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Goddess of motherhood and fertility
Lady of the Sea
Ashera. Eretz Israel Mus.jpg
Major cult centerMiddle-East
Formerly Jerusalem
SymbolAsherah pole
ConsortEl (Ugaritic religion)
Baal (Canaanite religion)
Elkunirsa (Hittite religion)
Yahweh (Israelite religion)
Amurru (Amorite religion)
Anu (Akkadian religion)
'Amm (Qatabanian religion)
Assur (Assyrian religion)
Offspring70 sons (Ugaritic religion)
77 or 88 sons (Hittite religion)
Greek equivalentRhea[1]

Asherah (; Hebrew: ?r?; Ugaritic A?irat; Hittite a-?e-ir-tu4;[2] Akkadian: a-?i-RAT;[3] Qatabanian RT)[4] in ancient Semitic religion, is a mother goddess who appears in a number of ancient sources. She appears in Akkadian writings by the name of A?ratu(m), and in Hittite writings as Aserdu(s) or Asertu(s). Asherah is generally considered identical with the Ugaritic goddess ?A?iratu.

Significance and roles

Asherah is identified as the consort of the Sumerian god Anu, and Ugaritic ?El,[5] the oldest deities of their respective pantheons.[6] This role gave her a similarly high rank in the Ugaritic pantheon.[7] Deuteronomy 12 has Yahweh (Jehovah) commanding the destruction of her shrines so as to maintain purity of his worship.[8] The name Dione, which like ?Elat means 'goddess', is clearly associated with Asherah in the Phoenician History of Sanchuniathon, because the same common epithet (?Elat) of "the Goddess par excellence" was used to describe her at Ugarit.[9] The Book of Jeremiah, written circa 628 BC, possibly refers to Asherah when it uses the title "queen of heaven"[a] in Jeremiah 7:16-18[10] and Jeremiah 44:17-19, 25.[11]

In Eastern Semitic texts

Ugarit sources from before 1200 BC almost always credit Athirat with her full title rbt ?a?rt ym (or rbt ?a?rt).[b] The phrase occurs 12 times in the Ba?al Epic alone.[12] The title rbt is most often vocalised as rab?tu,[13] although rabat and rab?ti are sometimes used by scholars.[14] Apparently of Akkadian origin, rab?tu means "(great) lady".[15] She appears to champion her son, Yam, god of the sea, in his struggle against Ba?al. Yam's ascription as 'god of' the sea in the English translation is somewhat incorrect, however, as 'y?m' (Hebrew: ‎) is a common western Semitic root that literally means 'sea'. As a result, one could understand Yam to be the sea itself, deified, as opposed a deity who holds dominion over it. Athirat's title can therefore been translated as "the lady ?A?iratu of the sea",[16] alternatively, "she who walks on the sea",[17] or even "the Great Lady-who-tramples-Yam".[18] A suggestion in 2010 by a scholar is that the name Athirat might be derived from a passive participle form, referring to the "one followed by (the gods)", that is, "pro-genitress or originatress", which would correspond to Asherah's image as the 'mother of the gods' in Ugaritic literature.[19]

Certain translators and commentators theorise that Athirat's name is from the Ugaritic root ?a?r, 'stride', a cognate of the Hebrew root r, of the same meaning. Alternative translations of her title have been tendered that follow this suggested etymology, such as "she who treads on the sea dragon",[20] or "she who treads on Tyre"[21] - the former of which appears to be an attempt to grant the Ugaritic texts a type of Chaoskampf (struggle against Chaos). A more recent analysis of this epithet has resulted in the proposition of a radically different translation, namely "Lady Asherah of the day", or, more simply, "Lady Day".[22] The common Semitic root ywm (for reconstructed Proto-Semitic *yawm-),[23] from which derives (Hebrew: ?‎), meaning 'day', appears in several instances in the Masoretic Texts with the second-root letter (-w-) having been dropped, and in a select few cases, replaced with an A-class vowel of the Niqqud,[24] resulting in the word becoming y(a)m. Such occurrences, as well as the fact that the plural, 'days', can be read as both yomîm and y?mîm (Hebrew: ‎), gives credence to this alternate translation.

Another primary epithet of Athirat was qnyt ?ilm,[c][25] which may be translated as "the creatrix of the deities".[12] In those texts, Athirat is the consort of the god ?El; there is one reference to the 70 sons of Athirat, presumably the same as the 70 sons of ?El. Among the Hittites this goddess appears as Asherdu(s) or Asertu(s), the consort of Elkunirsa ('El, the Creator of Earth') and mother of either 77 or 88 sons. Among the Amarna letters a King of the Amorites is named Abdi-Ashirta, "Servant of Asherah".[26]

She is also called ?Elat,[d] 'goddess', the feminine form of ?El (compare Allat) and Qodesh or Qudshu, 'holiness'.[e]

In Akkadian texts, Athirat appears as Ashirat; though her exact role in the pantheon is unclear; as a separate goddess, Antu, was considered the wife of Anu, the god of Heaven. In contrast, ?Ashtart is believed to be linked to the Mesopotamian goddess Ishtar who is sometimes portrayed as the daughter of Anu while in Ugaritic myth, ?Ashtart is one of the daughters of ?El, the West Semitic counterpart of Anu. Several Akkadian sources also preserve what are considered to be Amorite theophoric names which use Asherah - usually appearing as Ashiratum or Ashratum.[27]

In Egyptian sources

A digital collage showing an image of Qetesh together with hieroglyphs taken from a separate Egyptian relief (the 'Triple Goddess stone')

Beginning during the Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt, a Semitic goddess named Qetesh ("holiness", sometimes reconstructed as Qudshu) appears prominently. That dynasty follows expulsion of occupying foreigners from an intermediary period. Some think this deity is Athirat/Ashratu under her Ugaritic name. This Qetesh seems not to be either ?Ashtart or ?Anat as both those goddesses appear under their own names and with quite different iconography, yet is called "Qudshu-Astarte-Anat" in at least one pictorial representation, aptly named the "Triple Goddess Stone".

In the Persian, Hellenistic, and Roman periods in Egypt, however, there was a strong tendency of syncretism toward goddesses, and Athirat/Ashratum then seems to have disappeared, at least as a prominent goddess under a recognizable name.

Religious scholar Saul M. Olyan (author of Asherah and the Cult of Yahweh in Israel) calls the representation on the Qudshu-Astarte-Anat plaque "a triple-fusion hypostasis", and considers Qudshu to be an epithet of Athirat by a process of elimination, for Astarte and Anat appear after Qudshu in the inscription.[28][29]

In Israel and Judah

Between the tenth century BC and the beginning of their exile in 586 BC, polytheism was normal throughout Israel.[30] Worship solely of Yahweh became established only after the exile, and possibly, only as late as the time of the Maccabees (2nd century BC). That is when monotheism became universal among the Jews.[31][32] Some biblical scholars believe that Asherah at one time was worshipped as the consort of Yahweh, the national God of Israel.[31][33][34]

There are references to the worship of numerous deities throughout Kings: Solomon builds temples to many deities and Josiah is reported as cutting down the statues of Asherah in the temple Solomon built for Yahweh (2 Kings 23:14). Josiah's grandfather Manasseh had erected one such statue (2 Kings 21:7).[35]

Further evidence for Asherah-worship includes, for example, an eighth-century BC combination of iconography and inscriptions discovered at Kuntillet Ajrud in the northern Sinai desert[36] where a storage jar shows three anthropomorphic figures and several inscriptions.[37][38] The inscriptions found refer not only to Yahweh but to ?El and Ba?al, and two include the phrases "Yahweh of Samaria and his Asherah" and "Yahweh of Teman and his Asherah."[39] The references to Samaria (capital of the kingdom of Israel) and Teman (in Edom) suggest that Yahweh had a temple in Samaria, while raising questions about the relationship between Yahweh and Kaus, the national god of Edom.[40] The 'asherah' in question is most likely a cultic object, although the relationship of this object (a stylised tree perhaps) to Yahweh and to the goddess Asherah, consort of ?El, is unclear.[41] It has been suggested that the Israelites may have considered Asherah as the consort of Ba?al, due to the anti-Asherah ideology that was influenced by the Deuteronomistic Historians, at the later period of the kingdom.[42] Also, it has been suggested by several scholars [43][44] that there is a relationship between the position of the g?bîrâ in the royal court and the worship (orthodox or not) of Asherah.[45] In a potsherd inscription of blessings from "Yahweh and his Asherah", there appears a cow feeding its calf.[46] Numerous Canaanite amulets depict a woman wearing a bouffant wig similar to the Egyptian Hathor. If Asherah is then to be associated with Hathor/Qudshu, it can then be assumed that the cow is being referred to as Asherah.

William Dever's book Did God Have a Wife? adduces further archaeological evidence--for instance, the many female figurines unearthed in ancient Israel, (known as pillar-base figurines)--as supporting the view that during Israelite folk religion of the monarchical period, Asherah functioned as a goddess and a consort of Yahweh and was worshiped as the queen of heaven, for whose festival the Hebrews baked small cakes. Dever also points to the discovery of multiple shrines and temples within ancient Israel and Judah. The temple site at Arad is particularly interesting for the presence of two (possibly three) massebot, standing stones representing the presence of deities. Although the identity of the deities associated with the massebot is uncertain, Yahweh and Asherah or Asherah and Baal remain strong candidates, as Dever notes: "The only goddess whose name is well attested in the Hebrew Bible (or in ancient Israel generally) is Asherah."

The name Asherah appears forty times in the Hebrew Bible, but it is much reduced in English translations. The word ?râ is translated in Greek as (grove; plural) in every instance apart from Isaiah 17:8; 27:9 and 2 Chronicles 15:16; 24:18, with (trees) being used for the former, and, peculiarly, ? (Astarte) for the latter. The Vulgate in Latin provided lucus or nemus, a grove or a wood. From the Vulgate, the King James translation of the Bible uses grove or groves instead of Asherah's name. Non-scholarly English language readers of the Bible would not have read her name for more than 400 years afterward.[47] The association of Asherah with trees in the Hebrew Bible is very strong. For example, she is found under trees (1 Kings 14:23; 2 Kings 17:10) and is made of wood by human beings (1 Kings 14:15, 2 Kings 16:3-4). Trees described as being an asherah or part of an asherah include grapevines, pomegranates, walnuts, myrtles, and willows.[48]

Worship and suppression

Episodes in the Hebrew Bible show a gender imbalance in Hebrew religion. Asherah was patronized by female royals such as the Queen Mother Maacah (1 Kings 15:13). But more commonly, perhaps, Asherah was worshiped within the household and her offerings were performed by family matriarchs. As the women of Jerusalem attested, "When we burned incense to the Queen of Heaven and poured out drink offerings to her, did not our husbands know that we were making cakes impressed with her image and pouring out drink offerings to her?" (Jeremiah 44:19). This passage corroborates a number of archaeological excavations showing altar spaces in Hebrew homes. The "household idols" variously referred to in the Bible may also be linked to the hundreds of female pillar-base figurines that have been discovered.[37]

Jezebel brought hundreds of prophets for Baal and Asherah with her into the Israelite court.[49]

Popular culture defines Canaanite religion and Hebrew idolatry as sexual "fertility cults," products of primitive superstition rather than spiritual philosophy. This position is buttressed by the Hebrew Bible, which frequently and graphically associates goddess religions with prostitution. As Jeremiah wrote, "On every high hill and under every spreading tree you lay down as a prostitute" (Jeremiah 2:20). Hosea, Jeremiah, and Ezekiel in particular blame the goddess religions for making Yahweh "jealous", and cite his jealousy as the reason Yahweh allowed the destruction of Jerusalem. As for sexual and fertility rites, it is likely that once they were held in honor in Israel, as they were throughout the ancient world. Although their nature remains uncertain, sexual rites typically revolved around women of power and influence, such as Maacah. The Hebrew term qadishtu, usually translated as "temple prostitutes" or "shrine prostitutes", literally means "priestesses" or "priests".[50]


Some scholars have found an early link between Asherah and Eve, based upon the coincidence of their common title as "the mother of all living" in Genesis 3:20[51] through the identification with the Hurrian mother goddess Hebat.[52][53] There is further speculation that the Shekhinah as a feminine aspect of Yahweh, may be a cultural memory or devolution of Asherah.

In Christian scripture, the Holy Spirit is represented by a dove--a ubiquitous symbol of goddess religions, also found on Hebrew naos shrines.[37] This speculation is not widely accepted. In the non-canon Gnostic Gospel of Thomas, Jesus is depicted saying, "Whoever knows the Father and the Mother will be called the child of a whore." Goddess symbology nevertheless persists in Christian iconography; Israel Morrow notes that while Christian art typically displays female angels with avian wings, the only biblical reference to such figures comes through Zechariah's vision of pagan goddesses.[54]

Ugaritic amulets show a miniature "tree of life" growing out of Asherah's belly.[37] Accordingly, Asherah poles, which were sacred trees or poles, are mentioned many times in the Hebrew Bible, rendered as palus sacer (sacred poles) in the Latin Vulgate. Asherah poles were prohibited by the Deuteronomic Code that commanded "You shall not plant any tree as an Asherah beside the altar of the Lord your God".[55] The prohibition, as Dever notes, is also a testament to the practice of putting up Asherah poles beside Yahweh's altars (cf. 2 Kings 21:7) amongst Israelites. Another significant biblical reference occurs in the legend of Deborah, a female ruler of Israel who held court under a sacred tree (Judges 4:5), which was preserved for many generations. Morrow further notes that the "funeral pillars of the kings" described by Ezekiel (43:9, variously translated as "funeral offerings" or even "carcasses of the kings") were likely constructed of sacred wood, since the prophet connects them with "prostitution."[54]

The lioness made a ubiquitous symbol for goddesses of the ancient Middle East that was similar to the dove and the tree. Lionesses figure prominently in Asherah's iconography, including the tenth century BC Ta'anach cult stand, which also includes the tree motif. A Hebrew arrowhead from eleventh century BC bears the inscription "Servant of the Lion Lady".[37]

In Arabia

As 'Athirat', she was attested in pre-Islamic south Arabia as the consort of the moon-god 'Amm.[56]

A stele, now located at the Louvre, discovered by Charles Huber in 1883 in the ancient oasis of Tema,[f] northwestern Arabia, and believed to date to the time of Nabonidus's retirement there in 549 BC, bears an inscription in Aramaic that mentions ?alm of Ma?ram, Shingala, and Ashira as the deities of Tema.

This 'Ashira' may be Athirat/Asherah. Due to differences in regional dialects, the Arabic 'th' (; Arabic: ?‎, romanized; corresponding to the Ugaritic ?), can occur as either 'th' (; Hebrew: ?‎, romanizedtav) or 'sh' (; Hebrew: ‎, romanizedshin).[57] Additionally, it is widely considered that the Canaanite 'th' is equivalent to the 'sh' sound in most other Semitic languages, which further complicates matters. Furthermore, it is unclear whether the name would be an Arabian vocalisation of the Ugaritic ?a?rt or a later borrowing of the Canaanite 'Asherah'. We could therefore, assert that the root of both names is rt, and we could infer an etymological connection between Ashira and Athirat.[58]

The Arabic root '?r is similar in meaning to the Hebrew indicating 'to tread' used as a basis to explain the name of Ashira as "lady of the sea", especially as the Arabic root ymm also means 'sea'.[59] Recently, it has been suggested that the goddess name Athirat might be derived from the passive participle form, referring to "one followed by (the gods)", that is, "pro-genitress or originatress", corresponding with Asherah's image as the 'mother of the gods' in Ugaritic literature.[60]

See also

Explanatory notes

  1. ^ Hebrew: ?
  2. ^ Ugaritic ? , rbt ?a?rt ym
  3. ^ Ugaritic ? , qnyt ?lm
  4. ^ Ugaritic , ilt
  5. ^ Ugaritic , qd?
  6. ^ Modern Tayma - Arabic:


  1. ^ Miller, Patrick D. (1967). "El the Warrior". The Harvard Theological Review. 60 (4): 411-431. doi:10.1017/S0017816000003886. JSTOR 1509250.
  2. ^ 'Asertu, tablet concordance KUB XXXVI 35 - CTH 342', Hittite Collection, Hatice Gonnet-Ba?ana; Koç University.
  3. ^ Day, John. "Asherah in the Hebrew Bible and Northwest Semitic Literature." Journal of Biblical Literature, vol. 105, no. 3, 1986, pp. 385-408. JSTOR, Accessed 5 Aug. 2021.
  5. ^ "Asherah" in The New Encyclopædia Britannica. Chicago: Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 15th edn., 1992, Vol. 1, pp. 623-624.
  6. ^ Leeming, David (17 November 2005). The Oxford Companion to World Mythology. Oxford University Press, USA. p. 32. ISBN 978-0-19-515669-0.
  7. ^ Binger, Tilde (1997). Asherah: Goddesses in Ugarit, Israel and the Old Testament (1st ed.). Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press. pp. 74. ISBN 9780567119766.
  8. ^ Deuteronomy 12: 3-4
  9. ^ Olyan, Saul M. (1988), Asherah and the cult of Yahweh in Israel, Scholars Press, p. 79, ISBN 9781555402549
  10. ^ "...pray thou not for this people... The children gather wood, and the fathers kindle the fire, and the women knead [their] dough, to make cakes to the queen of heaven, and to pour out drink offerings to other gods, that they may provoke me to anger." (King James Version)
  11. ^ Rainer, Albertz (2010), "Personal piety", in Stavrakopoulou, Francesca; Barton, John (eds.), Religious Diversity in Ancient Israel and Judah (reprint ed.), Continuum International Publishing Group, pp. 135-146 (at 143), ISBN 9780567032164
  12. ^ a b Gibson, J. C. L.; Driver, G. R. (1978), Canaanite Myths and Legends, T. & T. Clark, ISBN 9780567023513
  13. ^ Wiggins, Steve A. (2007). Wyatt, N. (ed.). A Reassessment of Asherah: With Further Considerations of the Goddess. Gorgias Ugaritic Studies 2. NJ, USA: Gorgias Press. p. 77.
  14. ^ Ahlström, Gösta W. (1963). Engnell, Ivan; Furumark, Arne; Nordström, Carl-Otto (eds.). Aspects of Syncretism in Israelite Religion. Horae Soederblominae 5. Translated by Sharpe, Eric J. Lund, SE: C.W.K. Gleerup. p. 68.
  15. ^ Rahmouni, Aicha (2008). "Epithet 94: rbt ?a?rt ym". Divine Epithets in the Ugaritic Alphabetic Texts. Translated by Ford, J. N. Leiden, NE: Brill. pp. 278.
  16. ^ Rahmouni, Aicha (2008). "Epithet 94: rbt ?a?rt ym". Divine Epithets in the Ugaritic Alphabetic Texts. Translated by Ford, J. N. Leiden, NE: Brill. pp. 281.
  17. ^ Binger, Tilde (1997). Asherah: Goddesses in Ugarit, Israel and the Old Testament (1st ed.). Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press. pp. 44. ISBN 9780567119766.
  18. ^ Wyatt, N. (2003). Religious Texts from Ugarit (2nd ed.). London: Sheffield Academic Press. pp. 131 et al.
  19. ^ Sung Jin Park, "Short Notes on the Etymology of Asherah", Ugarit Forschungen 42 (2010): 527-534.
  20. ^ Albright, W. F. (1968). Yahweh and the gods of Canaan: a historical analysis of two contrasting faiths. London: University of London, Athlone Press. pp. 105-106. ISBN 9780931464010.
  21. ^ Emerton, J. A. (1982). "New Light on Israelite Religion: The Implications of the Inscriptions from Kuntillet ?Ajrud", Zeitschrift für die Alttestamentliche Wissenschaft 94. Brill. p. 8. doi:10.1515/zatw.1982.94.1.2. S2CID 170614720.
  22. ^ Binger, Tilde (1997). Asherah: Goddesses in Ugarit, Israel and the Old Testament (1st ed.). Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press. pp. 42-93. ISBN 9780567119766.
  23. ^ Kogan, Leonid (2012). "Proto-Semitic Lexicon". In Weninger, Stefan (ed.). The Semitic Languages: An International Handbook. Walter de Gruyter. pp. 179-258.
  24. ^ Numbers 6:5, Job 7:6
  25. ^ see KTU 1.4 I 23.
  26. ^ Noted by Raphael Patai, "The Goddess Asherah", Journal of Near Eastern Studies 24.1/2 (1965: 37-52), p. 39.
  27. ^ Hess, Richard S. "Asherah or Asherata?" Orientalia, vol. 65, no. 3, 1996, pp. 209-219. JSTOR, Accessed 6 Aug. 2021.
  28. ^ The Ugaritic Baal cycle: Volume 2 by Mark S. Smith, page 295
  29. ^ The Origins of Biblical Monotheism: Israel's Polytheistic Background and the Ugaritic Texts by Mark S. Smith - Page 237
  30. ^ Finkelstein, Israel, and Silberman, Neil Asher, The Bible Unearthed: Archaeology's New Vision of Ancient Israel and the Origin of Its Sacred Texts, Simon & Schuster, 2002, pp. 241-242.
  31. ^ a b "BBC Two - Bible's Buried Secrets, Did God Have a Wife?". BBC. 21 December 2011. Retrieved 2012.
  32. ^ Quote from the BBC documentary (prof. Herbert Niehr): "Between the 10th century and the beginning of their exile in 586 there was polytheism as normal religion all throughout Israel; only afterwards things begin to change and very slowly they begin to change. I would say it [the sentence "Jews were monotheists" - n.n.] is only correct for the last centuries, maybe only from the period of the Maccabees, that means the second century BC, so in the time of Jesus of Nazareth it is true, but for the time before it, it is not true."
  33. ^ Wesler, Kit W. (2012). An Archaeology of Religion. University Press of America. p. 193. ISBN 978-0761858454. Retrieved 2014.
  34. ^ Mills, Watson, ed. (31 December 1999). Mercer Dictionary of the Bible (Reprint ed.). Mercer University Press. p. 494. ISBN 978-0865543737.
  35. ^ "Genesis Chapter 1 (NKJV)". Blue Letter Bible.
  36. ^ Ze'ev Meshel, Kuntillet 'Ajrud: An Israelite Religious Center in Northern Sinai, Expedition 20 (Summer 1978), pp. 50-55
  37. ^ a b c d e Dever 2005
  38. ^ Hadley 2000, pp. 122-136
  39. ^ Bonanno, Anthony (1986). Archaeology and Fertility Cult in the Ancient Mediterranean: Papers Presented at the First International Conference on Archaeology of the Ancient Mediterranean, University of Malta, 2-5 September 1985. John Benjamins Publishing. p. 238. ISBN 9789060322888. Retrieved 2014.
  40. ^ Keel, Othmar; Uehlinger, Christoph (1998). Gods, Goddesses, And Images of God. Bloomsbury Academic. p. 228. ISBN 9780567085917. Retrieved 2014.
  41. ^ Keel, Othmar; Uehlinger, Christoph (1998). Gods, Goddesses, And Images of God. Bloomsbury Academic. pp. 232-233. ISBN 9780567085917. Retrieved 2014.
  42. ^ Sung Jin Park, "The Cultic Identity of Asherah in Deuteronomistic Ideology of Israel," Zeitschrift für die Alttestamentliche Wissenschaft 123/4 (2011): 553-564.
  43. ^ Ackerman, Susan (1993). "The Queen Mother and the Cult in Ancient Israel". Journal of Biblical Literature. 112 (3): 385-401. doi:10.2307/3267740. JSTOR 3267740.
  44. ^ Bowen, Nancy (2001). "The Quest for the Historical G?bîrâ". Catholic Biblical Quarterly. 64: 597-618.
  45. ^ 1 Kings 15:13; 18:19, 2 Kings 10:13
  46. ^ Dever 2005, p. 163.
  47. ^ "Asherah". Retrieved 2016.
  48. ^ Danby, Herbert (1933). The Mishnah: Translated from the Hebrew With Introduction and Brief Explanatory Notes. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 90, 176. ISBN 9780198154020.
  49. ^ Coogan, Michael (2010). God and Sex. Twelve. p. 47. ISBN 978-0-446-54525-9.
  50. ^ Stone, Merlin (1976). When God Was A Woman: The landmark exploration of the ancient worship of the Great Goddess and the eventual suppression of women's rites. ISBN 015696158X.
  51. ^ Jenny Kein, (2000)"Reinstating the Divine Woman in Judaism" (Universal Publishers; 1 edition (January 15, 2000)
  52. ^ Bach, Alice Women in the Hebrew Bible Routledge; 1 edition (3 Nov 1998) ISBN 978-0-415-91561-8 p.171
  53. ^ Donald B. Redford, Egypt, Canaan, and Israel in Ancient Times, Princeton University Press, 1992 p.270.
  54. ^ a b Morrow, Israel (2019). Gods of the Flesh: A Skeptic's Journey Through Sex, Politics and Religion. ISBN 9780578438290.
  55. ^ Deut 16:21
  56. ^ Jordan, Michael (14 May 2014). Dictionary of Gods and Goddesses. Infobase Publishing. p. 37. ISBN 9781438109855.
  57. ^ Baruch Margalit, "The Meaning and Significance of Asherah," Vetus Testamentum 40 (July 1990): 264-97.
  58. ^ Watkins, Justin (2007). "Athirat: As Found at Ras Shamra". Studia Antiqua. 5 (1): 45-55.
  59. ^ Lucy Goodison and Christine Morris, Ancient Goddesses: Myths and Evidence (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1998), 79.
  60. ^ Sung Jin Park, "Short Notes on the Etymology of Asherah", Ugarit Forschungen 42 (2010): 527-534.

General sources

  • Ahlström, Gösta W. (1963), Engnell, Ivan; Furumark, Arne; Nordström, Carl-Otto (eds.), Aspects of Syncretism in Israelite Religion, Horae Soederblominae 5, translated by Sharpe, Eric J., Lund, SE: C.W.K. Gleerup, p. 68.
  • Albright, W. F. (1968), Yahweh and the gods of Canaan: a historical analysis of two contrasting faiths, London: University of London, Athlone Press, pp. 105-106, ISBN 9780931464010.
  • Barker, Margaret (2012), The Mother of the Lord Volume 1: The Lady in the Temple, T & T Clark, ISBN 9780567528155.
  • Binger, Tilde (1997), Asherah: Goddesses in Ugarit, Israel and the Old Testament (1st ed.), Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, pp. 42-93, ISBN 9780567119766.
  • Dever, William G. (2005), Did God Have A Wife?: Archaeology And Folk Religion In Ancient Israel, Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, ISBN 9780802828521.
  • Emerton, J. A. (1982). "New Light on Israelite Religion: The Implications of the Inscriptions from Kuntillet ?Ajrud". Zeitschrift für die Alttestamentliche Wissenschaft. 94: 2-20. doi:10.1515/zatw.1982.94.1.2. S2CID 170614720.
  • Hadley, Judith M. (2000), The Cult of Asherah in Ancient Israel and Judah: The Evidence for a Hebrew Goddess, University of Cambridge Oriental publications, 57, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 9780521662352.
  • Kien, Jenny (2000), Reinstating the Divine Woman in Judaism, Universal Publishers, ISBN 9781581127638, OCLC 45500083.
  • Long, Asphodel P. (1993), In a Chariot Drawn by Lions: The Search for the Female in Deity, Crossing Press, ISBN 9780895945754.
  • Myer, Allen C. (2000), "Asherah", Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible, Amsterdam University Press.
  • Park, Sung Jin (2010). "Short Notes on the Etymology of Asherah". Ugarit Forschungen. 42: 527-534.
  • Park, Sung Jin (2011). "The Cultic Identity of Asherah in Deuteronomistic Ideology of Israel". Zeitschrift für die Alttestamentliche Wissenschaft. 123 (4): 553-564. doi:10.1515/zaw.2011.036. S2CID 170589596.
  • Patai, Raphael (1990), The Hebrew Goddess, Jewish folklore and anthropology, Wayne State University Press, ISBN 9780814322710, OCLC 20692501.
  • Rahmouni, Aicha (2008), Divine Epithets in the Ugaritic Alphabetic Texts, translated by Ford, J. N., Leiden, NE: Brill.
  • Reed, William Laforest (1949), The Asherah in the Old Testament, Texas christian university press, OCLC 491761457.
  • Taylor, Joan E. (1995), "The Asherah, the Menorah and the Sacred Tree", Journal for the Study of the Old Testament, University of Sheffield, Dept. of Biblical Studies, 20 (66): 29-54, doi:10.1177/030908929502006602, ISSN 0309-0892, OCLC 88542166, S2CID 170422840.
  • Wiggins, Steve A. (1993), A Reassessment of 'Asherah': A Study according to the Textual Sources of the First Two Millennia B.C.E, Alter Orient und Altes Testament, Bd. 235., Verlag Butzon & Bercker, ISBN 9783788714796.
  • Wiggins, Steve A. (2007), Wyatt, N. (ed.), A Reassessment of Asherah: With Further Considerations of the Goddess, Gorgias Ugaritic Studies 2 (2nd ed.), NJ, USA: Gorgias Press.
  • Wyatt, N. (2003), Religious Texts from Ugarit (2nd ed.), London: Sheffield Academic Press.

External links


Kuntillet ?Ajrud inscriptions


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