Amoy Dialect
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Amoy Dialect
Amoy
Amoynese, Xiamenese
?-mn?g-?e
Native toChina
Regionpart of Xiamen (Amoy) (Siming and Huli districts), Haicang and Longhai districts to the west
Native speakers
2 million (2021)[1]
Language codes
-
Glottologxiam1236
Linguasphere79-AAA-je > 79-AAA-jeb
Hokkien Map.svg
Distribution of Hokkien dialects. Amoy dialect is in magenta.
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The Amoy dialect or Xiamen dialect (Chinese: ; pinyin: Xiàménhuà; Pe?h-?e-j?: ?-mn?g-?e), also known as Amoynese, Amoy Hokkien, Xiamenese or Xiamen Hokkien, is a dialect of Hokkien spoken in the city of Xiamen (historically known as "Amoy") and its surrounding metropolitan area, in the southern part of Fujian province. Currently, it is one of the most widely researched and studied varieties of Southern Min.[2] It has historically come to be one of the more standardized varieties.[3]

Amoynese and Taiwanese are both historically mixtures of Quanzhou and Zhangzhou dialects.[4] As such, they are very closely aligned phonologically. There are some differences between the two, especially lexical, as a result of physical separation and the differing histories of mainland China and Taiwan during the 20th century. Amoynese and Taiwanese are mutually intelligible. Intelligibility with other Hokkien, especially inland, is more difficult. By that standard, Amoynese and Taiwanese may be considered dialects of a single language. Ethnolinguistically, however, Amoynese is part of mainland Hokkien.[1]

History

In 1842, as a result of the signing of the Treaty of Nanking, Amoy was designated as a trading port in Fujian. Amoy and Kulangsu rapidly developed, which resulted in a large influx of people from neighboring areas such as Quanzhou and Zhangzhou. The mixture of these various accents formed the basis for the Amoy dialect.

Over the last several centuries, a large number of Southern Fujianese peoples from these same areas migrated to Taiwan during Dutch rule and Qing rule. "Amoy dialect" was considered the vernacular of Taiwan.[5] Eventually, the mixture of accents spoken in Taiwan became popularly known as Taiwanese during Imperial Japanese rule. As in American and British English, there are subtle lexical and phonological differences between modern Taiwanese and Amoy Hokkien; however, these differences do not generally pose any barriers to communication. Amoy dialect speakers also migrated to Southeast Asia, mainly in the Philippines (where it is known as Lán-nâng-?e), Indonesia, Malaysia and Singapore.

Special characteristics

Spoken Amoy dialect preserves many of the sounds and words from Old Chinese. However, the vocabulary of Amoy was also influenced in its early stages by the languages of the ancient Minyue peoples.[6] Spoken Amoy is known for its extensive use of nasalization.

Unlike Mandarin, Amoy dialect distinguishes between voiced and voiceless unaspirated initial consonants (Mandarin has no voicing of initial consonants). Unlike English, it differentiates between unaspirated and aspirated voiceless initial consonants (as Mandarin does too). In less technical terms, native Amoy speakers have little difficulty in hearing the difference between the following syllables:

However, these fully voiced consonants did not derive from the Early Middle Chinese voiced obstruents, but rather from fortition of nasal initials.[7]

Accents

A comparison between Amoy and other Southern Min languages can be found there.

Tones

Amoy is similar to other Southern Min variants in that it makes use of five tones, though only two in checked syllables. The tones are traditionally numbered from 1 through 8, with 4 and 8 being the checked tones, but those numbered 2 and 6 are identical in most regions.

Tone number Tone name Tone letter
1 Yin level ?
2 Yin rising
3 Yin falling
4 Yin entering
5 Yang level
6=2 Yang rising
7 Yang falling ?
8 Yang entering

Tone sandhi

Amoy has extremely extensive tone sandhi (tone-changing) rules: in an utterance, only the last syllable pronounced is not affected by the rules. What an 'utterance' is, in the context of this language, is an ongoing topic for linguistic research. For the purpose of this article, an utterance may be considered a word, a phrase, or a short sentence. The diagram illustrates the rules that govern the pronunciation of a tone on each of the syllables affected (that is, all but the last in an utterance):

Taiwanese Hokkien tones.svg

Literary and colloquial readings

Like other languages of Southern Min, Amoy has complex rules for literary and colloquial readings of Chinese characters. For example, the character for big/great, ?, has a vernacular reading of t?a ([tua?]), but a literary reading of t?i ([tai?]). Because of the loose nature of the rules governing when to use a given pronunciation, a learner of Amoy must often simply memorize the appropriate reading for a word on a case by case basis. For single-syllable words, it is more common to use the vernacular pronunciation. This situation is comparable to the on and kun readings of the Japanese language.

The vernacular readings are generally thought to predate the literary readings; the literary readings appear to have evolved from Middle Chinese.[] The following chart illustrates some of the more commonly seen sound shifts:

Colloquial Literary Example
[p-], [p?-] [h-] ? pun hun divide
[ts-], [ts?-], [t?-], [t-] [s-], [?-] ? chiâ? sêng to become
[k-], [k?-] [t?-], [t-] ? kí chí finger
[-ã], [-uã] [-an] ? khòa? khàn to see
[-?] [-t] ? chia?h si?t to eat
[-i] [-e] ? sì sè world
[-e] [-a] ? ke ka family
[-ia] [-i] ? khi? khì to stand

Vocabulary

For further information, read the article: Swadesh list

The Swadesh word list, developed by the linguist Morris Swadesh, is used as a tool to study the evolution of languages. It contains a set of basic words which can be found in every language.

Phonology

Initials

  • Word-initial alveolar consonants /ts, ts?, dz/ when occurring before /i/ are pronounced as alveo-palatal sounds [t?, t, d?].
  • /l/ can fluctuate freely in initial position as either a flap or voiced stop [?], [d].
  • [?] can occur in both word initial and final position.
  • /m ?/ when occurring before /m? / can be pronounced as voiceless sounds [m?], [].

Finals

Rimes without codas
a
?
?
?
i
?
e
?
o
?
u
?
? /ai/
?
/au/
?
- /ia/
?
/io/
?
/iu/
?
/iau/
?
- /ua/
?
/ue/
?
/ui/
?
/uai/
?
Rimes with nasal codas

?
/am/
?
/an/
?

?
/a?/
?
//
?
/im/
?
/iam/
?
/in/
?
/i?n/
?
/i?/
?
/ia?/
?
i
?
/un/
?
/uan/
?
Checked rimes
/ap/
?
/at/
?
/ak/
?
/?k/
?
/a?/
?

?
o?
?
/e?/
?
/au?/
?
ã?
?

?
//
?
ãi?
?
ip
?
/iap/
?
/it/
?
/i?t/
?
/ik/~/ek/
?
/i?k/
?
i?
?
/ia?
?
io?
?
/iu?/
?
//
?
iã?
?
/ut/
?
/uat/
?
/u?/
?
/ua?/
?
/ue?/
?
  • Final consonants are pronounced as unreleased [p? t? k?].
Nasalized rimes without codas

?

?

?
/ãi/
?

?
/iã/
?
/i?/
?
/ãu/
?
/uã/
?
/u?/
?
/uãi/
?

Grammar

Amoy grammar shares a similar structure to other Chinese dialects, although it is slightly more complex than Mandarin. Moreover, equivalent Amoy and Mandarin particles are usually not cognates.

Complement constructions

Amoy complement constructions are roughly parallel to Mandarin ones, although there are variations in the choice of lexical term. The following are examples of constructions that Amoy employs.

In the case of adverbs:

?

i

he

?

cháu

runs

?

?

obtains

?

kín

quick

? ? ? ?

i cháu ? kín

he runs obtains quick

He runs quickly.

Mandarin: t? p?o de kuài (?)

In the case of the adverb "very":

?

i

He

?

cháu

runs

?

chin

obtains

?

kín

quick

? ? ? ?

i cháu chin kín

He runs obtains quick

He runs very quickly.

Mandarin: t? p?o de h?n kuài ()

?

i

He

?

cháu

runs

?

bu?

not

?

kín

quick

? ? ? ?

i cháu bu? kín

He runs not quick

He does not run quickly.

Mandarin: t? p?o kuài (?)

?

i

He

?

khòa?

see

?

?

obtains

?

tio?h

already achieved

? ? ? ?

i khòa? ? tio?h

He see obtains {already achieved}

He can see.

Mandarin: t? kàn de dào (?)

For the negative,

?

i

He

?

khòa?

sees

?

bu?

not

?

tio?h

already achieved

? ? ? ?

i khòa? bu? tio?h

He sees not {already achieved}

He cannot see.

Mandarin: t? kàn dào (?)

For the adverb "so," Amoy uses kah (?) instead of Mandarin de (?):

?

i

He

?

kia?

startled

?

kah

to the point of

?

?e

words

?

tio?h

also

?

kóng

say

?

bo?

not

chhut-lâi

come out

? ? ? ? ? ? ?

i kia? kah ?e tio?h kóng bo? chhut-lâi

He startled {to the point of} words also say not {come out}

He was so startled, that he could not speak.

Mandarin: t? xià de huà d?u shu? bù ch?lái ()

Negative particles

Negative particle syntax is parallel to Mandarin about 70% of the time, although lexical terms used differ from those in Mandarin. For many lexical particles, there is no single standard Hanji character to represent these terms (e.g. m?, a negative particle, can be variously represented by ?, ?, and ?), but the most commonly used ones are presented below in examples. The following are commonly used negative particles:

  1. m? (?,?) - is not + noun (Mandarin ?, )
    i m?-s? gún l?u-bú. () She is not my mother.
  2. m? - does not + verb/will not + verb (Mandarin ?, )
    i m? lâi. () He will not come.
  3. verb + bu? (?) + particle - is not able to (Mandarin ?, )
    góa khòa?-bu?-tio?h. (?) I am not able to see it.
  4. b? (?) + helping verb - cannot (opposite of ? ?, is able to/Mandarin ?, )
    i bu?-hiáu kóng Eng-gú. () He can't speak English.
    • helping verbs that go with bu? (?)
      bu?-sái () - is not permitted to (Mandarin bù k?y?)
      bu?-hiáu () - does not know how to (Mandarin , búhuì)
      bu?-tàng () - not able to (Mandarin , bùnéng)
  5. mài (?,) - do not (imperative) (Mandarin ?, bié)
    mài kóng! () Don't speak!
  6. bô (?) - do not + helping verb (Mandarin ?, )
    i bô beh lâi. (?) He is not going to come.
    • helping verbs that go with bô (?):
      beh (?) - want to + verb; will + verb
      ài (?) - must + verb
      èng-kai () - should + verb
      kah-ì () - like to + verb
  7. bô (?) - does not have (Mandarin , méiy?u)
    i bô chî?. () He does not have any money.
  8. bô - did not (Mandarin , méiy?u)
    i bô lâi. () He did not come.
  9. bô (?) - is not + adjective (Mandarin ?, )
    i bô súi. ( or ) She is not beautiful.
    • Hó (?)(good) is an exception, as it can use both m? and bô.

Common particles

Commonly seen particles include:

  • ? (h?·) - indicates passive voice (Mandarin ?, bèi)
    i h?· lâng phiàn khì () - They were cheated
  • ? (k?) - identifies the object (Mandarin ?, b?)
    i k? chî? kau h?· lí () - He handed the money to you
  • ? (ke) - "more"
    i ke chia?h chi?t óa? () - He ate one more bowl
  • ? (k?) - identifies the object
    góa k? lí kóng (?) - I'm telling you
  • ? (cho?) - "more"
    i ? khah cho? ê pêng-iú (?) - He has comparatively many friends

Romanization

A number of Romanization schemes have been devised for Amoy. Pe?h-?e-j? is one of the oldest and best established. However, the Taiwanese Language Phonetic Alphabet has become the romanization of choice for many of the recent textbooks and dictionaries from Taiwan.

Vowels
IPA a ap at ak a? ã ? ?k ? o e ? i i?n i
Pe?h-?e-j? a ap at ak ah a? o? ok o? o o e e? i ian eng
Revised TLPA a ap at ak ah aN oo ok ooN o o e eN i ian ing
TLPA a ap at ak ah ann oo ok oonn o o e enn i ian ing
BP a ap at ak ah na oo ok noo o o e ne i ian ing
MLT a ab/ap ad/at ag/ak aq/ah va o og/ok vo ø ø e ve i ien eng
DT a ?p/ap ?t/at ?k/ak ?h/ah ann/a? o ok onn/o? or or e enn/e? i ian/en ing
Taiwanese kana
Extended bopomofo ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
Tâi-lô a ap at ak ah ann oo ok onn o o e enn i ian ing
Example (traditional Chinese) ?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
Example (simplified Chinese) ?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
Vowels
IPA i?k ? ai a? au am ?m m? u ua ue uai uan ? (i)?
Pe?h-?e-j? ek i? ai ai? au am om m ong ng u oa oe oai oan i (i)u?
Revised TLPA ik iN ai aiN au am om m ong ng u ua ue uai uan ir (i)uN
TLPA ik inn ai ainn au am om m ong ng u ua ue uai uan ir (i)unn
BP ik ni ai nai au am om m ong ng u ua ue uai uan i n(i)u
MLT eg/ek vi ai vai au am om m ong ng u oa oe oai oan i v(i)u
DT ik inn/i? ai ainn/ai? au am om m ong ng u ua ue uai uan i (i)unn/u?
Taiwanese kana ? ?
Extended bopomofo ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
Tâi-lô ik inn ai ainn au am om m ong ng u ua ue uai uan ir (i)unn
Example (traditional Chinese) ?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
Example (simplified Chinese) ?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
Consonants
IPA p b p? m t t? n n? l k ? k? h t?i ?i ti ?i ts dz ts? s
Pe?h-?e-j? p b ph m t th n nng l k g kh h chi ji chhi si ch j chh s
Revised TLPA p b ph m t th n nng l k g kh h zi ji ci si z j c s
TLPA p b ph m t th n nng l k g kh h zi ji ci si z j c s
BP b bb p bb d t n lng l g gg k h zi li ci si z l c s
MLT p b ph m t th n nng l k g kh h ci ji chi si z j zh s
DT b bh p m d t n nng l g gh k h zi r ci si z r c s
Taiwanese kana ?? ?
Extended bopomofo ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
Tâi-lô p b ph m t th n nng l k g kh h tsi ji tshi si ts j tsh s
Example (traditional Chinese) ?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
Example (simplified Chinese) ?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
Tones
Tone name Yin level
(1)
Yin rising
(2)
Yin departing
(3)
Yin entering
(4)
Yang level
(5)
Yang rising
(6)
Yang departing
(7)
Yang entering
(8)
High rising
(9)
Neutral tone
(0)
IPA a? a a ap?
at?
ak?
a
a a? ap?
at?
ak?
a
a a?
Pe?h-?e-j? a á à ap
at
ak
ah
â ? a?p
a?t
a?k
a?h
  --a
Revised
TLPA,
TLPA
a1 a2 a3 ap4
at4
ak4
ah4
a5 a6 a7 ap8
at8
ak8
ah8
a9 a0
BP ? ? à ?p
?t
?k
?h
á â áp
át
ák
áh
   
MLT
af ar ax ab
ad
ag
aq
aa aar a ap
at
ak
ah
  ~a
DT a à â ?p
?t
?k
?h
? ? ap
at
ak
ah
á å
Taiwanese kana
(normal vowels)
Taiwanese kana normal tone 2.png Taiwanese kana normal tone 3.png Taiwanese kana normal tone 4.png
Taiwanese kana normal tone 4.png
Taiwanese kana normal tone 4.png
Taiwanese kana normal tone 4.png
Taiwanese kana normal tone 5.png Taiwanese kana normal tone 7.png Taiwanese kana normal tone 8.png
Taiwanese kana normal tone 8.png
Taiwanese kana normal tone 8.png
Taiwanese kana normal tone 8.png
   
Taiwanese kana
(nasal vowels)
Taiwanese kana nasal tone 1.png Taiwanese kana nasal tone 2.png Taiwanese kana nasal tone 3.png Taiwanese kana nasal tone 4.png
Taiwanese kana nasal tone 4.png
Taiwanese kana nasal tone 4.png
Taiwanese kana nasal tone 4.png
Taiwanese kana nasal tone 5.png Taiwanese kana nasal tone 7.png Taiwanese kana nasal tone 8.png
Taiwanese kana nasal tone 8.png
Taiwanese kana nasal tone 8.png
Taiwanese kana nasal tone 8.png
   
Extended bopomofo ? ?`





   
Tâi-lô a á à ah â ? ? a?h a? --ah
Example
(traditional Chinese)
?? ?? ?? ??
??
??
??
?? ?? ??
??
??
??
??
Example
(simplified Chinese)
?? ?? ?? ??
??
??
??
?? ?? ??
??
??
??
??


See also

References

  1. ^ a b Reclassifying ISO 639-3 [nan]: An Empirical Approach to Mutual Intelligibility and Ethnolinguistic Distinctions
  2. ^ Lee, Alan (2005). Tone Patterns of Kelantan Hokkien and Related Issues in Southern Min Tonology (PhD thesis). University of Pennsylvania.
  3. ^ Heylen, Ann (2001). "Missionary Linguistics on Taiwan. Romanizing Taiwanese: Codification and Standardization of Dictionaries in Southern Min (1837-1923)". In Ku, Wei-ying; De Ridder, Koen (eds.). Authentic Chinese Christianity: Preludes to Its Development (Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries). Leuven: Leuven University Press. p. 151. ISBN 9789058671028.
  4. ^ Niu, Gengsen (2005-12-26). "Táiw?n Héluòhuà f?zh?n lìchéng" [The Historical Development of Taiwanese Hoklo]. Zh?ngguó Táiw?n w?ng (in Chinese). Archived from the original on 2014-05-17.
  5. ^ Kirjassof, Alice Ballantine (March 1920). "Formosa the Beautiful". The National Geographic Magazine. Vol. 37 no. 3. p. 290 – via Internet Archive.
  6. ^ "G? M?nyuè zú y? Hànzú M?nnány? de yóulái" ? [The Ancient Minyue People and the Origins of the Min Nan Language]. Lónghú zhèn zhèngf? w?ng (in Chinese). 2006-04-20. Archived from the original on 2009-05-17. Retrieved .
  7. ^ Ratte, Alexander Takenobu (2011). Contact-Induced Phonological Change in Taiwanese (MA thesis). The Ohio State University.

Sources

External links


  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

Amoy_dialect
 



 



 
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