Avianca
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Avianca
Avianca S.A.
Avianca Logo.svg
IATA ICAO Callsign
AV AVA AVIANCA
Founded5 December 1919; 101 years ago (1919-12-05) as SCADTA
HubsBogotá
Secondary hubs
Focus citiesMiami
Frequent-flyer programLifeMiles
AllianceStar Alliance
Subsidiaries
Fleet size86[1]
Destinations63
Parent companyAvianca Holdings S.A.
HeadquartersBogotá, Colombia
Key people
  • Roberto Kriete (Chairman)
  • Adrian Neuhauser (CEO)
  • Anko Van Der Werff
Operating incomeIncrease COP 100.3 B[2] (FY 2019 Q3)
Total assetsIncrease COP 2.403.632 M (FY 2008)
Websitewww.avianca.com

Avianca S.A. (formerly Avianca Colombia) (acronym in Spanish for Aerovias del Continente Americano S.A., "Airways of the American Continent") is a Colombian airline. It has been the flag carrier of Colombia[3][4] since 5 December 1919, when it was initially registered under the name SCADTA.[5][6] It is headquartered in Bogotá, D.C. with its main hub at El Dorado International Airport. Avianca is the flagship of a group of eight Latin American airlines, whose operations are combined to function as one airline using a codesharing system. Avianca is the largest airline in Colombia and second largest in Latin America, after LATAM of Chile. Avianca and its subsidiaries have the most extensive network of destinations in Latin America.[7] Prior to the merger with TACA in 2010, it was wholly owned by Synergy Group S.A., a South American holding company established by Germán Efromovich and specialising in air transport. It is listed on the Colombia Stock Exchange.[8]

Through SCADTA, Avianca is the world's second oldest extant airline after KLM, and celebrated its 100th anniversary in December 2019. It is the oldest airline in the Western Hemisphere.[9] It became an official member of Star Alliance on 21 June 2012, after a process that lasted approximately 18 months from the initial announcement[10] of its invitation to join the alliance.[11] On May 10, 2020, Avianca filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy in a court in New York City, and liquidated its subsidiary Avianca Peru, becoming one of the major airlines to have filed for bankruptcy due to the COVID-19 pandemic crisis.[12][13][14]

History

SCADTA (1919-1940)

SCADTA Junkers W 34 "Magdalena", circa 1920s

The airline traces its history back to December 5, 1919, in the city of Barranquilla, Colombia. Colombians Ernesto Cortissoz Alvarez-Correa (the first President of the Airline), Rafael María Palacio, Cristóbal Restrepo, Jacobo Correa and Aristides Noguera and Germans Werner Kämmerer, Stuart Hosie and Albert Tietjen founded the Colombo-German Company, called Sociedad Colombo-Alemana de Transportes Aéreos or SCADTA. The company accomplished their first flight between Barranquilla and the nearby town of Puerto Colombia using a Junkers F.13, transporting 57 pieces of mail. The flight was piloted by German Helmuth von Krohn. This and another aircraft of the same type were completely mechanically constructed monoplanes, the engines of which had to be modified to efficiently operate in the climate of the country. There were nine aircraft in the fleet with a total range of 850 km (528 mi) which could carry up to four passengers and two crewmen. Due to the topographic characteristics of the country and the lack of airports at the time, floats were adapted for two of the Junkers aircraft to make water landings in the rivers near different towns. Using these floats, Helmuth von Krohn was able to perform the first inland flight over Colombia on 20 October 1920, following the course of the Magdalena River; the flight took eight hours and required four emergency landings in the water.

Soon after the airline was founded, German scientist and philanthropist Peter von Bauer became interested in the airline and contributed general knowledge, capital and a tenth aircraft for the company, as well as obtaining concessions from the Colombian government to operate the country's airmail transportation division using the airline, which began in 1922. This new contract allowed SCADTA to thrive in a new frontier of aviation. By the mid-1920s, SCADTA started its first international routes that initially covered destinations in Venezuela and the United States. In 1924, the aircraft that both Ernesto Cortissoz and Helmuth von Krohn were flying crashed into an area currently known as Bocas de Ceniza in Barranquilla, killing them. In the early 1940s, Peter von Bauer sold his shares in the airline to the US-owned Pan American World Airways.

National Airways of Colombia (1940-1994)

A former Avianca Boeing 747-100 at Miami International Airport in 1993

On June 14, 1940, in the city of Barranquilla, SCADTA, under ownership by United States businessmen, merged with regional Colombian airline SACO, forming the new Aerovías Nacionales de Colombia S.A. or Avianca. Five Colombians participated in this: Rafael María Palacio, Jacobo A. Corea, Cristobal Restrepo, and Aristides Noguera, as well as German citizens Albert Teitjen, Werner Kaemerer and Stuart Hosie, while the post of first President of Avianca was filled by Martín del Corral. Avianca claims SCADTA's history as its own.

In 1946, Avianca began flights to Quito, Lima, Panama City, Miami, New York City and Europe, using Douglas DC-4s and C-54 Skymasters. In 1951, Avianca acquired Lockheed 749 Constellations and 1049 Super Constellations. In 1956 the company transported the Colombian delegation to the Melbourne Olympics on a 61-hour trip, stopping only to refuel. During the 1960s, the company built the Avianca Building in Bogotá, designed by the architect Germán Samper, which was inaugurated in 1969 on the south side of Santander Park. In 1961, Avianca leased two Boeing 707s to operate its international routes and on November 2, 1961, it acquired its own Boeing 720s. In 1976, Avianca became the first Latin American airline to the Boeing 747. Three years later, it started operations with more 747s, including two 747 Combi, mixing cargo and passenger operations.

Merger and alliance (1994-2002)

In 1994, Avianca, the regional carrier SAM and the helicopter operator Helicol merged, beginning Avianca's new system of operations. This arrangement allowed for specialized services in cargo (Avianca Cargo) and postal services, as well as a more modern fleet, made up of Boeing 767-200/300s, Boeing 757-200s, MD-83s, Fokker 50s, and Bell helicopters.

In 1996, Avianca Postal Services became Deprisa, which provided various mail services.

In 1998, Avianca announced the inception of a new hub in Bogotá, offering around 6,000 possible weekly connecting flights and an increased number of frequencies, schedules and destinations, taking advantage of the privileged geographical location of the country's capital, for the benefit of Colombian and international travelers between South America, Europe and North America.

Summa Alliance (2002-2004)

After the September 11 attacks, Avianca, SAM, and its major rival ACES joined efforts to create the Alianza Summa, which began merged operations on May 20, 2002. In November 2003, the Alianza Summa was disbanded and ACES was liquidated altogether and SAM Colombia was acquired to be a regional carrier under Avianca's brand.

American Continent Airways (2004-2009)

On December 10, 2004, Avianca concluded a major reorganization process, undertaken after filing for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection, by obtaining confirmation of its reorganization plan, which was financially backed by the Brazilian consortium, OceanAir/Synergy Group and the National Federation of Coffee Growers of Colombia, allowing the airline to obtain funds for US$63 million, in the 13 months following withdrawal from bankruptcy.

Under this plan, Avianca was bought by Synergy Group, and was consolidated with its subsidiaries OceanAir and VIP Ecuador. The company's full legal name was changed from Aerovías Nacionales de Colombia (National Airways of Colombia) to Aerovías del Continente Americano (Airways of the American Continent), retaining the acronym Avianca. In 2009, OceanAir and VIP were re-branded as Avianca Brasil and Avianca Ecuador, respectively.

Avianca-TACA merger (2009-2013)

In 2009, it was announced that Avianca would merge with TACA.[15][16] This created AviancaTaca Holdings, which instantly became one of the region's largest airlines, with 129 aircraft and flights to more than 100 destinations.

In November 2009, the airline's Chief Executive Fabio Villegas announced that the airline was looking to replace its Fokker 50 and Fokker 100 aircraft with newer aircraft of 100 seats or less.[17] On January 1, 2011, the airline decided to retire the Fokker 100 aircraft in 2011 and replace them with 10 Airbus A318 leased from GECAS. The aircraft were delivered from February to April 2011.

Star Alliance

On November 10, 2010, Star Alliance announced that Avianca (and its merger counterpart, TACA) were full members in 2012. Due to Avianca's entry into Star Alliance, it ended its codeshare agreement with Delta Air Lines and began a new codeshare agreement with United Airlines. TACA had been codesharing with United Airlines since 2006.[18] On 21 June 2012, Avianca and TACA were both officially admitted into Star Alliance.

Avianca Holdings S.A. (2013-present)

TACA and all other AviancaTaca airlines changed their brand to Avianca on May 28, 2013. On March 21, 2013, at the annual general meeting, the shareholders approved the change of corporate name from AviancaTaca Holdings S.A. to Avianca Holdings S.A.[19]

As of 2017, Avianca operates the second-most daily international flights from Miami with 16, second only to American Airlines.

In August 2018, Avianca had some operational difficulties due to problems with the platform it used to assign crew schedules. This resulted in the cancellation of several flights within Colombia. Likewise, due to the stoppage of ACDAC pilots in 2017, only in October 2018 were all flight itineraries managed by the airline restored.

In March 2019, Avianca launched Avianca Express in Colombia. This new airline operates with ATR-72s for short regional flights.

An Avianca Airbus A320-200 in its retro livery

2020 bankruptcy

Avianca had significant financial liabilities in 2019. Due to this they issued more debt to cover short term liabilities, and concluded a debt exchange December 31, 2019. This lack of liquidity, and amount of debt left them particularly vulnerable to the cessation of business which occurred as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic.[20] Colombia has implemented a strict lockdown such that the airline was not allowed to operate; and so it flew no scheduled flights between late March and May; and most of its 20,000 employees had gone without pay throughout the crisis.[21] On 10 May 2020, Avianca filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy for the second time in its history as a result of the pandemic; the airline had accumulated a total debt of $7.3 billion at the end of 2019.[21]

Avianca Holdings, S.A. and 23 affiliated debtors filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy in the United States District Court for the Southern District of New York on May 10, 2020. The debtors have requested joint administration of the cases under Case No. 20-11133.[22]

In June 2021, Avianca says its cost reduction plan will take between a year and a year and a half to implement. It consists of reducing the size of the fleet by 15%, but increasing the seating capacity by the same amount.[23]

Headquarters

Avianca headquarters, designed by Esguerra Saenz Urdaneta Samper

Avianca's headquarters are on Avenida El Dorado and between Carrera 60 and Gobernación de Cundinamarca, located in the Ciudad Salitre area of Bogotá. The building is located next to the Gran Estación.[24] Its previous head office was at Avenida El Dorado No. 93-30.[25]

Destinations

Avianca's hubs are in Bogotá at El Dorado International Airport and in San Salvador at Monseñor Óscar Arnulfo Romero International Airport. Its focus cities are Medellín, Cali, Cartagena, Barranquilla, San José and Quito as well as Miami, where Avianca is the largest foreign carrier by number of passengers. The airline covers 187 destinations in 27 countries.

Subsidiaries

Frequent flyer program

Avianca launched their LifeMiles frequent-flyer program in 2011, replacing AviancaPlus. The levels include Silver, Gold and Diamond, replacing the former Basic, Gold, Platinum, and Platinum Executive levels. This program covers all Avianca Holdings airlines.

Codeshare agreements

Avianca has codeshare agreements with the following airlines:[26]

LifeMiles

The frequent flyer program of Avianca and its subsidiaries is LifeMiles. This program is to reward customer loyalty. The membership is free and you can register online. LifeMiles members earn miles every time they fly with Star Alliance members, Avianca subsidiaries or use service in some hotels, retails, car rental and credit card partners.

LifeMiles has three Elite Tiers:

  • Silver (Star Alliance Silver)
  • Gold (Star Alliance Gold)
  • Diamond (Star Alliance Gold)

Fleet

Current fleet

Avianca Boeing 787-8

As of September 2021, the Avianca fleet consists of the following aircraft:[1][27]

Avianca fleet
Aircraft In
service
Orders Passengers Notes
C Y Total
Airbus A319-100 14 12 108 120
Airbus A320-200 39 36 12 138 150 Orders are being transferred from Avianca Brasil, Aeroflot, Cebu Pacific, Citilink, Gulf Air and Viva Air Colombia.
Airbus A320neo 9 91[28] 12 141 153
Airbus A321-200 3 12 182 194 To be phased out
Airbus A330-200 7 30 222 252
Boeing 787-8[29] 13 28 222 250
Boeing 787-9 1[30] 2 28 281 309
Avianca Cargo fleet
Airbus A330-200F 6 Cargo
Total 92 129

Avianca's first Boeing 787-8 Dreamliner was delivered on December 17, 2014 and launched its first service on January 16, 2015 between Bogotá and New York.[31]

Former fleet

Over the years, Avianca had in the past operated a variety of aircraft, including:[32][33][34]

Avianca former fleet
Aircraft Total Introduced Retired Notes
Airbus A318-100 10 2011 2019 Purchased from Mexicana[35]
Airbus A321neo 2 2017 2020 [36][37]
Airbus A330-300 2 2018 2020 Purchased from TransAsia
ATR 72-600 9 2013 2019 Transferred to Avianca Express
Beechcraft 17 2 1941 1943
Boeing 247D 18 1936 1948
Boeing 707-120 1 1960 1961 Leased from Pan Am
Boeing 707-320C 8 1968 1994 One written off as Flight 52
Boeing 720B 7 1961 1984
Boeing 727-100 33 1966 1992
Boeing 727-200 18 1978 1999
Boeing 737-100 2 1968 1971 First operator in Latin America
Boeing 747-100 3 1976 1996
Boeing 747-100SF 2 1981 1988
Boeing 747-200M 2 1981 1995 One written off as Flight 011
Boeing 757-200 22 1992 2010
Boeing 767-200ER 5 1990 2011
Boeing 767-300ER 5 1994 2011
Consolidated PBY Catalina 4 1946 1956
Curtiss T-32 Condor II 2 Un­known Un­known
Curtiss C-46 Commando 5 1949 1955
de Havilland DH.60 Moth 7 1929 1939
Dornier Do J Wal 3 1925 1932
Dornier Merkur 2 1927 1932
Douglas C-47 Skytrain 52 1939 1974
Douglas C-54 Skymaster 26 1946 1975
Douglas DC-2 2 1944 1947
Douglas DC-3 4 1939 1973
Douglas DC-4 2 1953 1974
Fokker 50 10 1993 2014
Fokker 100 15 2006 2011 Operated by SAM until 2010
Fokker Universal 2 1929 1934
Ford 5-AT-DS Trimotor 19 1929 1946
General Aviation GA-43 1 1934 Un­known
Hawker Siddeley HS 748 2 1968 1978
IAI 1124 Westwind 1 1978 1995
Junkers F 13 31 1920 1940
Junkers W 33 1 1929 1932
Junkers W 34 13 1928 1947
Lockheed L-749A Constellation 6 1951 1967
Lockheed L-1049E Super Constellation 4 1954 1969
McDonnell Douglas MD-11ER 1 1998 1999 Leased from World Airways
McDonnell Douglas MD-83 19 1992 2012
Sikorsky S-38 7 1929 1940
Sikorsky S-41 1 1930 1936

Accidents and incidents

The airline suffered a few incidents during the 1980s and early 1990s. The deadliest of those incidents was Avianca Flight 011, which crashed in 1983.

Awards and recognitions

In its recent history, the company has won different awards:[54]

  • 2010: E-Commerce Company of the Year - eCommerce Awards Colombia.
  • 2012: Best Company in Customer Service Labor and Management - Ibero-American Social Media Awards.
  • 2013: Best Company in Customer Service Labor and Management - Ibero-American Social Media Awards.
  • 2013: South American Airlines with Best Onboard Service - Skytrax World Airline Awards.
  • 2014: Best E-commerce Initiative in Colombia - Colombia Online Awards.
  • 2015: Best Airline in South America - World Travel Awards.
  • 2016: Best Airline in South America and Latin America - Business Traveler North America Magazine.
  • 2017: Best Airline in South America - Business Traveler Awards.
  • 2017: Best Airline in South America and Best Regional Airline in South America - Skytrax World Airline Awards.
  • 2017: Best Mobile Initiative for eCommerce - eCommerce Awards.
  • 2017: Second-best airline in the world - Consumers and Users Organization.
  • 2018: Best Airline in South America - Skytrax World Airline Awards.
  • 2018: Best Regional Airline in South America - Airline Passenger Experience APEX.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b "Avianca Fleet Details and History". Planespotters.net. Retrieved 2020.
  2. ^ "Avianca Holdings S.A., Investor Relations - Financial Information".
  3. ^ Álvaro Uribe Vélez; Jorge Humberto Botero Angulo (7 March 2005). "Decreto número 604 de 2005 por el cual se concede la Orden del Mérito Comercial en la Categoría de Gran Oficial a Avianca" [Decree number 604 of 2005 which grants to Avianca the Order of Commercial Merit in the Category of Great Officer] (PDF) (in Spanish). Bogotá, D.C. (Colombia): Ministerio de Comercio, Industria y Turismo de la República de Colombia.
  4. ^ Álvaro Uribe Vélez (7 March 2005). "Discurso de entrega de la Orden del Mérito Comercial en la Categoría de Gran Oficial a Avianca" [Presidential address on the Order of Commercial Merit in the Category of Great Officer to Avianca] (.htm) (in Spanish). Bogotá, D.C. (Colombia): Presidencia de la República de Colombia. Nosotros no podemos perder la oportunidad de tener en Bogotá ese gran centro de conexiones. Y por supuesto, que lo haga la compañía bandera de Colombia, que es Avianca. Eso lo tiene que explicar el Gobierno a la opinión pública clara y paladinamente, sin malicias, sin cartas escondidas, y salir a defenderlo y decir por qué hay que hacerlo.
  5. ^ Simón Rodríguez Rodríguez (21 September 1989). "Sentencia del Honorable Consejo de Estado de la República de Colombia con relación al proceso número 132 que reposa en el expediente del año 1989 (ce-sec1-exp1989-n132)" [Sentence of the Honourable Council of State of the Republic of Colombia in relation to the process number 132 which rests on the record of 1989 (ce-sec1-exp1989-n132)] (in Spanish). Bogotá, D.C. (Colombia): Consejo de Estado de la República de Colombia. pp. 10, 16, 5th paragraph. Archived from the original (.doc) on 2011-07-04. Desde ningún punto de vista puede abrigarse duda alguna acerca del carácter eminentemente privado de la empresa Aerovías Nacionales de Colombia AVIANCA S. A. La prueba por excelencia en este caso, como es el certificado expedido por el Secretario de la Cámara de Comercio de Barranquilla así lo determina (fls. 2 a 10). En él se lee que la empresa se constituyó por escritura pública número 2374, otorgada ante Notaría Segunda de Barranquilla, el día 5 de diciembre de 1919, registrada en el Juzgado Tercero del mismo Circuito, llamada inicialmente Sociedad Colombo - Alemana de Transportes Aéreos -SCADTA-.
  6. ^ Friedman, Max Paul (April 2000). "Specter of a Nazi Threat: United States-Colombian Relations, 1939-1945". The Americas. 4. Washington, D.C. (United States): Catholic University of America Press on behalf of Academy of American Franciscan History. 56 (4): 563-589 [566 2nd paragraph]. doi:10.1017/S0003161500029849. JSTOR 1008173. S2CID 147077020.
  7. ^ "Avianca-TACA joint venture ready for implementation". Flightglobal. 2 February 2010. Retrieved 2010.
  8. ^ "Flightgobal: Avianca-TACA joint venture ready for implementation". Flightglobal.com. 2 February 2010. Retrieved 2012.
  9. ^ Brown, Claire (28 July 1998). "National Air and Space Museum Exhibition Examines the Development of Latino Aviation". Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum. Archived from the original on 2010-04-08. SCADTA Junkers F 13, one of the first commercial airlines in Colombia. SCADTA (now known as AVIANCA) is the oldest, continuously operating airline in the Western Hemisphere.
  10. ^ "Avianca-Taca and Copa Airlines to join Star Alliance". Star Alliance. 11 October 2010. Archived from the original on 14 November 2010. Retrieved 2010.
  11. ^ "Avianca, Taca Airlines and Copa Airlines join Star Alliance". Star Alliance. 21 June 2012. Archived from the original on 15 April 2014. Retrieved 2012.
  12. ^ "Avianca files for bankruptcy in the United States due to the COVID-19 crisis". Explica. 11 May 2020. Archived from the original on 16 May 2020. Retrieved 2020.
  13. ^ "Avianca Holdings files for Chapter 11". CH-AVIATION. 10 May 2020. Retrieved 2020.
  14. ^ "World's 'second oldest airline' files for bankruptcy". www.9news.com.au. Retrieved .
  15. ^ "Avianca confirms 'strategic merger' with TACA". Flightglobal. 10 July 2009. Retrieved 2009.
  16. ^ "Latin American airlines to merge". BBC. 8 October 2009. Retrieved 2014.
  17. ^ "Avianca looking to replace Fokkers 100". Eturbonews.com. 30 November 2009. Retrieved 2011.
  18. ^ "Copa Airlines, Copa Airlines Colombia, United Airlines and Avianca-TACA announce their intention to establish close cooperation agreements". avianca.co.uk. 28 January 2011. Archived from the original on 2 October 2011. Retrieved 2011.
  19. ^ "Avianca se quitó el apellido Taca". ElEspectador. Retrieved 2015.
  20. ^ "Rating Action: Moody's upgrades LifeMiles to B1 from B2; outlook is stable". Moody's Investors Service. Retrieved 2020.
  21. ^ a b Rochabrun, Marcelo; Kumar, Devika Krishna; Bocanegra, Nelson (10 May 2020). "Latin America's second-biggest airline, Avianca, driven to bankruptcy by coronavirus". Reuters. Retrieved 2020.
  22. ^ "Colombia's Avianca airline files for bankruptcy over coronavirus impact". National Post. Retrieved 2020.
  23. ^ de 2021, 2 de Junio. "Avianca anuncia que saldrá del Capítulo 11 y superará la crisis financiera en los próximos meses". infobae (in Spanish). Retrieved .
  24. ^ Buitrago, Alejandra. "Avianca tendrá nueva sede administrativa a comienzos del 2009 en Eje Empresarial del Salitre m, portafolio.co, retrieved on 6 December 2015. "Será un edificio con 13.800 metros cuadrados de vidrio en sus fachadas, con un coeficiente de sombra de solo el 0,71% en diseño bioclimático que permitirá luz y aire naturales incluso en los sótanos." and "Su altura será de 46 metros y tres sótanos, para un área construida de 34.536 metros cuadrados. El primer piso tendrá locales comerciales y una amplia zona de parqueaderos."
  25. ^ Oficinas Colombia." Avianca. 9 March 2000. Retrieved on 30 January 2011.
  26. ^ "Codeshare". Avianca. Retrieved 2021.
  27. ^ https://www.airfleets.net/flottecie/Avianca.htm
  28. ^ "Avianca (AV/AVA)". flightradar24.com. Retrieved 2019.
  29. ^ "Boeing". Retrieved 2015.
  30. ^ "Neglected after first flight: story of Avianca Boeing 787-9". aerotime.aero.com. Gabriele Petrauskaite. Retrieved 2020.
  31. ^ "Avianca Celebrates Arrival of the Dreamliner". Airliner World: 14. March 2015.
  32. ^ "Avianca cumple 90 años" (PDF) (in Spanish). Avianca. 12 March 2009. Retrieved 2009.[permanent dead link]
  33. ^ Avianca (4 April 2010). "Nace una historia con alas" (.htm) (in Spanish). Bogotá, D.C. (Colombia): Avianca.[permanent dead link]
  34. ^ "Avianca fleet". aerobernie.bplaced.net. Retrieved 2021.
  35. ^ "Colombia's Avianca Airlines retires last A318". CH-AVIATION. Retrieved 2019.
  36. ^ "Avianca directs cancellations at A321neo fleet". Flightglobal.com. Retrieved 2020.
  37. ^ "The A321neo that Avianca returns after 3 years of use passes through Brazil". Aeroin.net (in Portuguese). Retrieved 2021.
  38. ^ Accident description for C-108 at the Aviation Safety Network
  39. ^ Accident description for HK-163 at the Aviation Safety Network
  40. ^ Accident description for HK-328 at the Aviation Safety Network
  41. ^ Accident description for HK-135 at the Aviation Safety Network
  42. ^ Jamaica Observer, "From Avianca to CanJet: MoBay Airport at Centre of J'can Aviation History", 22 April 2009 . Retrieved 25 April 2009.
  43. ^ Accident description for HK-109 at the Aviation Safety Network
  44. ^ Accident description for HK-174 at the Aviation Safety Network
  45. ^ Accident description for CCCP-M25 at the Aviation Safety Network
  46. ^ "Hijacking description". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 2010.
  47. ^ "HK-107 Accident description". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 2010.
  48. ^ "HK-1341 Accident description". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 2010.
  49. ^ "HK-111 Accident description". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 2010.
  50. ^ "HK-508 Accident description". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 2010.
  51. ^ "Colombia". Lcweb2.loc.gov. Retrieved 2010.
  52. ^ "Americas | Massive security at Colombia's airports". BBC News. 19 July 2002. Retrieved 2010.
  53. ^ "Recordando los 10 años del secuestro del Fokker de Avianca". Noticias ABC colombia. Archived from the original on 5 January 2013. Retrieved 2012.
  54. ^ "Know our Awards and recognitions". Avianca.com. Retrieved 2021.

External links

Media related to Avianca at Wikimedia Commons


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Avianca
 



 



 
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