Anarchism is a political theory that is anti-authoritarian. It focuses on the rejection of government, state, and societal control, especially through rulers or higher authorities. Anarchist ideas and movements have existed in Serbia for many years, and have acted as catalysts for much of the political and social turmoil that has embroiled the country. Throughout every period of political rule, from the control of the Ottoman Empire to the first monarchs of Serbia, Karadjordje and Milan Obrenovic, through the occupation by the Axis powers during World War II, the government has faced opposition and resistance from the public. This opposition has  Anarchist groups such as the Anarcho-Syndicalist Initiative have contributed to the resistance against the government. The anarchist movement continues in Serbia today against the current President Aleksandar Vu?i? and his government, with protests being held every week against their authority.
The Anarcho-Syndicalism Initiative (ASI) is currently one of the more active anarchist groups operating in Serbia. They are known as the Union Confederation Anarcho-Syndicalist Initiative section that forms part of the International Workers Association[unreliable source?] and they have committees in many Serbian towns and cities, including Kragujevac, Kula, Cervenka, and Vrsac. They spread their ideology through the magazine Direct Action (Direktna Akcija), which is distributed through various channels to workers instead of being sold on newsstands, and in which they publish pieces against the state, authoritarian control, and capitalism. The group is believed to consist of approximately 1,000 anarchists, many of whom are students and workers.
On September 3, 2009, six members of the Anarcho-Syndicalism Initiative (Tadej Kurepa, Ratibor Trivunac, Sanja Dojki?, Ivan Vulovi?, Nikola Mitrovi?, and Ivana Savi?) were arrested and charged with international terrorism after they were involved in a Molotov attack on the Greek embassy in Belgrade. It has been claimed that this attack was carried out in solidarity with anti-police protestors who received unjust treatment at the hands of Greek police and prosecutors. The charge carried the possibility of 3-15 years imprisonment and the six were imprisoned for a total of five months.