 2005a, pp. 24-27.
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  66. ^ Heller 2009, p. 249.
  67. ^ Burns 2009, pp. 75-78.
  68. ^ Britting 2004, pp. 61-78.
  69. ^ Britting 2004, pp. 58-61.
  70. ^ Burns 2009, p. 85.
  71. ^ Burns 2009, p. 89.
  72. ^ a b Burns 2009, p. 178.
  73. ^ Heller 2009, pp. 304-305.
  74. ^ Doherty 2007, p. 149.
  75. ^ Britting 2004, pp. 68-71.
  76. ^ Sciabarra 1995, p. 112.
  77. ^ Heller 2009, p. 171.
  78. ^ Burns 2009, pp. 100-101, 123.
  79. ^ Burns 2009, pp. 130-131.
  80. ^ Heller 2009, pp. 214-215.
  81. ^ Mayhew 2005b, pp. 91-93, 188-189.
  82. ^ Burns 2009, p. 125.
  83. ^ Mayhew 2005b, p. 83.
  84. ^ Britting 2004, p. 71.
  85. ^ Branden 1986, p. 181.
  86. ^ Heller 2009, pp. 240-243.
  87. ^ Heller 2009, pp. 256-259.
  88. ^ Sciabarra 1995, p. 113.
  89. ^ Mayhew 2005b, p. 78.
  90. ^ Salmieri, Gregory. "Atlas Shrugged on the Role of the Mind in Man's Existence". In Mayhew 2009, p. 248.
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  92. ^ McConnell 2010, p. 507.
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  96. ^ Younkins 2007, p. 1.
  97. ^ Heller 2009, p. 303.
  98. ^ Doherty 2007, pp. 237-238.
  99. ^ Heller 2009, p. 329.
  100. ^ a b Burns 2009, p. 235.
  101. ^ Gladstein 2009, pp. 105-106.
  102. ^ Burns 2009, pp. 232-233.
  103. ^ Burns 2009, pp. 236-237.
  104. ^ Doherty 2007, p. 235.
  105. ^ Branden 1986, pp. 315-316.
  106. ^ Gladstein 1999, p. 14.
  107. ^ Gladstein 1999, p. 16.
  108. ^ Heller 2009, pp. 320-321.
  109. ^ Burns 2009, pp. 228-229, 265.
  110. ^ Heller 2009, p. 352.
  111. ^ Rand 2005, p. 96.
  112. ^ a b Burns 2009, p. 266.
  113. ^ Thompson, Stephen. "Topographies of Liberal Thought: Rand and Arendt and Race". In Cocks 2020, p. 237.
  114. ^ Heller 2009, pp. 362, 519.
  115. ^ Burns 2009, pp. 204-206.
  116. ^ Heller 2009, pp. 322-323.
  117. ^ Britting 2004, p. 101.
  118. ^ Heller 2009, pp. 374-375.
  119. ^ Heller 2009, pp. 378-379.
  120. ^ Branden 1986, pp. 386-389.
  121. ^ Heller 2009, pp. 391-393.
  122. ^ McConnell 2010, pp. 520-521.
  123. ^ Weiss 2012, p. 62.
  124. ^ Branden 1986, pp. 392-395.
  125. ^ Heller 2009, p. 406.
  126. ^ Heller 2009, p. 410.
  127. ^ Heller 2009, pp. 405, 410.
  128. ^ Gladstein 2009, p. 20.
  129. ^ Heller 2009, p. 400.
  130. ^ Burns 2009, p. 179.
  131. ^ Britting, Jeff. "Adapting The Fountainhead to Film". In Mayhew 2006, p. 96.
  132. ^ Gladstein 1999, p. 26.
  133. ^ Gladstein 1999, p. 27.
  134. ^ Torres & Kamhi 2000, p. 64.
  135. ^ Heller 2009, p. 64.
  136. ^ Duggan 2019, p. 44.
  137. ^ Wilt, Judith. "The Romances of Ayn Rand". In Gladstein & Sciabarra 1999
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  139. ^ Torres & Kamhi 2000, p. 59.
  140. ^ Heller 2009, pp. 32-33.
  141. ^ Grigorovskaya 2018, pp. 315-325.
  142. ^ Kizilov 2021, p. 106.
  143. ^ Weiner 2020, pp. 6-7.
  144. ^ Rosenthal 2004, pp. 220-223.
  145. ^ Kizilov 2021, p. 109.
  146. ^ Rosenthal 2004, pp. 200-206.
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  148. ^ Rand 1992, pp. 1170-1171.
  149. ^ Gladstein & Sciabarra 1999, p. 2.
  150. ^ Den Uyl, Douglas J. & Rasmussen, Douglas B. "Ayn Rand's Realism". In Den Uyl & Rasmussen 1986, pp. 3-20.
  151. ^ Peikoff 1991, pp. 38-39.
  152. ^ Gotthelf 2000, p. 54.
  153. ^ Rand 1964, p. 22.
  154. ^ Rand 1982, pp. 62-63.
  155. ^ Salmieri & Gotthelf 2005, p. 1997.
  156. ^ Gladstein 1999, pp. 85-86.
  157. ^ Rand 1964, p. 30.
  158. ^ Rand 1964, p. 25.
  159. ^ Rand 1992, p. 1023.
  160. ^ Peikoff 1991, pp. 313-320.
  161. ^ Peikoff 1991, p. 369.
  162. ^ Peikoff 1991, p. 367.
  163. ^ Burns 2009, pp. 174-177, 209, 230-231.
  164. ^ Doherty 2007, pp. 189-190.
  165. ^ Burns 2009, pp. 268-269.
  166. ^ Sciabarra 1995, pp. 280-281.
  167. ^ Sciabarra 1995, pp. 204-205.
  168. ^ Gotthelf 2000, p. 93.
  169. ^ Rand 2005, p. 166.
  170. ^ Salmieri, Gregory. "The Objectivist Epistemology". In Gotthelf & Salmieri 2016, pp. 271-272.
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  174. ^ a b Sciabarra 1995, p. 240.
  175. ^ Sciabarra 1995, p. 235.
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  177. ^ Miller, Fred D., Jr. & Mossoff, Adam. "Ayn Rand's Theory of Rights: An Exposition and Response to Critics". In Salmieri & Mayhew 2019, pp. 135-142
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  181. ^ Sciabarra 1995, pp. 186-189.
  182. ^ Sciabarra 1995, p. 12.
  183. ^ Podritske & Schwartz 2009, pp. 174-175.
  184. ^ Murray 2010.
  185. ^ a b Heller 2009, p. 42.
  186. ^ Burns 2009, pp. 16, 22.
  187. ^ Sciabarra 1995, pp. 100-106.
  188. ^ Burns 2009, pp. 24-25.
  189. ^ Duggan 2019, p. 3.
  190. ^ Sciabarra 1998, pp. 136, 138-139.
  191. ^ Sciabarra 1998, p. 135.
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  193. ^ Sheaffer, Robert. "Rereading Rand on Gender in the Light of Paglia". In Gladstein & Sciabarra 1999, p. 313.
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  207. ^ Pruette 1943, p. BR7.
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  209. ^ Chambers 1957, p. 594.
  210. ^ Chambers 1957, p. 596.
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  213. ^ Hook 1961, p. 28.
  214. ^ Vidal 1962, p. 234.
  215. ^ Rothstein 2005.
  216. ^ Cocks 2020, p. 29.
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  221. ^ Murnane 2018, pp. 2-3.
  222. ^ Riggenbach 2004, pp. 91-144.
  223. ^ Sciabarra 2004, pp. 8-11.
  224. ^ Sciabarra 2002, pp. 161-185.
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  226. ^ Burns 2009, p. 298.
  227. ^ Heller 2009, p. 412.
  228. ^ Rubin 2007.
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  233. ^ a b Gladstein 1999, p. 101.
  234. ^ Sciabarra 2004, p. 3.
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  242. ^ Weiss 2012, p. 55.
  243. ^ Powell 1996, p. 322.
  244. ^ Branden 1986, p. 414.
  245. ^ a b Doherty 2009, p. 54.
  246. ^ Weiss 2012, p. 155.
  247. ^ Burns 2004, pp. 139, 243.
  248. ^ Burns 2009, p. 279.
  249. ^ Gladstein 2009, p. 124.
  250. ^ Heller 2009, p. xi.
  251. ^ Doherty 2009, p. 51.
  252. ^ a b Burns 2009, p. 283.
  253. ^ Elgot 2018.
  254. ^ Wang-naveen 2016.
  255. ^ Rudoren 2015.
  256. ^ Burns 2009, pp. 283-284.
  257. ^ a b Doherty 2009, pp. 51-52.
  258. ^ a b Gladstein 2009, p. 125.
  259. ^ Weiner 2020, p. 2.
  260. ^ Duggan 2019, p. xiii.
  261. ^ Sunstein 2021, pp. 145-146.
  262. ^ Gladstein 2009, pp. 114-122.
  263. ^ Salmieri & Gotthelf 2005, p. 1995.
  264. ^ Burns 2009, pp. 295-296.
  265. ^ Gladstein 2009, p. 116.
  266. ^ Flaherty 2015.
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  268. ^ Burns 2020, p. 261.
  269. ^ Burns 2020, p. 259.
  270. ^ Cocks 2020, p. 11.
  271. ^ Burns 2009, pp. 188, 325.
  272. ^ O'Neill 1977, p. 3.
  273. ^ a b Gladstein 1999, p. 115.
  274. ^ Nozick 1971, pp. 282-304.
  275. ^ Den Uyl & Rasmussen 1978, p. 203.
  276. ^ Wheeler, Jack. "Rand and Aristotle". In Den Uyl & Rasmussen 1986, p. 96.
  277. ^ Gotthelf 2000, pp. 2, 25.
  278. ^ Thomas 2000, p. 17.
  279. ^ Heyl 1995, p. 223.
  280. ^ Sciabarra 2012, p. 184.
  281. ^ Huemer 2010.
  282. ^ Sciabarra 2012, p. 183.
  283. ^ Seddon 2014, p. 75.
  284. ^ Gladstein 2003, pp. 373-374, 379-381.
  285. ^ Gladstein 2003, p. 375.
  286. ^ Gladstein 2003, pp. 384-391.
  287. ^ Gladstein 2003, pp. 382-389.
  288. ^ Lewis 2001.
  289. ^ Duggan 2019, p. 4.
  290. ^ Burns 2009, p. 249.
  291. ^ Sciabarra 1995, p. 385.
  292. ^ Burns 2009, p. 276.
  293. ^ Gladstein 1999, p. 79.
  294. ^ Burns 2009, pp. 280-281.
  295. ^ Gladstein 2009, pp. 19, 114.
  296. ^ Gladstein 2009, p. 117.

Works cited

External links

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