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In Andean Spanish, the /s/ is never aspirated in the final position and so is pronounced [s], not [h], but it is sometimes pronounced apical, rather than laminal, a trait characteristic of Northern Spain. The apical sound is sometimes perceived as transitional between and , and it is associated with a large number of northern Spanish settlers in Andean region. In southern Bolivia and northern Chile, syllable-final /s/ is mostly aspirated.
As in all American dialects of Spanish, Andean Spanish has seseo (/?/ is not distinguished from /s/). Thus, casa ("house") and caza ("hunt") are homophones. However, in Cusco Region and Cajamarca, many speakers realize /s/ as [?] in many words, particularly in once, doce, trece.Seseo is common to all of America, the Canary Islands, and several areas in southern Spain.
Especially in the Ecuadorian variant, coda /s/ is often voiced to before a vowel or before a voiced consonant (including sonorants), but the latter is also a feature of most other Spanish dialects. In the Peruvian variant, it is palatalized before /i/.
In Bolivia, Ecuador, and southern Peru, and do not merge (lack of yeísmo). In northern Ecuador, /?/ tends to be pronounced as a voiced postalveolar fricative. However, yeísmo is on the rise among Ecuador's middle and upper classes.
Often the vowels /e/ and /i/ or /o/ and /u/ are merged because of the influence of the trivocal system of Quechua and Aymara.
/r/ and /?/ are assibilated to and , respectively. This is in decline among the middle and upper classes.
/x/ is velar rather than glottal .
/f/ is realised as bilabial , sometimes with an epenthetic /w/ following.
Emphasis is given to the consonants but the vowels are weakened, especially for unstressed syllables (like in Mexican Spanish, but not as marked).
Stress is or tends to be penultimate.
Syntax and Morphology
Voseo is common in the Bolivian and Ecuadorian Andes, largely among rural and poorer speakers. It is nearly extinct in Peru. Some speakers tend towards pronominal voseo, using vos with the tú conjugations of verbs, whereas more indigenous speakers tend to use the vos conjugations.
Words like pues, pero and nomás are often used similarly to the modal suffixes of Quechua and Aymara. They can be stacked at the end of a clause:
Dile nomás pues pero.
"Just go ahead and tell him."
Andean Spanish also widely uses redundant "double possessives" as in:
De María en su casa estoy yendo.
"I'm going to Maria's house."
This also shows how en can indicate "motion towards" in the Andes. En may also be used "before a locative adverb, as in Vivo en acá 'I live here' or En allá sale agua 'Water is coming out there.'"
Due to Aymara and Quechua influence, Andean Spanish often uses the pluperfect tense or clause-final dice "he/she says" to indicate evidentiality. Evidential dice is more common in monolingual Peruvian Spanish.
In upper Ecuador, a dar + gerund construction is common, ie:
Pedro me dio componiendo mi reloj.
"Pedro fixed my watch."
Andean Spanish typically uses more loans from Aymara and Quechua than other Spanish varieties. In addition, some common words have different meanings. Pie, meaning "foot," can refer to the whole leg, due to Aymara influence. Siempre ("always") can mean "still."
Influence on nearby areas
In northwest Argentina and northern Chile today, it is possible to say that there is a certain fusion in the dialects of both countries, but the local dialects are more dominant.
The Andean dialect can be heard in the northwest, with respect to the pronunciation and lexicon. The Rioplatense dialect provides some of the pronunciation, a variety of modes, and the Argentine dialect.
Rioplatense replaces the Andean use of "tú" as the second person singular familiar pronoun with "vos". It is very similar in Chile, but "tú" and "vos" are there both used as the singular familiar second-person pronoun. Also, there is influence of Chilean Spanish and some Andean Spanish.
^ abLipski, John (1994). Latin American Spanish. New York: Longman Publishing. p. 320.