Autonomous Okrugs of Russia
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Autonomous Okrugs of Russia
Autonomous okrug
Autonomous districts of Russia.png
CategoryFederated state
LocationRussian Federation
Number4
Populations42,090 (Nenets Autonomous Okrug) - 1,532,243 (Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug)
Areas177,000 km2 (68,200 sq mi) (Nenets Autonomous Okrug) - 750,000 km2 (289,700 sq mi) (Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug)
Government
  • Okrug Government
Subdivisions

Autonomous okrug (Russian: ? , lit. 'avtonomny okrug'), occasionally referred to as "autonomous district", "autonomous area", and "autonomous region", is a type of federal subject of Russia and simultaneously an administrative division type of some federal subjects. As of 2014, Russia has four autonomous okrugs of its 85 federal subjects. The Chukotka Autonomous Okrug is the only okrug which is not subordinate to an oblast. The other three are Arkhangelsk Oblast's Nenets Autonomous Okrug, and Tyumen Oblast's Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug, and Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug.

History

Originally called national okrug, this type of administrative unit was created in the 1920s and widely implemented in 1930s to provide autonomy to indigenous peoples of the North, like the Karelian National Okrug for the Tver Karelians . In 1977, the 1977 Soviet Constitution changed the term "national okrugs" to "autonomous okrugs" in order to emphasize that they were indeed autonomies and not simply another type of administrative and territorial division. While the 1977 Constitution stipulated that the autonomous okrugs are subordinated to the oblasts and krais, this clause was revised on December 15, 1990, when it was specified that autonomous okrugs are subordinated directly to the Russian SFSR, although they still may stay in jurisdiction of a krai or an oblast to which they were subordinated before.

Autonomous Okrugs

Flag Map Name
Domestic names
Capital
Population (2010)[1]
Area
Formation
Flag of Chukotka
Map showing Chukotka in Russia
Chukotka Autonomous Okrug

Russian: ? (Chukotskiy Avtonomny Okrug)

Chukot: ? A (Chukotkaken Avtonomnyken Okrug)
Anadyr

Russian: ? (Anadyr)

Chukot: (Kagyrgyn)
50,526 721,481 km2 (278,565 sq mi) 1930-12-10
Flag of Yugra
Map showing Yugra in Russia
Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug

Russian: -? ? (Khanty-Mansiyskiy Avtonomny Okrug)

Khanty?-? A (nty-Mansijskoj Avtonomnoj Okrug)

Mansi?-? ? (Hanty-Mansijskij Avtonomnyj Okrug)
Khanty-Mansiysk

Russian: - (Khanty-Mansiysk)

Khanty? (Yomvo?)

Mansi (Abga)
1,532,243 534,801 km2 (206,488 sq mi) 1930-12-10
Flag of Nenetsia
Map showing Nenetsia in Russia
Nenets Autonomous Okrug

Russian: ? (Nenetskiy Avtonomny Okrug)

Nenets: ? A (Nenjocije Awtonomnoj ?okruk)
Naryan-Mar

Russian: - (Naryan-Mar)

Nenets: a M (Nyar'yana Marq)
42,090 176,810 km2 (68,267 sq mi) 1929-07-15
Flag of Yamalo-Nenetsia
Map showing Yamalo-Nenetsia in Russia
Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug

Russian: - ? (Yamalo-Nenetskiy Avtonomny Okrug)

Nenets: -? A (Yamaly-Nenyotsiye Avtonomnoj ?okruk)
Salekhard

Russian: (Salekhard)

Nenets: ?' X? (Salja' Harad)
522,904 769,250 km2 (297,009 sq mi) 1930-12-10

Former Autonomous Okrugs

Flag Map Name
Domestic names
Capital
Population
Area
Years
Flag of Agin-Buryatia
Map showing Agin-Buryatia in Russia
Agin-Buryat Autonomous Okrug

Russian: ? (Aginskiy Buryatskiy Avtonomny Okrug)

Buryat: ? A T (Agyn Buryaaday Avtonomito Toyrog)
Aginskoye

Russian: (Aginskoye)

Buryat: (Aga)
76,383 (2008) 19,592 km2 (7,565 sq mi) 1937-2008
Flag of Evenkia
Map showing Evenkia in Russia
Evenk Autonomous Okrug

Russian: ? (Evenkiyskiy Avtonomny Okrug)

Evenki: (?v?de Avt?m?de Okrug)
Tura

Russian: ? (Tura)

Evenki: Typy (Turu)
16,979 (2007) 763,197 km2 (294,672 sq mi) 1930-2007
Flag of Komi-Permyakia
Map showing Komi-Permyakia in Russia
Komi-Permyak Autonomous Okrug

Russian: ?- ? (Komi-Permyatskiy Avtonomny Okrug)

Komi-Permyak: ?-?ö? A?ö? (Komi-Permjacköj Avtonomnöj Okrug)
Kudymkar

Russian: (Kudymkar)

Komi-Permyak: ö? (Kudymkör)
132,824 (2005) 32,770 km2 (12,653 sq mi) 1930-2005
Flag of Koryakia
Map showing Koryakia in Russia
Koryak Autonomous Okrug

Russian: ? (Koryakskiy Avtonomny Okrug)

Koryak: ' (?av'?yvaokrug)
Palana

Russian: (Palana)

Koryak? (Pylyl?yn)
22,580 (2007) 292,600 km2 (112,973 sq mi) 1930-2007
Flag of Taymyria
Map showing Taymyria in Russia
Taymyr Autonomous Okrug

Russian: ? ? (Taymyrskiy Avtonomny Okrug) Dudinka

Russian: ? (Dudinka)
38,372 (2007) 879,929 km2 (339,742 sq mi) 1930-2007
Flag of Ust-Orda Buryatia
Map showing Ust-Orda Buryatia in Russia
Ust-Orda Buryat Autonomous Okrug

Russian: ?- ? (Ust'-Ordynskiy Avtonomny Okrug)

Buryat: ?- A T (Ust'-Ordyn Buryaaday Avtonomito Toyrog)
Ust-Ordynsky

Russian: ?- (Ust-Ordynsky)

Buryat: ? (Ordyn Adag)
134,320 (2008) 22,400 km2 (8,649 sq mi) 1937-2008

Recent developments

In 1990, ten autonomous okrugs existed within the RSFSR. Between 2005 and 2008, the three autonomous okrugs in which the titular nationality constituted more than 30% of the population were abolished. Since then, three more have been abolished, leaving four. On 13 May 2020, the governors of Arkhangelsk Oblast and Nenets Autonomous Okrug announced their plan to merge following the collapse of oil prices stemming from the COVID-19 pandemic.[2][3] The process was subsequently scrapped on July 2 following public outcry to the merger.[4]

The ten autonomous okrugs in 1990 were:

Ethnic composition of autonomous okrugs

The table below also includes autonomous okrugs which have since changed status.

Autonomous Okrug titular nation Russians other[5]
year 1979 1989 2002 2010 1979 1989 2002 2010 1979 1989 2002 2010
Agin-Buryat Autonomous Okrug[6] ?52,2 ? 54,9 ? 62,5 ?42 ? 40,8 ? 35,1
Komi-Permyak Autonomous Okrug[6] ?61,6 ? 60,2 ? 59 ?34,9 ? 36,1 ? 38,1
Koryak Autonomous Okrug (all indigenous)[6] 16,3 ? 16,45 ? 26,6 ?30,3 62,9 ? 62 ? 50,5 ?46,2 24,9 ? 40,5 ?46,5
Nenets Autonomous Okrug (Komi) ?12,8 ? 11,9 ? 18,6 Steady18,6 ?66 ? 65,8 ? 62,4 ? 66,1 ?11,1 ? 9,5 ? 10,8 ? 9
Taymyr Autonomous Okrug (Dolgan and Nenets)[6] ?9,6 ? 8,9 ? 13,8 ? 15,7 ?68,9 ? 67,1 ? 58,6 ? 50,0 ?5 ? 4,4 ? 7,6 ? 10,1
Ust-Orda Buryat Autonomous Okrug[6] ?34,1 ? 36,3 ? 39,6 ?58,3 ? 56,5 ? 54,4
Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug ?1,9 ? 0,9 ? 1,2 ? 1,3 ?74,3 ? 66,3 ? 66 ? 68,1 ?1,1 ? 0,5 ? 0,7 ? 0,8
Chukotka Autonomous Okrug (all indigenous) ?8,1 ? 7,3 ? 23,4 ? 26,7 ?68,6 ? 66,1 ? 51,8 ? 52,5 9,6 ? 30,8 ? 35,3
Evenk Autonomous Okrug[6] ?20 ? 14,1 ? 21,5 ? 22,0 ?62,5 ? 67,5 ? 61,9 ? 59,4
Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug (Nenets) ?10,7 ? 4,2 ? 5,2 ? 5,9 ?59,1 ? 59,2 ? 58,8 ? 61,7 ?1,5 ? 1,7 ? 1,9

References

  1. ^ "2010 All-Russian Population Census" (PDF). All-Russian Population Census (in Russian). December 22, 2011. Retrieved 2019.
  2. ^ Quinn, Eilís (May 14, 2020). ""Catastrophic" economic situation prompts merger talks for Nenets AO and Arkhangelsk Oblast". The Barents Observer. Retrieved 2020.
  3. ^ "Russian Regions to Become Single Federal Subject in Decade-First". The Moscow Times. May 13, 2020. Retrieved 2020.
  4. ^ Antonova, Elizaveta (July 2, 2020). "The head of the Nenets Autonomous District declared refusal to unite with the Arkhangelsk region". RBC (in Russian). Retrieved 2020.
  5. ^ Are the people who are in parentheses next to the autonomous regions and the second-largest two-part indigenous autonomous regions.
  6. ^ a b c d e f liquidated Autonomous okrug.

See also


  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

Autonomous_okrugs_of_Russia
 



 



 
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