Arabic Script
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Arabic script
Arabic-script.png
Script type
Abjad primarily

Alphabet in some adaptations
Time period
400 CE to the present
Directionright-to-left script 
Official script

Co-official script in:

10 sovereign states
LanguagesSee below
Related scripts
Parent systems
Child systems
N'Ko
Hanifi script
ISO 15924
ISO 15924Arab (160), ​Arabic
Unicode
Unicode alias
Arabic
 This article contains phonetic transcriptions in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA). For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA. For the distinction between [ ], / / and ⟨ ⟩, see IPA § Brackets and transcription delimiters.

The Arabic script is a writing system used for Arabic and several other languages of Asia and Africa. It is the second-most widely used writing system in the world by number of countries using it, and the third-most by number of users (after the Latin and Chinese scripts).[1]

The script was first used to write texts in Arabic, most notably the Quran, the holy book of Islam. With the religion's spread, it came to be used as the primary script for many language families, leading to the addition of new letters and other symbols. Such languages still using it are: Persian (Farsi/Dari), Malay (Jawi), Uyghur, Kurdish, Punjabi (Shahmukhi), Sindhi, Balti, Balochi, Pashto, Lurish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Rohingya, Somali and Mandinka, Mooré among others.[2] Until the 16th century, it was also used for some Spanish texts, and--prior to the language reform in 1928--it was the writing system of Turkish.[3]

The script is written from right to left in a cursive style, in which most of the letters are written in slightly different forms according to whether they stand alone or are joined to a following or preceding letter. However, the basic letter form remains unchanged. The script does not have capital letters.[4] In most cases, the letters transcribe consonants, or consonants and a few vowels, so most Arabic alphabets are abjads, with the versions used for some languages, such as Sorani, Uyghur, Mandarin, and Serbo-Croatian, being alphabets. It is also the basis for the tradition of Arabic calligraphy.

History

The Arabic alphabet is derived either from the Nabataean alphabet[5][6] or (less widely believed) directly from the Syriac alphabet,[7] which are both derived from the Aramaic alphabet (which also gave rise to the Hebrew alphabet), which, in turn, descended from the Phoenician alphabet. In addition to the Aramaic script (and, therefore, the Arabic and Hebrew scripts), the Phoenician script also gave rise to the Greek alphabet (and, therefore, both the Cyrillic alphabet and the Latin alphabet used to write this article).

Origins

In the 6th and 5th centuries BCE, northern Arab tribes emigrated and founded a kingdom centred around Petra, Jordan. These people (now named Nabataeans from the name of one of the tribes, Nabatu) spoke Nabataean Arabic, a dialect of the Arabic language. In the 2nd or 1st centuries BCE,[8][9] the first known records of the Nabataean alphabet were written in the Aramaic language (which was the language of communication and trade), but included some Arabic language features: the Nabataeans did not write the language which they spoke. They wrote in a form of the Aramaic alphabet, which continued to evolve; it separated into two forms: one intended for inscriptions (known as "monumental Nabataean") and the other, more cursive and hurriedly written and with joined letters, for writing on papyrus.[10] This cursive form influenced the monumental form more and more and gradually changed into the Arabic alphabet.

Overview

the Arabic alphabet
? ? ? ? ? ? ?
kh?' ' j?m tha' t?' b?' alif
? ? ? ? ? ? ?
d sh?n s?n z?y /
zayn
r?' dh?l d?l
? ? ? ? ? ? ?
q?f f?' ghayn 'ayn ' ' d
? ? ? ? ? ? ?
j?' w?w h?' n?n m?m l?m k?f
(see below for other alphabets)

The Arabic script has been adapted for use in a wide variety of languages besides Arabic, including Persian, Malay and Urdu, which are not Semitic. Such adaptations may feature altered or new characters to represent phonemes that do not appear in Arabic phonology. For example, the Arabic language lacks a voiceless bilabial plosive (the [p] sound), therefore many languages add their own letter to represent [p] in the script, though the specific letter used varies from language to language. These modifications tend to fall into groups: Indian and Turkic languages written in the Arabic script tend to use the Persian modified letters, whereas the languages of Indonesia tend to imitate those of Jawi. The modified version of the Arabic script originally devised for use with Persian is known as the Perso-Arabic script by scholars.[]

When the Arabic script is used to write Serbo-Croatian, Sorani, Kashmiri, Mandarin Chinese, or Uyghur, vowels are mandatory. The Arabic script can, therefore, be used as a true alphabet as well as an abjad, although it is often strongly, if erroneously, connected to the latter due to it being originally used only for Arabic.[]

Use of the Arabic script in West African languages, especially in the Sahel, developed with the spread of Islam. To a certain degree the style and usage tends to follow those of the Maghreb (for instance the position of the dots in the letters f?' and q?f).[11][12] Additional diacritics have come into use to facilitate the writing of sounds not represented in the Arabic language. The term ?Ajam?, which comes from the Arabic root for "foreign," has been applied to Arabic-based orthographies of African languages.[]

Wikipedia in Arabic script of five languages

Table of writing styles

Script or style Alphabet(s) Language(s) Region Derived from Comment
Naskh Arabic
& others
Arabic
& others
Every region where Arabic scripts are used Sometimes refers to a very specific calligraphic style, but sometimes used to refer more broadly to almost every font that is not Kufic or Nastaliq.
Nastaliq Urdu,
Persian,
& others
Urdu,
Persian,
& others
Southern and Western Asia Taliq Used for almost all modern Urdu text, but only occasionally used for Persian. (The term "Nastaliq" is sometimes used by Urdu speakers to refer to all Perso-Arabic scripts.)
Taliq Persian Persian A predecessor of Nastaliq.
Kufic Arabic Arabic Middle East and parts of North Africa
Rasm Restricted Arabic alphabet Arabic Mainly historical Omits all diacritics including i'jam. Digital replication usually requires some special characters. See: ? ? ?‎ (links to Wiktionary).

Table of alphabets

Alphabet Letters Additional
Characters
Script or Style Languages Region Derived from:
(or related to)
Note
Arabic 28 ^(see above) Naskh, Kufi, Rasm, & others Arabic North Africa, West Asia Aramaic,
Syriac,
Nabataean
Ajami script 33 ? Naskh Hausa, Yoruba, Swahili West Africa Arabic Abjad
Aljamiado 28 Naskh Old Spanish, Mozarabic, Ladino, Aragonese, Old Galician-Portuguese Southwest Europe Arabic 8th-13th centuries for Mozarabic, 14th-16th centuries for the other languages
Arebica 30 ? ? ? ? ? ? Naskh Serbo-Croatian Southeastern Europe Perso-Arabic Latest stage has full vowel marking
Arwi alphabet 41 ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Naskh Tamil Southern India, Sri Lanka Perso-Arabic
Belarusian Arabic alphabet 32 ? ? Naskh Belarusian Eastern Europe Perso-Arabic 15th / 16th century
Balochi Standard Alphabet(s) 29 ? ? ? ? ? Naskh and Nastaliq Balochi South-West Asia Perso-Arabic, also borrows multiple glyphs from Urdu This standardization is based on the previous orthography. For more information, see Balochi writing.
Berber Arabic alphabet(s) 33 ? ? ? ? ? Various Berber languages North Africa Arabic
Burushaski 53 ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
(see note)
Nastaliq Burushaski South-West Asia (Pakistan) Urdu Also uses the additional letters shown for Urdu.(see below) Sometimes written with just the Urdu alphabet, or with the Latin alphabet.
Chagatai alphabet 32 ? Nastaliq and Naskh Chagatai Central Asia Perso-Arabic ? is interchangeable with and ?.
Galal 32 Naskh Somali Horn of Africa Arabic
Jawi 36 ? ? ? ? ? ? Naskh Malay Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra and part of Borneo Perso-Arabic Since 1303 AD (Trengganu Stone)
Kashmiri 44 ? ? ? ? Nastaliq Kashmiri South Asia Urdu This orthography is fully voweled. 3 out of the 4 (?, ?, ?) additional glyphs are actually vowels. Not all vowels are listed here since they are not separate letters. For further information, see Kashmiri writing.
Kazakh Arabic alphabet 35 ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Naskh Kazakh Central Asia, China Chagatai In use since 11th century, reformed in the early 20th century, now official only in China
Khowar 45 ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Nastaliq Khowar South Asia Urdu, however, borrows multiple glyphs from Pashto
Kyrgyz Arabic alphabet 33 ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Naskh Kyrgyz Central Asia Chagatai In use since 11th century, reformed in the early 20th century, now official only in China
Pashto 45 ? ? Naskh and occasionally, Nastaliq Pashto South-West Asia, Afghanistan and Pakistan Perso-Arabic ? is interchangeable with ?. Also, the glyphs ? and ? are often replaced with ? in Pakistan.
Pegon script 35 ? ? ? ? ? ? Naskh Javanese, Sundanese South-East Asia (Indonesia) Perso-Arabic
Persian 32 ? ? ? ? Naskh and Nastaliq Persian (Farsi) West Asia (Iran etc. ) Arabic Also known as
Perso-Arabic.
Saraiki 45 ? ? ? ? Nastaliq Saraiki South-West Asia (Pakistan) Shahmukhi
Shahmukhi 41+
(see note)
? ? Nastaliq Punjabi South-West Asia (Pakistan) Urdu Similar to Urdu; 58[] letters including digraphs for aspirated consonants.
Sindhi 64 ? ? ? ? ?
? ? ? ? ? ?
? ? ? ? ? ?
? ? ? ? ? ? ?
Naskh Sindhi South-West Asia (Pakistan) Perso-Arabic
Sorabe 28 Naskh Malagasy Madagascar Arabic
Soranî 33 ? ? ? ? ? Naskh, and occasionally, Nastaliq Central Kurdish Middle-East Perso-Arabic Vowels are mandatory, i.e. abugida
Swahili Arabic script 28 Naskh Swahili Western and Southern Africa Arabic
?ske imlâ 35 ? Naskh Tatar Volga region Chagatai Used prior to 1920.
Ottoman Turkish 32 Ottoman Turkish Ottoman Empire Chagatai Official until 1928
Urdu 39+
(see notes)
? ? ? ? ? ? ?
(see notes)
Nastaliq Urdu South Asia Perso-Arabic 58[] letters including digraphs representing aspirated consonants.
Uyghur 32 ? ? Naskh Uyghur China, Central Asia Chagatai Reform of older Arabic-script Uyghur orthography that was used prior the 1950s. Vowels are mandatory, i.e. abugida
Wolofal 33 ? ? ? ? ? Naskh Wolof West Africa Arabic, however, borrows at least one glyph from Perso-Arabic
Xiao'erjing 36 ? ? ? Naskh Sinitic languages China, Central Asia Chagatai Used to write Chinese languages by Muslims living in China such as the Hui people.
Yaña imlâ 29 ? ? Naskh Tatar Volga region ?ske imlâ alphabet 1920-1927 replaced with Cyrillic

Current use

Today Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan, India, and China are the main non-Arabic speaking states using the Arabic alphabet to write one or more official national languages, including Azerbaijani, Baluchi, Brahui, Persian, Pashto, Central Kurdish, Urdu, Sindhi, Kashmiri, Punjabi and Uyghur.[]

An Arabic alphabet is currently used for the following languages:[]

Middle East and Central Asia

East Asia

South Asia

Southeast Asia

Africa

Former use

In the 20th century, the Arabic script was generally replaced by the Latin alphabet in the Balkans,[dubious ] parts of Sub-Saharan Africa, and Southeast Asia, while in the Soviet Union, after a brief period of Latinisation,[38] use of Cyrillic was mandated. Turkey changed to the Latin alphabet in 1928 as part of an internal Westernizing revolution. After the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, many of the Turkic languages of the ex-USSR attempted to follow Turkey's lead and convert to a Turkish-style Latin alphabet. However, renewed use of the Arabic alphabet has occurred to a limited extent in Tajikistan, whose language's close resemblance to Persian allows direct use of publications from Afghanistan and Iran.[39]

Africa

Europe

Central Asia and Caucasus

South and Southeast Asia

Middle East

Unicode

As of Unicode 15.0, the following ranges encode Arabic characters:

Additional letters used in other languages

Assignment of phonemes to graphemes

? = phoneme absent from language
Language family Austron. Dravid Turkic Indic Iranian Germanic Arabic
Language/script Jawi Pegon Arwi Ottoman Uyghur Tatars Sindhi Punjabi Urdu Persian Balochi Kurdish Pashto Afrikaans Moroccan Tunisian Algerian Egyptian Najdi Hejazi Palestinian Levantine Iraqi Gulf
? ? ? ? / ?
? ? ? ? ? ? / ? ? / / ? ? ? ? / ? ? / ?
? ? ? ? ?
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? / ? / ? ? / ?
? ? ? ? ? ? ? / ? ? ? ?
? ? ? ? ? ? ?
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
? ? ? ? ? ? ?
Table of additional letters in other languages
Letter or Digraph [A] Unicode i'jam & other additions Shape Similar Arabic Letter(s)
U+ [B] [C] above below
? Pe, used to represent the phoneme in Persian, Pashto, Punjabi, Khowar, Sindhi, Urdu, Kurdish, Kashmiri; it is can be used in Arabic to describe the phoneme otherwise it is normalized to ? e.g. Paul also written U+067E ? none 3 dots ? ?
? used to represent the equivalent of the Latin letter ? (palatalized glottal stop //) in some African languages such as Fulfulde. U+0750 none 3 dots
(horizontal)
? ?
? B, used to represent a voiced bilabial implosive in Hausa, Sindhi and Saraiki. U+067B ? none 2 dots
(vertically)
? ?
? represents an aspirated voiced bilabial plosive in Sindhi. U+0680 ? none 4 dots ? ?
? ?h?, represents the aspirated voiceless retroflex plosive in Sindhi. U+067A ? 2 dots
(vertically)
none ? ?
? , used to represent the phoneme in Pashto. U+067C ? ? 2 dots ring ? ?
? ?e, used to represent the phoneme (a voiceless retroflex plosive ) in Sindhi U+067D ? 3 dots
(inverted)
none ? ?
? ?e, used to represent ? (a voiceless retroflex plosive ) in Punjabi, Kashmiri, Urdu. U+0679 small
?
none ? ?
? Teheh, used in Sindhi and Rajasthani (when written in Sindhi alphabet); used to represent the phoneme (pinyin q) in Chinese Xiao'erjing. U+067F ? 4 dots none ? ?
? represents the "c" voiceless dental affricate phoneme in Bosnian. U+0684 ? none 2 dots
(vertically)
? ?
? represents the "?" voiceless alveolo-palatal affricate phoneme in Bosnian. U+0683 ? none 2 dots ? ? ?
? Che, used to represent ("ch"). It is used in Persian, Pashto, Punjabi, Urdu, Kashmiri and Kurdish. in Egypt. U+0686 ? none 3 dots ? ?
? Ce, used to represent the phoneme in Pashto. U+0685 ? 3 dots none ? ? ? ?
? represents the "?" voiced alveolo-palatal affricate phoneme in Bosnian. U+0757 ? 2 dots none ? ?
? ?im, used to represent the phoneme in Pashto. U+0681 Hamza none ? ? ? ?
? used in Saraiki to represent a Voiced alveolar implosive //. U+0759 small
?
2 dots
(vertically)
? ?
? used in Saraiki to represent a voiced retroflex implosive . U+068A ? none 1 dot ? ?
? ?al, used to represent a ? (a voiced retroflex plosive ) in Punjabi, Kashmiri and Urdu. U+0688 small ? none ? ?
? Dhal, used to represent the phoneme in Sindhi U+068C ? 2 dots none ? ?
? ?al, used to represent the phoneme in Pashto. U+0689 ? none ring ? ?
? ?e, represents a retroflex flap in Punjabi and Urdu. U+0691 small ? none ? ?
? ?e, used to represent a retroflex lateral flap in Pashto. U+0693 ? none ring ? ?
? used in Ormuri to represent a voiced alveolo-palatal fricative , as well as in Torwali. U+076B ? 2 dots
(vertically)
none ? ?
? ?e / zhe, used to represent the voiced postalveolar fricative in, Persian, Pashto, Kurdish, Urdu, Punjabi and Uyghur. U+0698 ? 3 dots none ? ?
? ?e / e, used to represent the phoneme in Pashto. U+0696 ? ? 1 dot 1 dot ? ?
? used in Kurdish to represent rr in Soranî dialect. U+0695 ? none V pointing down ? ?
? used in Kalami to represent a voiceless retroflex fricative , and in Ormuri to represent a voiceless alveolo-palatal fricative /?/. U+076D ? 2 dots vertically none ? ?
? used in Shina to represent a voiceless retroflex fricative . U+075C ? 4 dots none ? ? ?
? Xn / n, used to represent the phoneme in Pashto. U+069A ? ? 1 dot 1 dot ? ? ?
? Unofficially used to represent Spanish words with in Morocco. U+069C ? ? 3 dots 3 dots ? ? ?
? Ga, used to represent the voiced velar plosive in Algerian and Tunisian. U+06A8 ? 3 dots none ? ?
? Gaf, represents a voiced velar plosive in Persian, Pashto, Punjabi, Kyrgyz, Kazakh, Kurdish, Uyghur, Mesopotamian, Urdu and Ottoman Turkish. U+06AF line horizontal line none ? ?
? Gaf, used to represent the phoneme in Pashto. U+06AB ? ring none ? ?
? Gaf, represents a voiced velar plosive in the Jawi script of Malay. U+0762 ? 1 dot none ? ?
? U+06AC ? 1 dot none ? ?
? Gaf, represents a voiced velar plosive in the Pegon script of Indonesian. U+08B4 ? none 1 dot ? ?
? Ng, used to represent the phone in Ottoman Turkish, Kazakh, Kyrgyz, and Uyghur, and to unofficially represent the in Morocco and in many dialects of Algerian. U+06AD ? 3 dots none ? ?
Ee, used to represent the phoneme in Somali. U+0623 U+064A ? Hamza 2 dots
? E, used to represent the phoneme in Somali. U+0626 Hamza none ?
Ii, used to represent the phoneme in Somali and Saraiki. U+0649 U+0653 Madda none ? ?
? O, used to represent the phoneme in Somali. U+0624 Hamza none ? ?
? Ö, used to represent the phoneme in Kyrgyz. U+0624 Strikethrough[D] none ? ?
? Pasta Ye, used to represent the phoneme in Pashto and Uyghur. U+06D0 ? none 2 dots vertical ? ?
? N?r?na Ye, used to represent the phoneme [?j] and phoneme in Pashto. U+06CC ? 2 dots
(start + mid)
none ? ?
? X?na ye Ye, used to represent the phoneme [?i] in Pashto. U+06CD line horizontal
line
none ? ?
? F?iliya Ye, used to represent the phoneme [?i] and in Pashto, Punjabi, Saraiki and Urdu U+0626 Hamza none ? ? ?
Oo, used to represent the phoneme in Somali. U+0623 U+0648 Hamza none ? + ?
Uu, used to represent the phoneme in Somali. ?‎ + U+0648 U+0653 Madda none ? ? +
? represents a voiced velar implosive /?/ in Sindhi and Saraiki U+06B1 ? horizontal
line
2 dots ? ?
? represents the Velar nasal /?/ phoneme in Sindhi. U+06B1 ? 2 dots + horizontal
line
none ? ?
? Kh?, represents in Sindhi. U+06A9 none none none ? ?
? "Swash k?f" is a stylistic variant of ? ‎ in Arabic, but represents un- aspirated in Sindhi. U+06AA none none none ? ? or ?
? used to represent the phoneme (pinyin ng) in Chinese. U+0763 ? none 3 dots ? ?
? represents the retroflex nasal /?/ phoneme in Pashto. U+06BC ? ? ? 1 dot ring ?
? represents the retroflex nasal /?/ phoneme in Sindhi. U+06BB small ? none ? ?
? used in Punjabi to represent and Saraiki to represent . U+0768 ? ? 1 dot + small ? none ? ?
? Nya in the Jawi script. U+06BD ? 3 dots none ? ?
? Nya in the Pegon script. U+06D1 ? none 3 dots ? ?
? Nga in the Jawi script and Pegon script. U+06A0 ? 3 dots none ? ?
? used in Marwari to represent a retroflex lateral flap , and in Kalami to represent a voiceless lateral fricative . U+076A line horizontal
line
none ? ?
? ? - or alternately typeset as ‎ - is used in Punjabi to represent voiced retroflex lateral approximant /?/[43] U+08C7 small ? none ? ?
? U+0644 U+0615
? Vi, used in Algerian Arabic and Tunisian Arabic when written in Arabic script to represent the sound (unofficial). U+06A5 ? none 3 dots ? ?
? Ve, used in by some Arabic speakers to represent the phoneme /v/ in loanwords, and in the Kurdish language when written in Arabic script to represent the sound . Also used as pa in the Jawi script and Pegon script. U+06A4 ? 3 dots none ? ?
? Va in the Jawi script. U+06CF ? 1 dot none ? ?
? represents a voiced labiodental fricative in Kyrgyz, Uyghur, and Old Tatar; and /w, ?w, ?w/ in Kazakh; also formerly used in Nogai. U+06CB ? 3 dots none ? ?
? represents "O" in Kurdish, and in Uyghur it represents the sound similar to the French eu and oeu sound. It represents the "?" close back rounded vowel phoneme in Bosnian. U+06C6 V pointing down none ? ?
? U, used to represents the Close back rounded vowel phoneme in Azerbaijani, Kazakh, Kyrgyz and Uyghur. U+06C7 Damma[E] none ? ?
? represents Ê or É in Kurdish. U+06CE V pointing down 2 dots
(start + mid)
? ?
?
?

Do-chashmi he (two-eyed h?'), used in digraphs for aspiration and breathy voice in Punjabi and Urdu. Also used to represent in Kazakh, Sorani and Uyghur.[F] U+06BE none none none ? ?
? ? Ae, used represent and in Kazakh, Sorani and Uyghur. U+06D5 none none none ? ?
? end
only
Ba ye ('big y?''), is a stylistic variant of ? in Arabic, but represents "ai" or "e" , in Urdu and Punjabi. U+06D2 none none none ? ?
? used to represent the phoneme (pinyin c) in Chinese. U+069E ? 3 dots none ? ? ?
? used to represent the phoneme (pinyin z) in Chinese. U+0637 ? ?
? represents the "o" open-mid back rounded vowel phoneme in Bosnian. U+06C9 V pointing up none ? ?
? represents the "nj" palatal nasal phoneme in Bosnian. U+0769 ? 1 dot
V pointing down
none ? ?
? used in Kurdish to represent ll in Soranî dialect. U+06B5 V pointing down none ? ?
? represents the "lj" palatal lateral approximant phoneme in Bosnian. U+06B5 V pointing down none ? ?
represents the "i" close front unrounded vowel phoneme in Bosnian. U+0627 U+0656 U+0649 Alef none  +  ?
Footnotes:
  1. ^ From right: start, middle, end, and isolated forms.
  2. ^ Joined to the letter, closest to the letter, on the first letter, or above.
  3. ^ Further away from the letter, or on the second letter, or below.
  4. ^ A variant that end up with loop also exists.
  5. ^ Although the letter also known as Waw with Damma, some publications and fonts features filled Damma that looks similar to comma.
  6. ^ Shown in Naskh (top) and Nastaliq (bottom) styles. The Nastaliq version of the connected forms are connected to each other, because the tatweel character U+0640 used to show the other forms does not work in many Nastaliq fonts.

Letter construction

Most languages that use alphabets based on the Arabic alphabet use the same base shapes. Most additional letters in languages that use alphabets based on the Arabic alphabet are built by adding (or removing) diacritics to existing Arabic letters. Some stylistic variants in Arabic have distinct meanings in other languages. For example, variant forms of k?f ? ? ? ‎ are used in some languages and sometimes have specific usages. In Urdu and some neighbouring languages the letter H? has diverged into two forms ? d?-?a?m? h? and ? g?l h?.[44] while a variant form of ? y? referred to as ba y? ? ‎ is used at the end of some words.[44]

Table of Letter Components

See also

References

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  2. ^ Mahinnaz Mirdehghan. 2010. Persian, Urdu, and Pashto: A comparative orthographic analysis. Writing Systems Research Vol. 2, No. 1, 9-23.
  3. ^ "Exposición Virtual. Biblioteca Nacional de España". Bne.es. Archived from the original on 2012-02-18. Retrieved .
  4. ^ Ahmad, Syed Barakat. (11 January 2013). Introduction to Qur'anic script. ISBN 978-1-136-11138-9. OCLC 1124340016.
  5. ^ Gruendler, Beatrice (1993). The Development of the Arabic Scripts: From the Nabatean Era to the First Islamic Century According to Dated Texts. Scholars Press. p. 1. ISBN 9781555407100.
  6. ^ Healey, John F.; Smith, G. Rex (2012-02-13). "II - The Origin of the Arabic Alphabet". A Brief Introduction to The Arabic Alphabet. Saqi. ISBN 9780863568817.
  7. ^ Senner, Wayne M. (1991). The Origins of Writing. U of Nebraska Press. p. 100. ISBN 0803291671.
  8. ^ "Nabataean abjad". www.omniglot.com. Retrieved .
  9. ^ Naveh, Joseph. "Nabatean Language, Script and Inscriptions" (PDF).
  10. ^ Taylor, Jane (2001). Petra and the Lost Kingdom of the Nabataeans. I.B.Tauris. p. 152. ISBN 9781860645082.
  11. ^ "Zribi, I., Boujelbane, R., Masmoudi, A., Ellouze, M., Belguith, L., & Habash, N. (2014). A Conventional Orthography for Tunisian Arabic. In Proceedings of the Language Resources and Evaluation Conference (LREC), Reykjavík, Iceland".
  12. ^ Brustad, K. (2000). The syntax of spoken Arabic: A comparative study of Moroccan, Egyptian, Syrian, and Kuwaiti dialects. Georgetown University Press.
  13. ^ "Sayad Zahoor Shah Hashmii". baask.com.
  14. ^ "|Baluchi Language Protection Academy". Archived from the original on 2013-08-18. Retrieved .
  15. ^ Sarlak, Riz (2002). "Dictionary of the Bakhtiari dialect of Chahar-lang". google.com.eg.
  16. ^ Iran, Mojdeh (5 February 2011). "Bakhtiari Language Video (bak) ? ! ? " – via Vimeo.
  17. ^ "Ethnologue". Retrieved 2020.
  18. ^ "Pakistan should mind all of its languages!". tribune.com.pk. June 2011.
  19. ^ "Ethnologue". Retrieved 2020.
  20. ^ "Ethnologue". Retrieved 2020.
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  26. ^ urangCam. "Bông S?". naipaleikaohkabuak.blogspot.com.
  27. ^ "The Coptic Studies' Corner". stshenouda.com. Archived from the original on 2012-04-19. Retrieved .
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  29. ^ "2 » AlNuba egypt". 19 July 2012. Archived from the original on 19 July 2012.
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  31. ^ "Tadaksahak". scriptsource.org.
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  33. ^ "Dyula". scriptsource.org.
  34. ^ "Jola-Fonyi". scriptsource.org.
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  37. ^ "Charno Letter". Muslims In America. Archived from the original on May 20, 2013. Retrieved 2013.
  38. ^ Alphabet Transitions - The Latin Script: A New Chronology - Symbol of a New Azerbaijan, by Tamam Bayatly
  39. ^ Sukhail Siddikzoda. "Tajik Language: Farsi or Not Farsi?" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on June 13, 2006.
  40. ^ "Brief history of writing in Chechen". Archived from the original on December 23, 2008.
  41. ^ p. 20, Samuel Noel Kramer. 1986. In the World of Sumer: An Autobiography. Detroit: Wayne State University Press.
  42. ^ J. Blau. 2000. Hebrew written in Arabic characters: An instance of radical change in tradition. (In Hebrew, with English summary). In Heritage and Innovation in Judaeo-Arabic Culture: Proceedings of the Sixth Conference of the Society For Judaeo-Arabic Studies, p. 27-31. Ramat Gan.
  43. ^ Lorna Priest Evans; M. G. Abbas Malik. "Proposal to encode ARABIC LETTER LAM WITH SMALL ARABIC LETTER TAH ABOVE in the UCS" (PDF). www.unicode.org. Retrieved 2020.
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