Apple M1
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Apple M1
Apple M1
Illustration of an M1 processor
Apple M1 chip
General information
LaunchedNovember 10, 2020[1]
Designed byApple Inc.
Common manufacturer(s)
Product codeAPL1102[2]
Performance
Max. CPU clock rate3.2 GHz[1]
Cache
L1 cache320 KB per core (performance cores, 192 instructions + 128 data)
192 KB per core (efficient cores, 128 instructions + 64 data)
L2 cache12 MB (performance cores)
4 MB (efficient cores)
Architecture and classification
ApplicationDesktop (Mac Mini, iMac), Notebook (MacBook family), Tablet (iPad Pro)
Min. feature size5 nm
Microarchitecture"Firestorm" and "Icestorm"[1]
Instruction setARMv8.5-A
Physical specifications
Transistors
  • 16 billion
Cores
  • 8 (4× high-performance + 4× high-efficiency)
GPU(s)Apple-designed integrated graphics (up to 8 cores)
History
PredecessorIntel Core and Apple T2 chip (Mac)
Apple A12Z Bionic (iPad Pro)

The Apple M1 is an ARM-based system on a chip (SoC) designed by Apple Inc. as a central processing unit (CPU) and graphics processing unit (GPU) for its Macintosh computers and iPad Pro tablets. It was inspired by their Apple A14 Bionic chip.[3] It also marks the first major change to the instruction set used by Macintosh computers since Apple transitioned Macs from PowerPC to Intel in 2006. Apple claims that it has the world's fastest CPU core "in low power silicon" and the world's best CPU performance per watt.[3][4]

In addition to Apple's own macOS and iPadOS, support for the M1 SoC in the Linux kernel is forthcoming.[5]

Design

CPU

The M1 has four high-performance 'Firestorm' and four energy-efficient 'Icestorm' cores, providing a hybrid configuration similar to ARM DynamIQ and Intel's Lakefield and Alder Lake processors.[6] This combination allows power-use optimizations not possible with previous Apple-Intel architecture devices. Apple claims the energy-efficient cores use one-tenth the power of the high-performance ones.[7] The high-performance cores have 192 KB of L1 instruction cache and 128 KB of L1 data cache and share a 12 MB L2 cache; the energy-efficient cores have a 128 KB L1 instruction cache, 64 KB L1 data cache, and a shared 4 MB L2 cache.

GPU

The M1 integrates an Apple-designed eight-core (seven in some base models) graphics processing unit (GPU). Each GPU core contains 128 Arithmetic Logic Units (ALUs). In total, the M1 GPU contains up to 128 Execution units or 1024 ALUs,[8] which by Apple's claim can execute nearly 25,000 threads simultaneously and have a maximum floating point (FP32) performance of 2.6 TFLOPs.[6]

Other features

The M1 uses 4266 MT/s LPDDR4X SDRAM[9] in a unified memory configuration shared by all the components of the processor. The SoC and RAM chips are mounted together in a system-in-a-package design. 8 GB and 16 GB configurations are available.

The M1 contains dedicated neural network hardware in a 16-core Neural Engine, capable of executing 11 trillion operations per second.[6] Other components include an image signal processor (ISP), an NVMe storage controller, Thunderbolt 4 controllers, and a Secure Enclave.

Performance and efficiency

The M1 was welcomed with very positive reviews[10] and recorded industry-leading performance and efficiency in popular benchmarks (GeekBench 5, Cinebench R23).[11]

As it is for the Mac Mini, it draws a minimum of 7 Watts when idle, and at a maximum load, the Mac Mini draws 39 Watts.[12] This performance per watt of the M1 provides the best battery life for the MacBook family ever, doubling the battery life from the previous Intel-Based MacBooks.

The MacBook Air (M1, 2020) and MacBook Pro (M1, 2020) are considered to be the fastest MacBooks ever produced by Apple with the MacBook Pro (M1, 2020) leading the field in battery life,[13] while also causing the resale value of Intel MacBooks to drop sharply.[14]

The M1 supports hardware video decode for VP9 8K60, but lacks support for AV1 at 8K resolution.[]

Gallery

The processor without the heatspreader showing the CPU die and the small SMD capacitors underneath.
The Apple M1 processor with the heatspreader, only showing the two modules containing the LPDDR4X SDRAM.
M1 on a Mac mini (model 9,1, 2020) logic board compared with A13 SOC on an iPhone 11 CPU board.

Products that use the Apple M1

Issues

USB power delivery bricking

Since its release, some users who charge M1 devices through USB-C hubs are reporting bricking their device.[20] The devices that are reported to cause this issue are third party USB-C hubs and non-Thunderbolt docks (excluding Apple's own dongle).[20] Apple is handling this issue with a logic board replacement and by telling its customers to not charge through those hubs.[] macOS Big Sur 11.2.2 includes a fix to prevent 2019 or later MacBook Pro models and 2020 or later MacBook Air models from being damaged by certain third-party USB-C hubs and docks.[21][22]

Implementation of the ARM ISA

The M1 deviates from ARMv8 in that it starts as a Type 2 Hypervisor (VHE mode) instead of the prescribed default of Type 1 (non-VHE) mode. The support for non-VHE mode is removed, violating the ARM specification. Other operating systems and hypervisors for the ARM architecture must be modified to allow for this difference.[23]

There is another minor flaw in M1's implementation of ARM which was given the name "M1RACLES". Two sandboxed applications can covertly exchange data without the system's knowledge by using an unintentionally writable processor register.[23]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c Frumusanu, Andrei (November 17, 2020), The 2020 Mac Mini Unleashed: Putting Apple Silicon M1 To The Test, archived from the original on 2021-02-01, retrieved
  2. ^ [Teardown] Late 2020 Mac mini: Apple Silicon M1, Thunderbolt..., archived from the original on 2020-12-02, retrieved
  3. ^ a b "The Apple M1 is the first ARM-based chipset for Macs with the fastest CPU cores and top iGPU". GSMArena.com. Archived from the original on 2021-01-25. Retrieved .
  4. ^ Sohail, Omar (2020-11-10). "Apple's 5nm M1 Chip Is the First for ARM-Based Macs - Boasts 2x More Performance Than Latest Laptop CPU, Uses One-Fourth the Power". Wccftech. Archived from the original on 2021-01-26. Retrieved .
  5. ^ "kernel/git/soc/soc.git - Unnamed repository". git.kernel.org. Archived from the original on 2021-04-09. Retrieved .
  6. ^ a b c "Apple M1 Chip". Apple.com. Apple. Archived from the original on 10 November 2020. Retrieved 2020.
  7. ^ "Here's what the future of Apple silicon Macs look like". iMore. 2020-11-10. Archived from the original on 2020-12-07. Retrieved .
  8. ^ Frumusanu, Andrei. "The 2020 Mac Mini Unleashed: Putting Apple Silicon M1 To The Test". www.anandtech.com. Archived from the original on 2021-02-01. Retrieved .
  9. ^ "M1 MacBook Air & Pro - EXCLUSIVE Apple Interview! | The Tech Chap - YouTube". www.youtube.com. Archived from the original on 2020-11-13. Retrieved .
  10. ^ Cade, DL (December 21, 2020). "Apple Silicon M1 MacBook Pro Review: This Changes Everything". PetaPixel. Archived from the original on January 1, 2021. Retrieved 2021.
  11. ^ Antoniadis, Anastasios (November 21, 2020). "Apple M1 Benchmarks Are Here - Apple Delivered Performance and Efficiency". Borderpolar. Archived from the original on December 28, 2020. Retrieved 2021.
  12. ^ Lovejoy, Ben (January 28, 2021). "M1 Mac mini power consumption and thermal output figures highlight Apple Silicon efficiency". 9To5Mac. Retrieved 2021.
  13. ^ Cunningham, Andrew (December 18, 2020). "The Best MacBooks". The New York Times. Archived from the original on January 21, 2021. Retrieved 2021.
  14. ^ "The Mac price crash of 2021". ZDNet. 2021-02-25. Archived from the original on 2021-03-01. Retrieved .
  15. ^ "MacBook Air (M1, 2020) - Technical Specifications". support.apple.com. Archived from the original on 2020-11-11. Retrieved .
  16. ^ "Mac mini (M1, 2020) - Technical specifications". support.apple.com. Archived from the original on 2020-11-11. Retrieved .
  17. ^ "MacBook Pro (13-inch, M1, 2020) - Technical Specifications". support.apple.com. Archived from the original on 2020-11-11. Retrieved .
  18. ^ "iMac features all-new design in vibrant colors, M1 chip, and 4.5K Retina display". Apple Newsroom. Archived from the original on 2021-04-20. Retrieved .
  19. ^ a b "iPad Pro - Technical Specifications". Apple. Archived from the original on 2019-01-04. Retrieved .
  20. ^ a b "M1 MacBook Air won't power on". MacRumors Forums. Archived from the original on 2021-01-12. Retrieved .
  21. ^ Miller, Chance (February 25, 2021). "macOS Big Sur 11.2.2 released with fix for using MacBooks with 'non-compliant' USB-C hubs". 9to5Mac. Archived from the original on February 25, 2021. Retrieved 2021.
  22. ^ "What's new in the updates for macOS Big Sur". Apple Support. February 25, 2021. macOS Big Sur 11.2.2. Archived from the original on February 26, 2021. Retrieved 2021.
  23. ^ a b "M1RACLES: An Apple M1 Vulnerability".[self-published source]

External links


  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

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