Amazon (company)
Get Amazon Company essential facts below. View Videos or join the Amazon Company discussion. Add Amazon Company to your topic list for future reference or share this resource on social media.
Amazon Company, Inc.
FormerlyCadabra, Inc. (1994-1995)
FoundedJuly 5, 1994; 28 years ago (1994-07-05)
Bellevue, Washington, U.S.
FounderJeff Bezos
Area served
Key people
RevenueIncrease US$469.822 billion (2021)
Increase US$24.879 billion (2021)
Increase US$33.364 billion (2021)
Increase US$420.549 billion (2021)
Increase US$138.245 billion (2021)
OwnerJeff Bezos (9.8%)
Number of employees
Subsidiaries Edit this at Wikidata
Footnotes / references
[1][2][3][4], Inc.[1] ( AM-?-zon) is an American multinational technology company that focuses on e-commerce, cloud computing, digital streaming, and artificial intelligence. It has been referred to as "one of the most influential economic and cultural forces in the world",[5] and is one of the world's most valuable brands.[6] It is one of the Big Five American information technology companies, alongside Alphabet, Apple, Meta, and Microsoft.

Amazon was founded by Jeff Bezos from his garage in Bellevue, Washington,[7] on July 5, 1994. Initially an online marketplace for books, it has expanded into a multitude of product categories: a strategy that has earned it the moniker The Everything Store.[8] It has multiple subsidiaries including Amazon Web Services (cloud computing), Zoox (autonomous vehicles), Kuiper Systems (satellite Internet), and Amazon Lab126 (computer hardware R&D). Its other subsidiaries include Ring, Twitch, IMDb, and Whole Foods Market. Its acquisition of Whole Foods in August 2017 for US$13.4 billion substantially increased its footprint as a physical retailer.[9]

Amazon has earned a reputation as a disruptor of well-established industries through technological innovation and mass scale.[10][11][12][13] As of 2021, it is the world's largest online retailer and marketplace, smart speaker provider, cloud computing service through AWS,[14] live-streaming service through Twitch, and Internet company as measured by revenue and market share.[15] In 2021, it surpassed Walmart as the world's largest retailer outside of China, driven in large part by its paid subscription plan, Amazon Prime, which has over 200 million subscribers worldwide.[16][17] It is the second-largest private employer in the United States.[18]

Amazon also distributes a variety of downloadable and streaming content through its Amazon Prime Video, Amazon Music, Twitch, and Audible units. It publishes books through its publishing arm, Amazon Publishing, film and television content through Amazon Studios, and has been the owner of film and television studio Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer since March 2022. It also produces consumer electronics--most notably, Kindle e-readers, Echo devices, Fire tablets, and Fire TVs.

Amazon has been criticized for customer data collection practices,[19] a toxic work culture,[20] tax avoidance,[21][22] and anti-competitive behavior.[23][24]


The company's largest campus outside the United States was inaugurated in Hyderabad, India in September 2019.

Amazon was founded in July 1994 by Jeff Bezos, who chose the Seattle area for its abundance of technical talent, as Microsoft was in the area.[25]

Amazon went public in May 1997. It began selling music and videos in 1998, and began international operations by acquiring online sellers of books in the United Kingdom and Germany. The following year, it began selling video games, consumer electronics, home improvement items, software, games, and toys.

In 2002, it launched Amazon Web Services (AWS), which provided data on website popularity, Internet traffic patterns, and other statistics for marketers and developers. In 2006, it grew its AWS portfolio when Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2), which rented computer processing power, provided Simple Storage Service (S3), and rented data storage via the Internet, also became available. That year, Amazon also started Fulfillment by Amazon which allowed individuals and small companies to sell items through the company's Internet site. In 2012, Amazon bought Kiva Systems to automate its inventory management business. It purchased the Whole Foods Market supermarket chain in 2017.[26]

On February 2, 2021, Amazon announced that Jeff Bezos would step down as CEO to become executive chair of Amazon's board in Q3 of 2021. Andy Jassy, previously CEO of AWS, became Amazon's CEO.[27][28]

Board of directors

Amazon founder Jeff Bezos in 2016

As of June 2022, Amazon's board of directors were:[29]

Merchant partnerships

In 2000, U.S. toy retailer Toys "R" Us entered into a 10-year agreement with Amazon, valued at $50 million per year plus a cut of sales, under which Toys "R" Us would be the exclusive supplier of toys and baby products on the service, and the chain's website would redirect to Amazon's Toys & Games category. In 2004, Toys "R" Us sued Amazon, claiming that because of a perceived lack of variety in Toys "R" Us stock, Amazon had knowingly allowed third-party sellers to offer items on the service in categories that Toys "R" Us had been granted exclusivity. In 2006, a court ruled in favor of Toys "R" Us, giving it the right to unwind its agreement with Amazon and establish its independent e-commerce website. The company was later awarded $51 million in damages.[30][31][32]

In 2001, Amazon entered into a similar agreement with Borders Group, under which Amazon would comanage as a co-branded service.[33] Borders pulled out of the arrangement in 2007, with plans to also launch its own online store.[34]

On October 18, 2011, announced a partnership with DC Comics for the exclusive digital rights to many popular comics, including Superman, Batman, Green Lantern, The Sandman, and Watchmen. The partnership has caused well-known bookstores like Barnes & Noble to remove these titles from their shelves.[35]

In November 2013, Amazon announced a partnership with the United States Postal Service to begin delivering orders on Sundays. The service, included in Amazon's standard shipping rates, initiated in metropolitan areas of Los Angeles and New York because of the high-volume and inability to deliver in a timely way, with plans to expand into Dallas, Houston, New Orleans and Phoenix by 2014.[36]

In June 2017, Nike agreed to sell products through Amazon in exchange for better policing of counterfeit goods.[37][38] This proved unsuccessful and Nike withdrew from the partnership in November 2019.[38][39] Companies including IKEA and Birkenstock also stopped selling through Amazon around the same time, citing similar frustrations over business practices and counterfeit goods.[40]

In September 2017, Amazon ventured with one of its sellers JV Appario Retail owned by Patni Group which has recorded a total income of US$ 104.44 million (INR 759 crore) in financial year 2017-2018.[41]

As of October 11, 2017, AmazonFresh sold a range of Booths branded products for home delivery in selected areas.[42]

In November 2018, Amazon reached an agreement with Apple Inc. to sell selected products through the service, via the company and selected Apple Authorized Resellers. As a result of this partnership, only Apple Authorized Resellers may sell Apple products on Amazon effective January 4, 2019.[43][44]


Amazon Transportation Services truck at an Amazon Logistics delivery station

Amazon uses many different transportation services to deliver packages. Amazon-branded services include:

  • Amazon Air, a cargo airline for bulk transport, with last-mile delivery handled either by Amazon Flex, Amazon Logistics, or the United States Postal Service.
  • Amazon Flex, a smartphone app that enables individuals to act as independent contractors, delivering packages to customers from personal vehicles without uniforms. Deliveries include one or two hours Prime Now, same or next day Amazon Fresh groceries, and standard orders, in addition to orders from local stores that contract with Amazon.[45]
  • Amazon Logistics, in which Amazon contracts with small businesses (which it calls "Delivery Service Partners") to perform deliveries to customers. Each business has a fleet of approximately 20-40 Amazon-branded vans, and employees of the contractors wear Amazon uniforms. As of December 2020, it operates in the United States, Canada, Italy, Germany, Spain, and the United Kingdom.[46]
  • Amazon Prime Air is an experimental drone delivery service.

Amazon directly employs people to work at its warehouses, bulk distribution centers, staffed "Amazon Hub Locker+" locations, and delivery stations where drivers pick up packages. As of December 2020, it is not hiring delivery drivers as employees.[47]

Rakuten Intelligence estimated that in 2020 in the United States, the proportion of last-mile deliveries was 56% by Amazon's directly contracted services (mostly in urban areas), 30% by the United States Postal Service (mostly in rural areas), and 14% by UPS.[48] In April 2021, Amazon reported to investors it had increased its in-house delivery capacity by 50% in the last 12 months (which included the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States).[49]

Products and services's product lines available on its website include several media (books, DVDs, music CDs, videotapes and software), apparel, baby products, consumer electronics, beauty products, gourmet food, groceries, health and personal-care items, industrial & scientific supplies, kitchen items, jewelry, watches, lawn and garden items, musical instruments, sporting goods, tools, automotive items, toys & games,[] and farm supplies and consulting services.[50] In August 2019, Amazon applied to have a liquor store in San Francisco, CA as a means to ship beer and alcohol within the city.[51] Amazon has separate retail websites for some countries and also offers international shipping of some of its products to certain other countries.[52] In November 2020, the company started an online delivery service dedicated to prescription drugs. The service provides discounts up to 80% for generic drugs and up to 40% for branded drugs for Prime subscribe users. The products can be purchased on the company's website or at over 50,000 bricks-and-mortar pharmacies in the United States.[53] has a number of products and services available, including:

In September 2021, Amazon announced the launch of Astro, its first household robot, powered by its Alexa smart home technology. This can be remote-controlled when not at home, to check on pets, people, or home security. It will send owners a notification if it detects something unusual.[55]


Amazon owns over 40 subsidiaries, including Amazon Web Services, Audible,, Goodreads, IMDb, Kiva Systems (now Amazon Robotics), Shopbop, Teachstreet, Twitch, Zappos, and Zoox.[56], a company focused on researching and building innovative technology, has been a subsidiary since 2003.[57]

Amazon Maritime

Amazon Maritime, Inc. holds a Federal Maritime Commission license to operate as a non-vessel-owning common carrier (NVOCC), which enables the company to manage its shipments from China into the United States.[58]

Annapurna Labs

In January 2015, Amazon Web Services acquired Annapurna Labs, an Israel-based microelectronics company reputedly for US$350-370M.[59][60][61] is a seller and producer of spoken audio entertainment, information, and educational programming on the Internet. Audible sells digital audiobooks, radio and television programs, and audio versions of magazines and newspapers. Through its production arm, Audible Studios, Audible has also become the world's largest producer of downloadable audiobooks. On January 31, 2008, Amazon announced it would buy Audible for about $300 million. The deal closed in March 2008 and Audible became a subsidiary of Amazon.[62]

Beijing Century Joyo Courier Services

Beijing Century Joyo Courier Services is a subsidiary of Amazon and it applied for a freight forwarding license with the US Maritime Commission. Amazon is also building out its logistics in trucking and air freight to potentially compete with UPS and FedEx.[63][64]

Brilliance Audio

Brilliance Audio is an audiobook publisher founded in 1984 by Michael Snodgrass in Grand Haven, Michigan.[65] The company produced its first 8 audio titles in 1985.[65] The company was purchased by Amazon in 2007 for an undisclosed amount.[66][67] At the time of the acquisition, Brilliance was producing 12-15 new titles a month.[67] It operates as an independent company within Amazon.

In 1984, Brilliance Audio invented a technique for recording twice as much on the same cassette.[68] The technique involved recording on each of the two channels of each stereo track.[68] It has been credited with revolutionizing the burgeoning audiobook market in the mid-1980s since it made unabridged books affordable.[68]


ComiXology is a cloud-based digital comics platform with over 200 million comic downloads as of September 2013. It offers a selection of more than 40,000 comic books and graphic novels across Android, iOS, Fire OS and Windows 8 devices and over a web browser. Amazon bought the company in April 2014.[69]


CreateSpace, which offers self-publishing services for independent content creators, publishers, film studios, and music labels, became a subsidiary in 2009.[70][71]


Eero is an electronics company specializing in mesh-networking Wifi devices founded as a startup in 2014 by Nick Weaver, Amos Schallich, and Nate Hardison to simplify and innovate the smart home.[72] Eero was acquired by Amazon in 2019 for US$97 million.[73] Eero has continued to operate under its banner and advertises its commitment to privacy despite early concerns from the company's acquisition.[74]


Goodreads is a "social cataloging" website founded in December 2006 and launched in January 2007 by Otis Chandler, a software engineer, and entrepreneur, and Elizabeth Khuri. The website allows individuals to freely search Goodreads' extensive user-populated database of books, annotations, and reviews. Users can sign up and register books to generate library catalogs and reading lists. They can also create their groups of book suggestions and discussions. In December 2007, the site had over 650,000 members, and over a million books had been added. Amazon bought the company in March 2013.[75]

Health Navigator

In October 2019, Amazon finalized the acquisition of Health Navigator, a startup developing APIs for online health services. The startup will form part of Amazon Care, which is the company's employee healthcare service. This follows the 2018 purchase of PillPack for under $1 billion, which has also been included into Amazon Care.[76]


Junglee is a former online shopping service provided by Amazon that enabled customers to search for products from online and offline retailers in India. Junglee started as a virtual database that was used to extract information from the Internet and deliver it to enterprise applications. As it progressed, Junglee started to use its database technology to create a single window marketplace on the Internet by making every item from every supplier available for purchase. Web shoppers could locate, compare and transact millions of products from across the Internet shopping mall through one window.[77]

Amazon acquired Junglee in 1998, and the website was launched in India in February 2012[78] as a comparison-shopping website. It curated and enabled searching for a diverse variety of products such as clothing, electronics, toys, jewelry, and video games, among others, across thousands of online and offline sellers. Millions of products are browsable, the client selects a price, and then they are directed to a seller. In November 2017, Amazon closed down and the former domain currently redirects to Amazon India.[79]

Kuiper Systems

Kuiper Systems LLC, is a subsidiary of Amazon, set up to deploy a broadband satellite internet constellation with an announced 3,236 Low Earth orbit satellites to provide satellite based Internet connectivity.[80][81][82]


Lab126, developers of integrated consumer electronics such as the Kindle, became a subsidiary in 2004.[83]


Ring is a home automation company founded by Jamie Siminoff in 2013. It is primarily known for its WiFi powered smart doorbells, but manufactures other devices such as security cameras. Amazon bought Ring for US$1 billion in 2018.[84]


Shelfari was a social cataloging website for books. Shelfari users built virtual bookshelves of the titles which they owned or had read and they could rate, review, tag and discuss their books. Users could also create groups that other members could join, create discussions and talk about books, or other topics. Recommendations could be sent to friends on the site for what books to read. Amazon bought the company in August 2008.[75] Shelfari continued to function as an independent book social network within the Amazon until January 2016, when Amazon announced that it would be merging Shelfari with Goodreads and closing down Shelfari.[85][86]

Souq was the largest e-commerce platform in the Arab world. The company launched in 2005 in Dubai, United Arab Emirates and served multiple areas across the Middle East.[87] On March 28, 2017, Amazon acquired for $580 million.[88] The company was re-branded as Amazon and its infrastructure was used to expand Amazon's online platform in the Middle East.[89]


Twitch is a live streaming platform for video, primarily oriented towards video gaming content. The service was first established as a spin-off of a general-interest streaming service known as Its prominence was eclipsed by that of Twitch, and was eventually shut down by its parent company in August 2014 in order to focus exclusively on Twitch.[90] Later that month, Twitch was acquired by Amazon for $970 million.[91] Through Twitch, Amazon also owns Curse, Inc., an operator of video gaming communities and a provider of VoIP services for gaming.[92] Since the acquisition, Twitch began to sell games directly through the platform,[93] and began offering special features for Amazon Prime subscribers.[94]

The site's rapid growth had been boosted primarily by the prominence of major esports competitions on the service, leading GameSpot senior esports editor Rod Breslau to have described the service as "the ESPN of esports".[95] As of 2015, the service had over 1.5 million broadcasters and 100 million monthly viewers.[96]

On August 10, 2020, Amazon announced the rebranding of Twitch Prime, the live-streaming site, renaming it Prime Gaming in another attempt to crack the video game market after failing a big-budget game effort. With Twitch Prime, users will be given a free subscription to Twitch, with free games from small studios and discounts for larger titles like Grand Theft Auto and League of Legends.[97]

On November 2, 2020, Twitch announced a virtual flagship conference and named it GlitchCon instead of TwitchCon to be held on November 14. The main aim of the conference will be to bring its numerous, disparate communities of streamers and fans together where they can be real-life confidants.[98]

Whole Foods Market

Whole Foods Market store in Ann Arbor, Michigan

Whole Foods Market is an American supermarket chain exclusively featuring foods without artificial preservatives, colors, flavors, sweeteners, and hydrogenated fats.[99]

Amazon acquired Whole Foods for $13.7 billion in August 2017.[100][101][9]


Amazon also has investments in renewable energy and plans to expand its position into the Canadian market through an investment in a new plant in Alberta.[102]

Supply chain

Amazon first launched its distribution network in 1997 with two fulfillment centers in Seattle and New Castle, Delaware. Amazon has several types of distribution facilities consisting of cross-dock centers, fulfillment centers, sortation centers, delivery stations, Prime now hubs, and Prime air hubs. There are 75 fulfillment centers and 25 sortation centers with over 125,000 employees.[103][104] Employees are responsible for five basic tasks: unpacking and inspecting incoming goods; placing goods in storage and recording their location; picking goods from their computer recorded locations to make up an individual shipment; sorting and packing orders; and shipping. A computer that records the location of goods and maps out routes for pickers plays a key role: employees carry hand-held computers which communicate with the central computer and monitor their rate of progress. Some warehouses are partially automated with systems built by Amazon Robotics.

In September 2006, Amazon launched a program called FBA (Fulfillment By Amazon) whereby it could handle storage, packing and distribution of products and services for small sellers.[105]

Logo since January 2000
Screenshot screenshot.jpeg
Type of site
Available in
  • Arabic
  • Chinese
  • Dutch
  • English
  • French
  • German
  • Hindi
  • Italian
  • Japanese
  • Polish
  • Portuguese
  • Spanish
  • Swedish
  • Turkish
OwnerAmazon (original U.S. site)
Launched1995; 27 years ago (1995)
Current statusActive
Written inC++ and Java

The domain attracted at least 615 million visitors annually by 2008;[107] by the beginning of 2016, over 130 million customers were visiting the U.S. website each month.[108] The company has invested heavily in a massive amount of server capacity for its website, especially to handle the excessive traffic during the Christmas holiday season.[109] According to Alexa Internet rankings, is the third most popular website in the United States and the 11th most popular website worldwide.[110]

Results generated by Amazon's search engine are partly determined by promotional fees.[111] The company's localized storefronts, which differ in selection and prices, are differentiated by top-level domain and country code:

Amazon Marketplaces worldwide in 2021.jpg
Region Country Domain name Since Notes
Africa Egypt September 2021
Americas Brazil December 2012
Canada June 2002
Mexico August 2013
United States July 1995
Asia China September 2004
India June 2013
Japan November 2000
Saudi Arabia June 2020
Singapore July 2017
Turkey September 2018
United Arab Emirates May 2019
Europe France August 2000
Germany October 1998
Italy November 2010
Netherlands November 2014 Books & e-books (plus readers) only, full shop per March 2020[112][113][114]
Poland March 2021
Spain September 2011
Sweden October 2020
United Kingdom October 1998
Oceania Australia November 2017


Amazon allows users to submit reviews to the web page of each product. Reviewers must rate the product on a rating scale from one to five stars. Amazon provides a badging option for reviewers which indicates the real name of the reviewer (based on confirmation of a credit card account) or which indicates that the reviewer is one of the top reviewers by popularity. As of December 16, 2020, Amazon removed the ability of sellers and customers to comment on product reviews and purged their websites of all posted product review comments. In an email to sellers Amazon gave its rationale for removing this feature: "... the comments feature on customer reviews was rarely used." The remaining review response options are to indicate whether the reader finds the review helpful or to report that it violates Amazon policies (abuse). If a review is given enough "helpful" hits, it appears on the front page of the product. In 2010, Amazon was reported as being the largest single source of Internet consumer reviews.[115]

When publishers asked Bezos why Amazon would publish negative reviews, he defended the practice by claiming that was "taking a different approach ... we want to make every book available--the good, the bad and the ugly ... to let truth loose".[116]

There have been cases of positive reviews being written and posted by public relations companies on behalf of their clients[117] and instances of writers using pseudonyms to leave negative reviews of their rivals' works.

Content search

"Search Inside the Book" is a feature which allows customers to search for keywords in the full text of many books in the catalog.[118][119] The feature started with 120,000 titles (or 33 million pages of text) on October 23, 2003.[120]

Third-party sellers

Amazon derives many of its sales (around 40% in 2008) from third-party sellers who sell products on Amazon.[121] Associates receive a commission for referring customers to Amazon by placing links to Amazon on their websites if the referral results in a sale. Worldwide, Amazon has "over 900,000 members" in its affiliate programs.[122] In the middle of 2014, the Amazon Affiliate Program is used by 1.2% of all websites and it is the second most popular advertising network after Google Ads.[123] It is frequently used by websites and non-profits to provide a way for supporters to earn them a commission.[124]

Associates can access the Amazon catalog directly on their websites by using the Amazon Web Services (AWS) XML service. A new affiliate product, aStore, allows Associates to embed a subset of Amazon products within another website, or linked to another website. In June 2010, Amazon Seller Product Suggestions was launched (rumored to be internally called "Project Genesis") to provide more transparency to sellers by recommending specific products to third-party sellers to sell on Amazon. Products suggested are based on customers' browsing history.[125] In 2019, Amazon launched a bigger local online store in Singapore to expand its product selection in the face of intensifying competition with competitors in the region.[126]

In July 2019, the 3rd U.S. City Court of Appeals in Philadelphia ruled that Amazon can be held accountable for faulty third-party sales.[127] The decision ran counter to a past lower court ruling that had favored Amazon. Heather Oberdorf had sued the company in 2016 over a dog leash that snapped, causing permanent loss of vision in one eye. If upheld, the decision would expose Amazon and similar platform businesses to strict liability lawsuits for defective products, which represents a major change in the law.[128] The panel sent the case back to the lower court, to decide whether the leash was defective.[129]

Amazon sales rank

The Amazon sales rank (ASR) indicates the popularity of a product sold on any Amazon locale. It is a relative indicator of popularity that is updated hourly. Effectively, it is a "best sellers list" for the millions of products stocked by Amazon.[130] While the ASR has no direct effect on the sales of a product, it is used by Amazon to determine which products to include in its bestsellers lists.[130] Products that appear in these lists enjoy additional exposure on the Amazon website and this may lead to an increase in sales. In particular, products that experience large jumps (up or down) in their sales ranks may be included within Amazon's lists of "movers and shakers"; such a listing provides additional exposure that might lead to an increase in sales.[131] For competitive reasons, Amazon does not release actual sales figures to the public. However, Amazon has now begun to release point of sale data via the Nielsen BookScan service to verified authors.[132] While the ASR has been the source of much speculation by publishers, manufacturers, and marketers, Amazon itself does not release the details of its sales rank calculation algorithm. Some companies have analyzed Amazon sales data to generate sales estimates based on the ASR,[133] though Amazon states:

Please keep in mind that our sales rank figures are simply meant to be a guide of general interest for the customer and not definitive sales information for publishers--we assume you have this information regularly from your distribution sources

-- Help[134]

Multi-level sales strategy

Amazon employs a multi-level e-commerce strategy. Amazon started by focusing on business-to-consumer relationships between itself and its customers and business-to-business relationships between itself and its suppliers and then moved to facilitate customer-to-customer with the Amazon Marketplace which acts as an intermediary to facilitate transactions. The company lets anyone sell nearly anything using its platform. In addition to an affiliate program that lets anyone post Amazon links and earn a commission on click-through sales, there is now a program that lets those affiliates build entire websites based on Amazon's platform.[135]

Some other large e-commerce sellers use Amazon to sell their products in addition to selling them through their websites. The sales are processed through and end up at individual sellers for processing and order fulfillment and Amazon leases space for these retailers. Small sellers of used and new goods go to Amazon Marketplace to offer goods at a fixed price.[136]

In November 2015, Amazon opened a physical Amazon Books store in University Village in Seattle. The store is 5,500 square feet and prices for all products match those on its website.[137] Amazon will open its tenth physical book store in 2017;[138] media speculation suggests Amazon plans to eventually roll out 300 to 400 bookstores around the country.[137]

In June 2018, it was reported that Amazon planned to open brick and mortar bookstores in Germany.[139]

In September 2020, Amazon launched Luxury Stores on its mobile app, where Oscar de la Renta become the first and only label to partner with the firm.[140]

Finances is primarily a retail site with a sales revenue model; Amazon takes a small percentage of the sale price of each item that is sold through its website while also allowing companies to advertise their products by paying to be listed as featured products.[141] As of 2018, is ranked 8th on the Fortune 500 rankings of the largest United States corporations by total revenue.[142]

For the fiscal year 2021, Amazon reported earnings of US$33.36 billion, with an annual revenue of US$469.82 billion, an increase of 21.7% over the previous fiscal cycle. Since 2007 sales increased from 14.835 billion to 469.822 billion, due to continued business expansion.[143]

Amazon's market capitalization went over US$1 trillion again in early February 2020 after the announcement of the fourth quarter 2019 results.[144]

Year Revenue[145]
in mil. US$
Net income
in mil. US$
Total Assets
in mil. US$
1995[146] 0.5 -0.3 1.1
1996[146] 16 -6 8
1997[146] 148 -28 149 614
1998[147] 610 -124 648 2,100
1999[147] 1,639 -720 2,466 7,600
2000[147] 2,761 -1,411 2,135 9,000
2001[147] 3,122 -567 1,638 7,800
2002[147] 3,932 -149 1,990 7,500
2003[148] 5,263 35 2,162 7,800
2004[148] 6,921 588 3,248 9,000
2005[148] 8,490 359 3,696 12,000
2006[148] 10,711 190 4,363 13,900
2007[148] 14,835 476 6,485 17,000
2008[149] 19,166 645 8,314 20,700
2009[150] 24,509 902 13,813 24,300
2010[151] 34,204 1,152 18,797 33,700
2011[152] 48,077 631 25,278 56,200
2012[153] 61,093 -39 32,555 88,400
2013[154] 74,452 274 40,159 117,300
2014[155] 88,988 -241 54,505 154,100
2015[156] 107,006 596 64,747 230,800
2016[157] 135,987 2,371 83,402 341,400
2017[158] 177,866 3,033 131,310 566,000
2018[159] 232,887 10,073 162,648 647,500
2019[160] 280,522 11,588 225,248 798,000
2020[161] 386,064 21,331 321,195 1,298,000
2021[1] 469,822 33,364 420,549 1,608,000


A sticker expressing an anti-Amazon message is pictured on the back of a street sign in Seattle.

Since its founding, the company has attracted criticism and controversy for its actions, including: supplying law enforcement with facial recognition surveillance tools;[162] forming cloud computing partnerships with the CIA;[163] leading customers away from bookshops;[164] adversely impacting the environment;[165] placing a low priority on warehouse conditions for workers; actively opposing unionization efforts;[166] remotely deleting content purchased by Amazon Kindle users; taking public subsidies; seeking to patent its 1-Click technology; engaging in anti-competitive actions and price discrimination;[23][24] and reclassifying LGBT books as adult content.[167][168] Criticism has also concerned various decisions over whether to censor or publish content such as the WikiLeaks website, works containing libel and material facilitating dogfight, cockfight, or pedophile activities. In December 2011, Amazon faced a backlash from small businesses for running a one-day deal to promote its new Price Check app. Shoppers who used the app to check prices in a brick-and-mortar store were offered a 5% discount to purchase the same item from Amazon.[169] Companies like Groupon, eBay and countered Amazon's promotion by offering $10 off from their products.[170][171]

The company has also faced accusations of putting undue pressure on suppliers to maintain and extend its profitability. One effort to squeeze the most vulnerable book publishers was known within the company as the Gazelle Project, after Bezos suggested, according to Brad Stone, "that Amazon should approach these small publishers the way a cheetah would pursue a sickly gazelle."[111] In July 2014, the Federal Trade Commission launched a lawsuit against the company alleging it was promoting in-app purchases to children, which were being transacted without parental consent.[172] In 2019, Amazon banned selling skin-lightening and racist products that might affect the consumer's health.[173] In 2022, a lawsuit filed by state attorney-general Letitia James was dismissed by the New York state court of appeals.[174]

Environmental impact

Eyes on Amazon shareholders day of action in Boston, Massachusetts

In 2018, Amazon emitted 44.4 million metric tons of CO2.[175]

In November 2018, a community action group opposed the construction permit delivered to Goodman Group for the construction of a 160,000 square metres (1,700,000 sq ft) logistics platform Amazon will operate at Lyon-Saint-Exupéry Airport. In February 2019, Étienne Tête filed a request on behalf of a second regional community action group asking the administrative court to decide whether the platform served a sufficiently important public interest to justify its environmental impact. Construction has been suspended while these matters are decided.[165]

In September 2019, Amazon workers organized a walk-out as part of the Global Climate Strike.[176][177] An internal group called Amazon Employees for Climate Justice said over 1,800 employees in 25 cities and 14 countries committed to participating in the action to protest Amazon's environmental impact and inaction to climate change.[176] This group of workers petitioned Jeff Bezos and Amazon with three specific demands: to stop donating to politicians and lobbyists that deny climate change, to stop working with fossil fuel companies to accelerate oil and gas extraction, and to achieve zero carbon emissions by 2030.[178][177]

Amazon has introduced the Shipment Zero program, however, Shipment Zero has only committed to reducing 50% of its shipments to net-zero by 2030. Also, even that 50% does not necessarily mean a decrease in emissions compared to current levels given Amazon's rate of growth in orders.[179]

That said, Amazon's CEO has also signed the Climate Pledge, in which Amazon would meet the Paris climate agreement goals 10 years ahead of schedule, and would be carbon-neutral by 2040. Besides this pledge, it also ordered 100,000 electric delivery trucks from Rivian.[180] In September 2021, signatories of Amazon Environmental Pledge reached 200.[181] According to the report, signatories of pledge are from 16 countries, 25 industries.[182]

Amazon funds both climate denial groups including the Competitive Enterprise Institute and politicians denying climate change including Jim Inhofe.[183][184]

Amazon considered making an option for Prime customers to have packages delivered at the most efficient and environmentally-friendly time (allowing the company to combine shipments with the same destination) but decided against it out of fear customers might reduce purchases.[185] Since 2019, the company has instead offered customers an "Amazon Day" option, where all orders are delivered on the same day, emphasizing customer convenience, and it occasionally offers Prime customers credits in return for selecting slower and less expensive shipping options.[185]

In May 2022, Amazon announced a $10.6 million commitment to help build and renovate 130 affordable homes with Metropolitan Development and Housing Agency (MDHA) and support the social work of the local nonprofit CrossBridge in Nashville. Since 2020, amazon has committed more than $94 million to affordable housing projects in Nashville. The commitment is part of the Amazon Housing Equity Fund, a $2 billion commitment to create and preserve 20,000 affordable homes.[186]

The Solimo Strategy

In October 2021, based on several leaked internal documents, Reuters reported[187] that Amazon systematically harvested and studied data about their sellers' products' market performance, and used those data to identify lucrative markets and ultimately launch Amazon's replacement products in India. The data included information about returns, the sizing of clothing down to the neck circumference and sleeve length, and the volume of product views on their website. Rivals' market performance data are not available to Amazon's sellers. The strategy also involved tweaking the search results to favor Amazon's knock-off products. The Solimo Strategy's impact had a reach well beyond India: hundreds of Solimo branded household items, from multivitamins to coffee pods, are available in the US. One of the victims of the Solimo Strategy is the clothing brand John Miller, owned by India's 'retail king' Kishore Biyani.

Selling counterfeit, unsafe and discarded items

The selling of counterfeit products by Amazon has attracted widespread notice, with both purchases marked as being fulfilled by third parties and those shipped directly from Amazon warehouses being found to be counterfeit. This has included some products sold directly by Amazon itself and marked as "ships from and sold by".[188] Counterfeit charging cables sold on Amazon as purported Apple products have been found to be a fire hazard.[189][190] Such counterfeits have included a wide array of products, from big ticket items to every day items such as tweezers, gloves,[191] and umbrellas.[192] More recently, this has spread to Amazon's newer grocery services.[193] Counterfeiting was reported to be especially a problem for artists and small businesses whose products were being rapidly copied for sale on the site.[194]

One Amazon business practice that encourages counterfeiting is that, by default, seller accounts on Amazon are set to use "commingled inventory". With this practice, the goods that a seller sends to Amazon are mixed with those of the producer of the product and with those of all other sellers that supply what is supposed to be the same product.[195]

In June 2019, BuzzFeed reported that some products identified on the site as "Amazon's choice" were low quality, had a history of customer complaints, and exhibited evidence of product review manipulation.[196]

In August 2019, The Wall Street Journal reported that they had found more than 4,000 items for sale on Amazon's site that had been declared unsafe by federal agencies, had misleading labels or had been banned by federal regulators.[197]

In the wake of the WSJ investigation, three U.S. senators – Richard Blumenthal, Ed Markey, and Bob Menendez – sent an open letter to Jeff Bezos demanding him to take action about the selling of unsafe items on the site. The letter said that "Unquestionably, Amazon is falling short of its commitment to keeping safe those consumers who use its massive platform."[198] The letter included several questions about the company's practices and gave Bezos a deadline to respond by September 29, 2019, saying "We call on you to immediately remove from the platform all the problematic products examined in the recent WSJ report; explain how you are going about this process; conduct a sweeping internal investigation of your enforcement and consumer safety policies; and institute changes that will continue to keep unsafe products off your platform."[198] Earlier in the same month, senators Blumenthal and Menendez had sent Bezos a letter about the BuzzFeed report.[198]

In December 2019, The Wall Street Journal reported that some people were literally retrieving trash out of dumpsters and selling it as new products on Amazon. The reporters ran an experiment and determined that it was easy for a seller to set up an account and sell cleaned up junk as new products. In addition to trash, sellers were obtaining inventory from clearance bins, thrift stores, and pawn shops.[199][200]

In August 2020, an appeals court in California ruled that Amazon can be held liable for unsafe products sold on its website. A Californian had bought a replacement laptop battery that caught fire and caused her to sustain third-degree burns.[201]

Rigged search results

Reuters has reported[187] that Amazon has rigged its product search results to favor its brand in India. According to the article, leaked internal strategy documents show that Amazon has systematically manipulated its search results such that Amazon's brand products appear in the first three search results, leading customers to purchase those instead of other sellers' products on the platform. The company employed two tactics: search seeding and search sparkles. By search seeding, Amazon boosted the rankings of its own branded goods. By search sparkles, the company inserted promotions of their brands into broad category searches.

Tax avoidance

Amazon's tax affairs were investigated in China, Germany, Poland, South Korea, France, Japan, Ireland, Singapore, Luxembourg, Italy, Spain, United Kingdom, United States, and Portugal.[202] According to a report released by Fair Tax Mark in 2019, Amazon is the worst offender of tax avoidance, having paid a 12% effective tax rate between 2010 and 2018, in contrast with 35% corporate tax rate in the US during the same period. Amazon countered that it had a 24% effective tax rate during the same period.[203]

Comments by Donald Trump and Bernie Sanders

In early 2018, President Donald Trump repeatedly criticized Amazon's use of the United States Postal Service and its prices for the delivery of packages, stating, "I am right about Amazon costing the United States Post Office massive amounts of money for being their Delivery Boy," Trump tweeted. "Amazon should pay these costs (plus) and not have them bourne [sic] by the American Taxpayer."[204] Amazon's shares fell by 6 percent as a result of Trump's comments. Shepard Smith of Fox News disputed Trump's claims and pointed to evidence that the USPS was offering below-market prices to all customers with no advantage to Amazon. However, analyst Tom Forte pointed to the fact that Amazon's payments to the USPS are not made public and that their contract has a reputation for being "a sweetheart deal".[205][206]

Throughout the summer of 2018, Vermont Senator Bernie Sanders criticized Amazon's wages and working conditions in a series of YouTube videos and media appearances. He also pointed to the fact that Amazon had paid no federal income tax in the previous year.[207] Sanders solicited stories from Amazon warehouse workers who felt exploited by the company.[208] One such story, by James Bloodworth, described the environment as akin to "a low-security prison" and stated that the company's culture used an Orwellian newspeak.[209] These reports cited a finding by New Food Economy that one third of fulfilment center workers in Arizona were on the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP).[210] Responses by Amazon included incentives for employees to tweet positive stories and a statement which called the salary figures used by Sanders "inaccurate and misleading". The statement also charged that it was inappropriate for him to refer to SNAP as "food stamps".[208] On September 5, 2018, Sanders along with Ro Khanna introduced the Stop Bad Employers by Zeroing Out Subsidies (Stop BEZOS) Act aimed at Amazon and other alleged beneficiaries of corporate welfare such as Walmart, McDonald's and Uber.[211] Among the bill's supporters were Tucker Carlson of Fox News and Matt Taibbi who criticized himself and other journalists for not covering Amazon's contribution to wealth inequality earlier.[212][213]

On October 2, 2018, Amazon announced that its minimum wage for all American employees would be raised to $15 per hour. Sanders congratulated the company for making this decision.[214]

Opposition to trade unions

Amazon warehouse workers outside the National Labor Relations Board

has opposed efforts by trade unions to organize in both the United States and the United Kingdom. In 2001, 850 employees in Seattle were laid off by after a unionization drive. The Washington Alliance of Technological Workers (WashTech) accused the company of violating union laws and claimed Amazon managers subjected them to intimidation and heavy propaganda. Amazon denied any link between the unionization effort and layoffs.[215] Also in 2001, hired a US management consultancy organization, The Burke Group, to assist in defeating a campaign by the Graphical, Paper and Media Union (GPMU, now part of Unite the Union) to achieve recognition in the Milton Keynes distribution depot. It was alleged that the company victimized or sacked four union members during the 2001 recognition drive and held a series of captive meetings with employees.[216]

An Amazon training video that was leaked in 2018 stated "We are not anti-union, but we are not neutral either. We do not believe unions are in the best interest of our customers or shareholders or most importantly, our associates." The video also encouraged to report "warning signs" of potential worker organization, which included workers using words like "living wage", employees "suddenly hanging out together" as well as workers showing "unusual interest in policies, benefits, employee lists, or other company information".[217][218] Two years later, it was found that Whole Foods was using a heat map to track which stores had the highest levels of pro-union sentiment. Factors including low racial diversity, proximity to other unions, high poverty levels in the surrounding community and calls to the National Labor Relations Board were named as contributors to "unionization risk".[219]

In early 2020, Amazon internal documents were leaked, which said that Whole Foods had been using an interactive heat map to monitor its 510 locations across the U.S. and assign each store a unionization risk score based on such criteria as employee loyalty, turnover rate, and racial diversity. Data collected in the heat map suggest that stores with low racial and ethnic diversity, especially those located in poor communities, were more likely to unionize.[220][221]

National Labor Relations Board determined that Amazon illegally fired two employees in retaliation for efforts to organize workers.[222] In April 2021, after a majority of workers in Bessemer, Alabama voted against joining the Retail, Wholesale and Department Store Union, the union asked for a hearing with the NLRB to determine whether the company created "an atmosphere of confusion, coercion and/or fear of reprisals" ahead of the union vote.[223]

In April 2022, Amazon workers in Staten Island voted to form Amazon Labor Union, the company's first legally recognized union.[224][225][226] In that same month, The Intercept reported on Amazon's planned internal messaging app that would ban words like "union", "living wage", "freedom", "pay raise" or "restrooms".[227][228]

In August 2022, workers in an Albany, New York, location filed a petition for an election in an attempt to become what would be the fourth unionized warehouse at the time.[229]

Working conditions

Organize Amazon Workers contingent in the Peoplehood Parade in Philadelphia, PA

Former employees, current employees, the media, and politicians have criticized Amazon for poor working conditions at the company.[230][231][232] In 2011, it was publicized that workers had to carry out tasks in 100 °F (38 °C) heat at the Breinigsville, Pennsylvania warehouse. As a result of these conditions, employees became extremely uncomfortable and suffered from dehydration and collapse. Loading-bay doors were not opened to allow in fresh air because of concerns over theft.[233] Amazon's initial response was to pay for an ambulance to sit outside on call to cart away overheated employees.[233] The company eventually installed air conditioning at the warehouse.[234]

Some workers, "pickers", who travel the building with a trolley and a handheld scanner "picking" customer orders, can walk up to 15 miles (24 km) during their workday and if they fall behind on their targets, they can be reprimanded. The handheld scanners give real-time information to the employee on how quickly or slowly they are working; the scanners also serve to allow Team Leads and Area Managers to track the specific locations of employees and how much "idle time" they gain when not working.[235][236]

In a German television report broadcast in February 2013, journalists Diana Löbl and Peter Onneken conducted a covert investigation at the distribution center of Amazon in the town of Bad Hersfeld in the German state of Hessen. The report highlights the behavior of some of the security guards, themselves being employed by a third-party company, who apparently either had a neo-Nazi background or deliberately dressed in neo-Nazi apparel and who were intimidating foreign and temporary female workers at its distribution centers. The third-party security company involved was delisted by Amazon as a business contact shortly after that report.[237][238][239][240]

In March 2015, it was reported in The Verge that Amazon would be removing non-compete clauses of 18 months in length from its US employment contracts for hourly-paid workers, after criticism that it was acting unreasonably in preventing such employees from finding other work. Even short-term temporary workers have to sign contracts that prohibit them from working at any company where they would "directly or indirectly" support any good or service that competes with those they helped support at Amazon, for 18 months after leaving Amazon, even if they are fired or made redundant.[241][242]

A 2015 front-page article in The New York Times profiled several former Amazon employees[243] who together described a "bruising" workplace culture in which workers with illness or other personal crises were pushed out or unfairly evaluated.[244] Bezos responded by writing a Sunday memo to employees,[245] in which he disputed the Timess account of "shockingly callous management practices" that he said would never be tolerated at the company.[244]

To boost employee morale, on November 2, 2015, Amazon announced that it would be extending six weeks of paid leave for new mothers and fathers. This change includes birth parents and adoptive parents and can be applied in conjunction with existing maternity leave and medical leave for new mothers.[246]

In mid-2018, investigations by journalists and media outlets such as The Guardian reported poor working conditions at Amazon's fulfillment centers.[247][248] Later in 2018, another article exposed poor working conditions for Amazon's delivery drivers.[249]

In response to criticism that Amazon does not pay its workers a livable wage, Jeff Bezos announced beginning November 1, 2018, all US and UK Amazon employees will earn a $15 an hour minimum wage.[250] Amazon will also lobby to make $15 an hour the federal minimum wage.[251] At the same time, Amazon also eliminated stock awards and bonuses for hourly employees.[252]

On Black Friday 2018, Amazon warehouse workers in several European countries, including Italy, Germany, Spain, and the United Kingdom, went on strike to protest inhumane working conditions and low pay.[253]

The Daily Beast reported in March 2019 that emergency services responded to 189 calls from 46 Amazon warehouses in 17 states between the years 2013 and 2018, all relating to suicidal employees. The workers attributed their mental breakdowns to employer-imposed social isolation, aggressive surveillance, and the hurried and dangerous working conditions at these fulfillment centers. One former employee told The Daily Beast "It's this isolating colony of hell where people having breakdowns is a regular occurrence."[254]

On July 15, 2019, during the onset of Amazon's Prime Day sale event, Amazon employees working in the United States and Germany went on strike in protest of unfair wages and poor working conditions.[255][256]

In August 2019, the BBC reported on Amazon's Twitter ambassadors. Their constant support for and defense of Amazon and its practices have led many Twitter users to suspect that they are in fact bots, being used to dismiss the issues affecting Amazon workers.[257] In March 2021, a flurry of new ambassador accounts claiming to be employees defended the company against a unionization drive, in some cases making the false claim that there was no way to opt-out of union dues. Amazon confirmed at least one was fake, and Twitter shut down several for violating its terms of use.[258]

In March 2020, during the coronavirus outbreak when the government instructed companies to restrict social contact, Amazon's UK staff was forced to work overtime to meet the demand spiked by the disease. A GMB spokesperson said the company had put "profit before safety".[259] GMB has continued to raise concerns regarding "gruelling conditions, unrealistic productivity targets, surveillance, bogus self-employment and a refusal to recognise or engage with unions unless forced", calling for the UK government and safety regulators to take action to address these issues.[260]

In its 2020 statement to its US shareholders, Amazon stated that "we respect and support the Core Conventions of the International Labour Organization (ILO), the ILO Declaration on Fundamental Principles and Rights at Work, and the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights". Operation of these Global Human Rights Principles has been "long-held at Amazon, and codifying them demonstrates our support for fundamental human rights and the dignity of workers everywhere we operate".[261]

On November 27, 2020, Amnesty International said, workers working for Amazon have faced great health and safety risks since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic. On Black Friday, one of Amazon's busiest periods, the company failed to ensure key safety features in France, Poland, the United Kingdom, and USA. Workers have been risking their health and lives to ensure essential goods are delivered to consumer doorsteps, helping Amazon achieve record profits.[262]

On January 6, 2021, Amazon said that it is planning to build 20,000 affordable houses by spending $2 billion in the regions where the major employments are located.[263]

On January 24, 2021, Amazon said that it was planning to open a pop-up clinic hosted in partnership with Virginia Mason Franciscan Health in Seattle in order to vaccinate 2,000 persons against COVID-19 on the first day.[264]

In February 2021, Amazon said that it was planning to put cameras in its delivery vehicles. Although many drivers were upset by this decision, Amazon said that the videos would only be sent in certain circumstances.[265]

Drivers have alleged they sometimes have to urinate and defecate in their vans as a result of pressure to meet quotas. This was denied in a tweet from the official Amazon News account saying: "You don't really believe the peeing in bottles thing, do you? If that were true, nobody would work for us." Amazon employees subsequently leaked an email to The Intercept[266] showing the company was aware its drivers were doing so. The email said: "This evening, an associate discovered human feces in an Amazon bag that was returned to station by a driver. This is the 3rd occasion in the last 2 months when bags have been returned to the station with poop inside."[267] Amazon acknowledged the issue publicly after denying it at first.[268]

In July 2021, workers at the warehouse in New York City filed a complaint with the Occupational Safety and Health Administration which describes harsh 12-hour workdays with sweltering internal temperatures that resulted in fainting workers being carried out on stretchers. The complaint reads "internal temperature is too hot. We have no ventilation, dusty, dirty fans that spread debris into our lungs and eyes, are working at a non-stop pace and [we] are fainting out from heat exhaustion, getting nose bleeds from high blood pressure, and feeling dizzy and nauseous." They add that many of the fans provided by the company don't work, water fountains often lack water, and cooling systems are insufficient. Those filing the complaint are affiliated with the Amazon Labor Union group attempting to unionize the facility, which the company has been actively campaigning against. Similar conditions have been reported elsewhere, such as in Kent, Washington during the 2021 heat wave.[269][270]

Conflict of interest with the CIA and DOD

In 2013, Amazon secured a US$600 million contract with the CIA, which poses a potential conflict of interest involving the Bezos-owned The Washington Post and his newspaper's coverage of the CIA.[271] Kate Martin, director of the Center for National Security Studies, said, "It's a serious potential conflict of interest for a major newspaper like The Washington Post to have a contractual relationship with the government and the most secret part of the government."[272] This was later followed by a US$10 billion contract with the U.S. Department of Defense.[163]

Seattle head tax and houselessness services

In May 2018, Amazon threatened the Seattle City Council over an employee head tax proposal that would have funded houselessness services and low-income housing. The tax would have cost Amazon about $800 per employee, or 0.7% of their average salary.[273] In retaliation, Amazon paused construction on a new building, threatened to limit further investment in the city, and funded a repeal campaign. Although originally passed, the measure was soon repealed after an expensive repeal campaign spearheaded by Amazon.[274]

Nashville Operations Center of Excellence

The incentives given by the Metropolitan Council of Nashville and Davidson County to Amazon for their new Operations Center of Excellence in Nashville Yards, a site owned by developer Southwest Value Partners, have been controversial, including the decision by the Tennessee Department of Economic and Community Development to keep the full extent of the agreement secret.[275] The incentives include "$102 million in combined grants and tax credits for a scaled-down Amazon office building" as well as "a $65 million cash grant for capital expenditures" in exchange for the creation of 5,000 jobs over seven years.[275]

The Tennessee Coalition for Open Government called for more transparency.[275] Another local organization known as the People's Alliance for Transit, Housing, and Employment (PATHE) suggested no public money should be given to Amazon; instead, it should be spent on building more public housing for the working poor and the homeless and investing in more public transportation for Nashvillians.[276] Others suggested incentives to big corporations do not improve the local economy.[277]

In November 2018, the proposal to give Amazon $15 million in incentives was criticized by the Nashville Firefighters Union and the Nashville chapter of the Fraternal Order of Police,[278] who called it "corporate welfare."[279] In February 2019, another $15.2 million in infrastructure was approved by the council, although it was voted down by three council members, including Councilwoman Angie Henderson who dismissed it as "cronyism".[280]

Facial recognition technology and law enforcement

While Amazon has publicly opposed secret government surveillance, as revealed by Freedom of Information Act requests it has supplied facial recognition support to law enforcement in the form of the Rekognition technology and consulting services. Initial testing included the city of Orlando, Florida, and Washington County, Oregon. Amazon offered to connect Washington County with other Amazon government customers interested in Rekognition and a body camera manufacturer. These ventures are opposed by a coalition of civil rights groups with concern that they could lead to an expansion of surveillance and be prone to abuse. Specifically, it could automate the identification and tracking of anyone, particularly in the context of potential police body camera integration.[162][281][282] Because of the backlash, the city of Orlando publicly stated it will no longer use the technology, but may revisit this decision at a later date.[283]

Access to NHS data

The UK government awarded Amazon a contract that gives the company free access to information about healthcare published by the UK's National Health Service.[284] This will, for example, be used by Amazon's Alexa to answer medical questions, although Alexa also uses many other sources of information. The material, which excludes patient data, could also allow the company to make, advertise and sell its products. The contract allows Amazon access to information on symptoms, causes, and definitions of conditions, and "all related copyrightable content and data and other materials". Amazon can then create "new products, applications, cloud-based services and/or distributed software", which the NHS will not benefit from financially. The company can also share the information with third parties. The government said that allowing Alexa devices to offer expert health advice to users will reduce pressure on doctors and pharmacists.[285]

Collection of data and surveillance

On February 17, 2020, a Panorama documentary broadcast by the BBC in the UK highlighted the amount of data collected by the company and the move into surveillance causing concerns of politicians and regulators in the US and Europe.[286][287]

Antitrust complaints

In December 2019, the Competition Commission of India suspended an approval for the strategic takeover of Future Retail and levied a penalty of Rs 200 crores. The regulator discovered through internal emails of Amazon that it intended to acquire the company so that it can take advantage of foreign investment relaxations and not owing to its interest in the company. Amazon appealed this order in the Company tribunal. Later in March 2022, the CCI defended its order in court citing misrepresentation on the part of Amazon.[288][289]

On June 11, 2020, the European Union announced that it will be pressing charges against Amazon over its treatment of third-party e-commerce sellers.[290] The state of California opened an investigation around the same time.[291]

In July 2020, Amazon along with other tech giants Apple, Google and Meta was accused of maintaining harmful power and anti-competitive strategies to quash potential competitors in the market.[292] The CEOs of respective firms appeared in a teleconference on July 29, 2020, before the lawmakers of the U.S. House Antitrust Subcommittee.[293] In October 2020, the antitrust subcommittee of the U.S. House of Representatives released a report accusing Amazon of abusing a monopoly position in e-commerce to unfairly compete with sellers on its platform.[294] In a March 2022 letter to bipartisan leaders of the Senate Judiciary Committee, Biden's Justice Department endorsed legislation forbidding large digital platforms like Amazon from disadvantaging competitors' products and services against their own. "The [Justice] Department views the rise of dominant platforms as a presenting a threat to open markets and competition, with risks for consumers, businesses, innovation, resiliency, global competitiveness, and our democracy," says the letter.[295]

California's Attorney General filed suit against Amazon in September 2022, following the investigation that began in 2020, alleging that its contracts with third-party sellers and wholesalers inflate prices and stifle competition. Specifically, that merchants are coerced into contracts that prevent them from offering their products elsewhere, on other websites, for lower prices.[296]

Anti-vaccination and non-scientific cancer 'cures'

Anti-vaccination and non-evidence-based cancer 'cures' have routinely appeared high in Amazon's books and videos. This may be due to positive reviews posted by supporters of untested methods, or gaming of the algorithms by truther communities, rather than any intent on the company's part.[297][298]

Wired magazine found that Amazon Prime Video was full of 'pseudoscientific documentaries laden with conspiracy theories and pointing viewers towards unproven treatments'.[299]

U.S. Rep. Adam Schiff (D-Calif.) expressed concern that Amazon was "surfacing and recommending products and content that discourage parents from vaccinating their children." Amazon subsequently removed five anti-vaccination documentaries.[300] Amazon also removed 12 books that unscientifically claimed bleach could cure conditions including malaria and childhood autism. This followed an NBC News report about parents who used it in a misguided attempt to reverse their children's autism.[301]

Government censorship demands

Amazon stated of being "committed to diversity, equity and inclusion", but it was seen obliging to the censorship demands of several countries.[302] In 2021, the Chinese website of Amazon complied to an order of the Chinese government, and removed the customer reviews and ratings for a book written on President Xi Jinping's speeches and writings. Besides, the comments section was also disabled.[303] In 2022, the company obliged to the UAE government's demand and restricted the LGBTQ products on its Emirati website. Documents revealed that under the threat of unknown penalties, Amazon removed searches on over 150 keywords related to LGBTQ products. Moreover, a number of book titles were also blocked, including My Lesbian Experience With Loneliness by Nagata Kabi, Gender Queer: A Memoir by Maia Kobabe, and Bad Feminist by Roxane Gay.[304][305] Amazon said they were restricted to "comply with the local laws and regulations of the countries in which we operate".[302]

Project Nimbus

Project Nimbus, a $1.2 billion deal in which the technology companies Amazon and Google will provide Israel and its military with artificial intelligence, machine learning, and other cloud computing services, including building local cloud sites that will "keep information within Israel's borders under strict security guidelines."[306][307][308] The contract has drawn rebuke and condemnation from the companies' shareholders as well as their employees, over concerns that the project will lead to further abuses of Palestinians' human rights in the context of the ongoing illegal occupation and the Israeli-Palestinian conflict.[309][310] Specifically, they voice concern over how the technology will enable further surveillance of Palestinians and unlawful data collection on them as well as facilitate the expansion of Israel's illegal settlements on Palestinian land.[310]

Response to COVID-19 pandemic

Hazard pay and overtime

Amazon introduced new policies to reward frontline workers for continuing to come into work during the crisis. One of these policies, announced on March 16, 2020, was a temporary $2-per-hour rise in pay. This policy expired in June 2020.[311] Amazon also announced a policy of unlimited, unpaid time off that lasted until April 30, 2020.[312] However, starting May 2, 2022, Amazon will end its paid time-off policy for its COVID-19 confirmed employees. Due to the availability of vaccines and guidance from U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the company has decided to ease its COVID-19 policies.[313]

Additional hiring as a result of pandemic

In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, Amazon introduced temporary restrictions on the sale of non-essential goods. In March 2020, it hired some 100,000 more staff in the US to help deal with essential items such as food and medical equipment. It also reported that it was so busy that it was unable to bring onboard new customers and therefore had to have a waiting list. In April, the firm announced that it was going to hire up to 75,000 workers to help deal with increased demand.[314] In September 2020, the company announced it would hire an additional 100,000 workers in the United States and Canada.[315]

Employee protests during COVID-19

During the pandemic, there have been protests by the Amazon workers at warehouses in the US, France, and Italy. The BBC reported that there were confirmed coronavirus cases in more than 50 locations.[314] The reason for the protests is the company policy to "run normal shifts" despite many positive cases of the virus.[316] According to the UNI Global Union, "Amazon cannot act like this is business as usual. We are facing a deadly virus that has already taken the lives of thousands of people and paralyzed the world's economy. If distribution centers are not safe for workers right now, they should be closed immediately."[316] In Spain, the company has faced legal complaints over its policies.[317] Despite workers at 19 warehouses in the US have tested positive for COVID-19, Amazon did not shut down warehouses, only doing so when forced by the government or because of protests. A group of US Senators wrote an open letter to Bezos in March 2020, expressing concerns about worker safety.[318]

An Amazon warehouse protest on March 30, 2020, in Staten Island led to its organizer, Christian Smalls, being fired. Amazon defended the decision by saying that Smalls was supposed to be in self-isolation at the time and leading the protest put its other workers at risk.[317] Smalls has called this response "ridiculous".[319] The New York state attorney general, Letitia James, is considering legal retaliation to the firing which she called "immoral and inhumane."[317] She also asked the National Labor Relations Board to investigate Smalls' firing. Smalls himself accuses the company of retaliating against him for organizing a protest.[319] At the Staten Island warehouse, one case of COVID-19 has been confirmed by Amazon; workers believe there are more, and say that the company has not cleaned the building, given them suitable protection, or informed them of potential cases.[318] Smalls added specifically that there are many workers there in risk categories, and the protest only demanded that the building be sanitized and the employees continue to be paid during that process.[319] Derrick Palmer, another worker at the Staten Island facility, told The Verge that Amazon quickly communicates through text and email when they need the staff to complete mandatory overtime, but have not been using this to tell people when a colleague has contracted the disease, instead of waiting days and sending managers to speak to employees in person.[318] Amazon claim that the Staten Island protest only attracted 15 of the facility's 5,000 workers,[320] while other sources describe much larger crowds.[318]

On April 14, 2020, two Amazon employees were fired for "repeatedly violating internal policies", after they had circulated a petition about health risks for warehouse workers internally.[321]

On May 4, Amazon vice president Tim Bray resigned "in dismay" over the firing of whistle-blower employees who spoke out about the lack of COVID-19 protections, including shortages of face masks and failure to implement widespread temperature checks which were promised by the company. He said that the firings were "chickenshit" and "designed to create a climate of fear" in Amazon warehouses.[322]

In a Q1 2020 financial report, Jeff Bezos announced that Amazon expects to spend $4 billion or more (predicted operating profit for Q2) on COVID-19-related issues: personal protective equipment, higher wages for hourly teams, cleaning for facilities, and expanding Amazon's COVID-19 testing capabilities. These measures intend to improve the safety and well-being of hundreds of thousands of the company's employees.[323]

From the beginning of 2020 until September of the same year, the company declared that the total number of workers who had contracted the infection was 19,816.[324]

Closure in France

The SUD (trade unions) brought a court case against Amazon for unsafe working conditions. This resulted in a French district court (Nanterre) ruling on April 15, 2020, ordering the company to limit, under threat of a EUR1 million per day fine, its deliveries to certain essential items, including electronics, food, medical or hygienic products, and supplies for home improvement, animals, and offices.[325] Instead, Amazon immediately shut down its six warehouses in France, continuing to pay workers but limiting deliveries to items shipped from third-party sellers and warehouses outside of France.[326] The company said the EUR100,000 fine for each prohibited item shipped could result in billions of dollars in fines even with a small fraction of items misclassified.[327] After losing an appeal and coming to an agreement with labor unions for more pay and staggered schedules, the company reopened its French warehouses on May 19.[326]


Amazon lobbies the United States federal government and state governments on multiple issues such as the enforcement of sales taxes on online sales, transportation safety, privacy and data protection and intellectual property. According to regulatory filings, focuses its lobbying on the United States Congress, the Federal Communications Commission and the Federal Reserve. spent roughly $3.5 million, $5 million and $9.5 million on lobbying, in 2013, 2014 and 2015, respectively.[328] was a corporate member of the American Legislative Exchange Council (ALEC) until it dropped membership following protests at its shareholders' meeting on May 24, 2012.[329]

In 2014, Amazon expanded its lobbying practices as it prepared to lobby the Federal Aviation Administration to approve its drone delivery program, hiring the Akin Gump Strauss Hauer & Feld lobbying firm in June.[330] Amazon and its lobbyists have visited with Federal Aviation Administration officials and aviation committees in Washington, D.C. to explain its plans to deliver packages.[331] In September 2020 this moved one step closer with the granting of a critical certificate by the FAA.[332]

In 2019, it spent $16.8m and had a team of 104 lobbyists, up from $14.4m and 103 lobbyists in 2018.[333]

See also


  1. ^ a b c ", Inc. 2021 Form 10-K Annual Report". U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission. February 4, 2022.
  2. ^ "California Secretary of State Business Search". Secretary of State of California.
  3. ^ ", Inc. 2022 Proxy Statement". U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission. April 14, 2022.
  4. ^ Reuter, Dominick (July 30, 2021). "1 out of every 153 American workers is an Amazon employee". Business Insider. Retrieved 2022.
  5. ^ "Amazon Empire: The Rise and Reign of Jeff Bezos". PBS.
  6. ^ Kantar. "Accelerated Growth Sees Amazon Crowned 2019's BrandZ(TM) Top 100 Most Valuable Global Brand". Retrieved 2020.
  7. ^ Guevara, Natalie (November 17, 2020). "Amazon's John Schoettler has helped change how we think of corporate campuses". Archived from the original on March 9, 2021. Retrieved 2021.
  8. ^ Kakutani, Michiko (October 28, 2013). "Selling as Hard as He Can". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on October 29, 2013. Retrieved 2021.
  9. ^ a b "Amazon and Whole Foods Market Announce Acquisition to Close This Monday, Will Work Together to Make High-Quality, Natural and Organic Food Affordable for Everyone" (Press release). Business Wire. August 24, 2017.
  10. ^ "Fortune Global 500 List 2018: See Who Made It". Fortune. Retrieved 2019.
  11. ^ Furth, John F. (May 18, 2018). "Why Amazon and Jeff Bezos Are So Successful at Disruption". Entrepreneur. Retrieved 2019.
  12. ^ Bylund, Per (August 29, 2017). "Amazon's Lesson About Disruption: Rattle Any Market You Can". Entrepreneur. Retrieved 2019.
  13. ^ Newman, Daniel. "Alibaba vs. Amazon: The Battle Of Disruptive Innovation Beyond Traditional E-Commerce". Forbes. Retrieved 2019.
  14. ^ "Microsoft Cloud Revenues Leap; Amazon is Still Way Out in Front". Reno, Nevada: Synergy Research Group.
  15. ^ Jopson, Barney (July 12, 2011). "Amazon urges California referendum on online tax". Financial Times. Archived from the original on July 14, 2011. Retrieved 2011.
  16. ^ "Amazon Prime now has 200 million members, jumping 50 million in one year". Retrieved 2021.
  17. ^ Spangler, Todd (April 15, 2021). "Amazon Prime Tops 200 Million Members, Jeff Bezos Says". Variety. Retrieved 2022.
  18. ^ Cheng, Evelyn (September 23, 2016). "Amazon climbs into list of top five largest US stocks by market cap". CNBC. Retrieved 2019.
  19. ^ Harwell, Drew (April 30, 2019). "Amazon's facial-recognition AI is supercharging police in Oregon". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2019.
  20. ^ Kantor, Jodi; Streitfeld, David. "Inside Amazon: Wrestling Big Ideas in a Bruising Workplace". The New York Times. Retrieved 2020.
  21. ^ Stampler, Laura (February 14, 2019). "Amazon Will Pay a Whopping $0 in Federal Taxes on $11.2 Billion Profits". Fortune. Retrieved 2019.
  22. ^ Huddleston, Jr., Tom (February 15, 2019). "Amazon will pay $0 in federal taxes this year -- and it's partially thanks to Trump". CNBC. Retrieved 2022.
  23. ^ a b Khan, Lina (January 2017). "Amazon's Antitrust Paradox". Yale Law Journal. 126 (3): 564-907.
  24. ^ a b Baum, Andrew (October 23, 2015). "Amazon Wins Ruling on Results for Searches on Brands It Doesn't Sell". The National Law Review. Foley & Lardner. Retrieved 2015.
  25. ^ The David Rubenstein Show: Jeff Bezos on YouTube, Bloomberg Markets and Finance, September 19, 2018,
  26. ^ " - History & Facts". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2019.
  27. ^ "Amazon founder Jeff Bezos will step down as CEO". Fox8. February 2, 2021. Archived from the original on February 2, 2021. Retrieved 2021.
  28. ^ Haselton, Todd (February 2, 2021). "Jeff Bezos to step down as Amazon CEO, Andy Jassy to take over in Q3". CNBC. Retrieved 2021.
  29. ^ "Officers & Directors". Amazon. Retrieved 2022.
  30. ^ "Toys R Us bankruptcy: A dot-com-era deal with Amazon marked the beginning of the end". Quartz. September 18, 2017. Retrieved 2018.
  31. ^ "Toys R Us wins Amazon lawsuit". BBC News. March 3, 2006. Retrieved 2012.
  32. ^ Metz, Rachel (June 12, 2009). "Amazon to pay Toys R Us $51M to settle suit". USA Today. Associated Press. Retrieved 2012.
  33. ^ "Amazon/Borders form online partnership". CNN Money. April 11, 2001. Retrieved 2018.
  34. ^ "How 'Amazon factor' killed retailers like Borders, Circuit City". SFGate. July 13, 2015. Retrieved 2018.
  35. ^ Streitfeld, David (October 18, 2011). "Bookstores Drop Comics After Amazon Deal With DC". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on October 18, 2011. Retrieved 2019.
  36. ^ Barr, Alistair (November 11, 2013). "Amazon starts Sunday delivery with US Postal Service". USA Today. Retrieved 2013.
  37. ^ "Nike confirms 'pilot' partnership with Amazon". Engadget. Retrieved 2017.
  38. ^ a b Cosgrove, Elly; Thomas, Lauren (November 13, 2019). "Nike won't sell directly to Amazon anymore". CNBC.
  39. ^ Zimmerman, Ben. "Council Post: Why Nike Cut Ties With Amazon And What It Means For Other Retailers". Forbes.
  40. ^ Muldowney, Decca (August 23, 2021). "As demand for bikes surged, Amazon got in the way". The Verge.
  41. ^ Bhumika, Khatri (September 27, 2018). "Amazon's JV Appario Retail Clocks In $104.4 Mn For FY18". Inc42 Media.
  42. ^ "Booths teams up with Amazon to sell down South for the first time". Telegraph. October 11, 2017. Archived from the original on January 10, 2022. Retrieved 2017.
  43. ^ "Amazon strikes deal with Apple to sell new iPhones and iPads". The Verge. Retrieved 2018.
  44. ^ "Apple pumps up its Amazon listings with iPhones, iPads and more". CNET. November 10, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  45. ^ "Frequently asked questions about Amazon Flex". Retrieved 2020.
  46. ^ "Amazon Logistics / Frequently Asked Questions". Retrieved 2020.
  47. ^ "Find jobs by job category". Retrieved 2020.
  48. ^ Prime Day, early holiday sales create new potential for USPS ballot delivery tie-ups
  49. ^ Annie Palmer (April 30, 2021). "Amazon is spending big to take on UPS and FedEx".
  50. ^ Rai (2021). "Crop-related queries, mobile alerts -- Amazon tries to tap India's agri sector by wooing farmers". Bloomberg News. Retrieved 2022.
  51. ^ Leskin, Paige. "Amazon is looking to open a brick-and-mortar liquor store in San Francisco". Business Insider. Retrieved 2019.
  52. ^ ", Form 10-K, Annual Report, Filing Date Jan 30, 2013" (PDF). SEC database. Retrieved 2013.
  53. ^ Harry Dempsey (November 17, 2020). "Amazon launches online pharmacy in challenge to traditional retailers". Financial Times. Retrieved 2020.
  54. ^ "Amazon launches Amazon Academy for JEE, competitive exams preparation". The Economic Times.
  55. ^ Molloy, David (September 28, 2021). "Amazon announces Astro the home robot". BBC News. Retrieved 2021.
  56. ^ "Amazon Jobs - Work for a Subsidiary". Archived from the original on August 1, 2014. Retrieved 2014.
  57. ^ McCracken, Harry (September 29, 2006). "Amazon's A9 Search as We Knew It: Dead!". PC World. Archived from the original on July 16, 2011. Retrieved 2012.
  58. ^ Steele, B., Amazon is now managing its own ocean freight,, January 27, 2017, accessed January 29, 2017
  59. ^ "Amazon to buy Israeli start-up Annapurna Labs". Reuters. January 22, 2015. Archived from the original on September 15, 2015. Retrieved 2015.
  60. ^ "Amazon buys secretive chip maker Annapurna Labs for $350 million". ExtremeTech. Retrieved 2015.
  61. ^ Hirschauge, Orr (January 22, 2015). "Amazon to Acquire Israeli Chip Maker Annapurna Labs". The Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved 2020.
  62. ^ Sayer, Peter (January 31, 2008). "Amazon buys Audible for US$300 million". PC World.
  63. ^ "Is Logistics About To Get Amazon'ed?". TechCrunch. AOL. January 29, 2016.
  64. ^ David Z. Morris (January 14, 2016). "Amazon China Has Its Ocean Shipping License - Fortune". Fortune.
  65. ^ a b "Company Overview". Brilliance Audio. Retrieved 2014.
  66. ^ " Acquires Brilliance Audio". Taume News. May 27, 2007. Archived from the original on July 4, 2007. Retrieved 2007.
  67. ^ a b Staci D. Kramer (May 23, 2007). "Amazon Acquires Audiobook Indie Brilliance Audio". Gigaom. Retrieved 2014.
  68. ^ a b c Virgil L. P. Blake (1990). "Something New Has Been Added: Aural Literacy and Libraries". Information Literacies for the Twenty-First Century. G. K. Hall & Co. pp. 203-218.
  69. ^ Stone, Brad (April 11, 2014). "Amazon Buys ComiXology, Takes Over Digital Leadership". Bloomberg BusinessWeek.
  70. ^ "Independent Publishing with CreateSpace". CreateSpace: An Amazon Company. Archived from the original on November 26, 2013. Retrieved 2017.
  71. ^ "About CreateSpace : History". CreateSpace: An Amazon Company. Archived from the original on July 6, 2017. Retrieved 2017.
  72. ^ Novet, Jordan (February 11, 2019). "Amazon is acquiring home Wi-Fi start-up Eero". CNBC Tech.
  73. ^ Kraus, Rachel (April 5, 2019). "How Amazon's $97 million Eero acquisition screwed employees and minted millionaires". Mashable.
  74. ^ Whittaker, Zack (February 12, 2019). "What Amazon's purchase of Eero means for your privacy". TechCrunch.
  75. ^ a b Kaufman, Leslie (March 28, 2013). "Amazon to Buy Social Site Dedicated to Sharing Books". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on March 29, 2013. Retrieved 2019.
  76. ^ Shu, Catherine (October 24, 2019). "Amazon acquires Health Navigator for Amazon Care, its pilot employee healthcare program". Tech Crunch. Retrieved 2019.
  77. ^ "Junglee boys strike gold on the net". Archived from the original on December 17, 2013.
  78. ^ "Amazon Launches Online Shopping Service In India". February 2, 2012.
  79. ^ "Amazon brings the curtains down on, finally". Retrieved 2018.
  80. ^ Sheetz, Michael (April 4, 2019). "Amazon wants to launch thousands of satellites so it can offer broadband internet from space". CNBC. Retrieved 2019.
  81. ^ Henry, Caleb (April 4, 2019). "Amazon planning 3,236-satellite constellation for internet connectivity". SpaceNews. Retrieved 2019.
  82. ^ Brodkin, Jon (July 8, 2019). "Amazon plans nationwide broadband--with both home and mobile service". ars Technica. Retrieved 2019. Kuiper is wholly owned by Amazon, and its president is Rajeev Badyal, a former SpaceX vice president who was reportedly fired because SpaceX CEO Elon Musk was unsatisfied with his company's satellite-broadband progress.
  83. ^ Avalos, George (September 19, 2012). "Amazon research unit Lab 126 agrees to big lease that could bring Sunnyvale 2,600 new workers". The Mercury News. Retrieved 2019.
  84. ^ Montag, Ali (February 27, 2018). "Amazon buys Ring, a former 'Shark Tank' reject". CNBC. Retrieved 2019.
  85. ^ "Amazon Kills Shelfari". The Reader's Room. January 13, 2016. Retrieved 2019.
  86. ^ Holiday, J.D. (January 13, 2016). "Shelfari Is Closing! BUT, You Can Merge Your Account with Goodreads!". The Book Marketing Network. Archived from the original on February 6, 2016. Retrieved 2016.
  87. ^ "Amazon reaches deal to acquire Middle East e-commerce site". CNBC. March 28, 2017.
  88. ^ "Document".
  89. ^ "Amazon launches new Middle East marketplace, and rebrands Souq, the company it bought for $580 million in 2017". CNBC. April 30, 2019.
  90. ^ "Twitch pulls the plug on video-streaming site". CNET. Retrieved 2017.
  91. ^ Welch, Chris (August 25, 2014). "Amazon, not Google, is buying Twitch for $970 million". The Verge. Retrieved 2017.
  92. ^ Hall, Charlie (August 16, 2016). "Twitch to acquire Curse". Polygon. Retrieved 2017.
  93. ^ McCormick, Rich (February 27, 2017). "Twitch will start selling games and giving its streamers a cut". The Verge. Retrieved 2017.
  94. ^ Statt, Nick (September 30, 2016). "Twitch will be ad-free for all Amazon Prime subscribers". The Verge. Retrieved 2017.
  95. ^ Popper, Ben (September 30, 2013). "Field of streams: how Twitch made video games a spectator sport". The Verge. Retrieved 2017.
  96. ^ Needleman, Sarah E. (January 29, 2015). "Twitch's Viewers Reach 100 Million a Month". WSJ. Retrieved 2019.
  97. ^ "After a Flop, Amazon Makes Another Foray Into Video Games". The New York Times. Archived from the original on August 10, 2020. Retrieved 2020.
  98. ^ "Twitch announces a virtual TwitchCon next week". The Verge. Retrieved 2020.
  99. ^ "Quality Standards". Whole Foods Market.
  100. ^ Kelleher, Kevin (August 28, 2017). "Amazon closes Whole Foods acquisition. Here's what's next". VentureBeat.
  101. ^ Thomas, Lauren (August 24, 2017). "Amazon says Whole Foods deal will close Monday, with discounts to begin then". CNBC.
  102. ^ "Amazon unveils plan for a major solar power project in southern Alberta".
  103. ^ Routley, Nick (September 8, 2018). "Amazon's Massive Distribution Network in One Giant Visualization". Retrieved 2019.
  104. ^ "9 facts about Amazon's unprecedented warehouse empire". November 21, 2017. Retrieved 2019.
  105. ^ Barnes, Jo (August 24, 2020). "Fulfillment By Amazon". Your Lifestyle Business. Retrieved 2022.
  106. ^ Lextrait, Vincent (January 2010). "The Programming Languages Beacon, v10.0". Archived from the original on May 30, 2012. Retrieved 2010.
  107. ^ SnapShot of,, Archived May 16, 2010, at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved April 12, 2008.
  108. ^ "SnapShot of - Compete". Archived from the original on January 13, 2016. Retrieved 2016.
  109. ^ Pepitone, Julianne (December 9, 2010). "Why attackers can't take down". CNN. Retrieved 2010. Amazon has famously massive server capacity in order to handle the December e-commerce rush. That short holiday shopping window is so critical and so intense, that even a few minutes of downtime could cost Amazon millions.
  110. ^ "Alexa - Top sites". Retrieved 2021.
  111. ^ a b Packer, George (February 17, 2014). "Cheap Words". Retrieved 2014.
  112. ^ "(Dutch) Webwinkelgigant Amazon komt nu echt naar Nederland". EenVandaag. January 13, 2020. Retrieved 2021. (Translated) The end of Februari, is, according to retail watchers the moment for web gigant Amazon to really enter the Dutch market
  113. ^ "(Dutch) officieel van start". Ecommerce News Netherlands. March 10, 2020. Retrieved 2021. (Translated) Amazon has officially launched their Dutch (Netherlands) store front Instead of only books, e-books and e-readers the e-commerce-gigant now sells numerous products.
  114. ^ "(Dutch) Anderhalf jaar, was de angst terecht? (1,5 years, was the fear justified?)". November 27, 2021. Retrieved 2021. (Translated) got lucky with their full fledged release in march 2020, because people started shopping online more and more that year, Amazon has enjoyed a flying start.
  115. ^ "2010 Social Shopping Study Reveals Changes in Consumers' Online Shopping Habits and Usage of Customer Reviews". the e-tailing group, PowerReviews (Press release). Business Wire. May 3, 2010. Retrieved 2013.
  116. ^ Spector, Robert (2002). p. 132.
  117. ^ "BEACON SPOTLIGHT: rave book reviews - too good to be true?". The Cincinnati Beacon. May 25, 2010. Archived from the original on May 2, 2014. Retrieved 2013.
  118. ^ "Amazon's online reader Search Inside reference". September 9, 2009. Archived from the original on August 28, 2010. Retrieved 2010.
  119. ^ "Search Inside reference". September 9, 2009. Retrieved 2010.
  120. ^ Ward, Eric (October 23, 2003). " Launches "Search Inside the Book" Feature". Retrieved 2010.
  122. ^ " Associates: The web's most popular and successful Affiliate Program". July 9, 2010. Archived from the original on August 26, 2008. Retrieved 2010.
  123. ^ "Usage of advertising networks for websites". July 22, 2014. Retrieved 2014.
  124. ^ "14 Easy Fundraising Ideas for Non-Profits". Archived from the original on December 22, 2015. Retrieved 2014.
  125. ^ "Amazon Seller Product Suggestions". Archived from the original on December 5, 2010. Retrieved 2010.
  126. ^ "Amazon launches bigger local online store in Singapore". Reuters. October 8, 2019. Retrieved 2019.
  127. ^ "UNITED STATES COURT OF APPEALS FOR THE THIRD CIRCUIT. No. 18-1041. HEATHER R. OBERDORF; MICHAEL A. OBERDORF, her husband, Appellants v. AMAZON.COM INC., a Washington Corporation" (PDF).
  128. ^ "Supply Chain Decision: Online Marketplaces At Risk Due To Federal Court Ruling in Oberdorf v. Inc". The National Law Review. July 22, 2019. Retrieved 2020.
  129. ^ "Amazon can be held liable for third-party seller products: U.S. appeals court". Reuters. July 3, 2019. Retrieved 2020.
  130. ^ a b "Amazon FAQ". Amazon. Retrieved 2011.
  131. ^ " Movers and shakers". Amazon. Retrieved 2011.
  132. ^ " Author Central". Retrieved 2011.
  133. ^ "Amazon Sales Estimator". Jungle Scout. May 15, 2017.
  134. ^ "Frequently Asked Questions about". Amazon. Retrieved 2012.
  135. ^ "How Amazon Works". January 25, 2006. Retrieved 2011.
  136. ^ "Help". Amazon. Retrieved 2011.
  137. ^ a b Bensinger, Greg (February 2, 2016). "Amazon Plans Hundreds of Brick-and-Mortar Bookstores, Mall CEO Says". The Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved 2019.
  138. ^ Rey, Jason Del (March 8, 2017). "Amazon just confirmed its 10th book store, signaling this is way more than an experiment". Recode.
  139. ^ "Einzelhandel: Amazon plant Offline-Filialen in Deutschland". Retrieved 2018.
  140. ^ "Amazon Launches Luxury Stores on Its Mobile App With Oscar de la Renta as First Brand Partner". Vogue. Retrieved 2020.
  141. ^ "SWOT Analysis Amazon". Archived from the original on December 3, 2011. Retrieved 2011.
  142. ^ "Fortune 500 Companies 2018: Who Made the List". Fortune. Retrieved 2018.
  143. ^ "Amazon: annual revenue 2017". Statista. Retrieved 2018.
  144. ^ Streitfeld, David (January 30, 2020). "Amazon Powers Ahead With Robust Profit". The New York Times. Archived from the original on January 30, 2020. Retrieved 2020.
  145. ^ ", Inc. Common Stock (AMZN)". Nasdaq.
  146. ^ a b c "1997 Annual Report" (PDF). Amazon 1997 10K. Retrieved 2022.
  147. ^ a b c d e "2002 Amazon 10K" (PDF). Retrieved 2022.
  148. ^ a b c d e "2007 Annual Report". Archived from the original on January 13, 2019.
  149. ^ "2008 Annual Report". Archived from the original on January 13, 2019.
  150. ^ "2009 Annual Report". Archived from the original on January 13, 2019.
  151. ^ "2010 Annual Report". Archived from the original on November 11, 2018.
  152. ^ "2011 Annual Report". Archived from the original on November 11, 2018.
  153. ^ "2012 Annual Report". Archived from the original on January 13, 2019.
  154. ^ "2013 Annual Report". Archived from the original on January 13, 2019.
  155. ^ Neate, Rupert (January 29, 2015). "Amazon reports $89bn in sales last year as shares jump 11% after hours". The Guardian. Retrieved 2018.
  156. ^ Roettgers, Janko (January 28, 2016). "Amazon Clocks $107 Billion In Revenue In 2015". Retrieved 2018.
  157. ^ "Amazon sales hit $136B in 2016; dollar hurts overseas business". The Seattle Times. February 2, 2017. Retrieved 2018.
  158. ^ "Amazon 2017 sales jump by nearly a third". BBC News. February 1, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  159. ^ "2018 Annual Report" (PDF).
  160. ^ "2019 Annual Report" (PDF).
  161. ^ " Announces Fourth Quarter Results". Retrieved 2021.
  162. ^ a b "Amazon is selling facial recognition to law enforcement -- for a fistful of dollars". May 22, 2018.
  163. ^ a b Jeong, May (August 13, 2018). ""Everybody immediately knew that it was for Amazon": Has Bezos become more powerful in DC than Trump?". Vanity Fair. Retrieved 2018.
  164. ^ Leiber, Nick (December 7, 2011). "Amazon Lure's Shoppers Away from Stores". Bloomberg BusinessWeek. Retrieved 2011.
  165. ^ a b Jean-Philippe Cavaillez (March 5, 2019). "Plateforme logistique Amazon : bras de fer dans l'Est lyonnais". Le Progrès (in French). p. 10.
  166. ^ Matsakis, Louise (October 2, 2018). "Why Amazon Really Raised Its Minimum Wage to $15". Wired.
  167. ^ Slatterly, Brennon (April 13, 2009). "Amazon 'Glitch' Yanks Sales Rank of Hundreds of LGBT Books". PC World. Retrieved 2012.
  168. ^ Armstrong, Paul (April 14, 2009). "Amazon: 'Glitch' caused gay censorship error". CNN. Retrieved 2020.
  169. ^ Raice, Shayndi (December 20, 2011). "Groupon Launches Anti-Amazon Promotion of Sorts". WSJ. Retrieved 2019.
  170. ^ "Focus on Mobile Commerce - While some still cry, others fight back". Internet Retailer. Retrieved 2012.
  171. ^ "What can retailers learn from Amazon, Groupon and eBay? - Mobile Commerce Daily - Multichannel retail support". Mobile Commerce Daily. December 20, 2011. Archived from the original on February 7, 2012. Retrieved 2012.
  172. ^ "Complaint, Federal Trade Commission v., Inc" (PDF). PacerMonitor. PacerMonitor. Retrieved 2016.
  173. ^ "Amazon pulls "racist" skin-lightening products". Retrieved 2019.
  174. ^ " wins dismissal of NY attorney general lawsuit over worker safety". Reuters. Reuters. May 10, 2022. Retrieved 2022.
  175. ^ Karen Weise (February 17, 2020). "Jeff Bezos commits $10 billion to address climate change". The New York Times.
  176. ^ a b Ahiza Garcia. "Amazon workers walk out to protest climate change inaction". CNN. Retrieved 2020.
  177. ^ a b Ghaffary, Shirin (September 20, 2019). "Here's why the Amazon climate walkout is a big deal". Vox. Retrieved 2020.
  178. ^ Matsakis, Louise (September 9, 2019). "Amazon Employees Will Walk Out Over Climate Change Inaction". Wired. ISSN 1059-1028. Retrieved 2020.
  179. ^ "Amazon employees are joining the Global Climate Walkout, 9/20". Medium. Amazon Employees for Climate Justice. September 20, 2019.
  180. ^ Weise, Karen (February 17, 2020). "Jeff Bezos Commits $10 Billion to Address Climate Change" – via
  181. ^ "The Climate Pledge announces 86 new signatories". US About Amazon. September 20, 2021. Retrieved 2021.
  182. ^ "The Climate Pledge". Sustainability - US. Retrieved 2021.
  183. ^ Root, Tik; Friedman, Lisa; Tabuchi, Hiroko (July 10, 2019). "Following the Money That Undermines Climate Science". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on July 10, 2019. Retrieved 2020.
  184. ^ Legum, Judd. "These corporations are quietly bankrolling Congress' top climate denier". Retrieved 2020.
  185. ^ a b Matt Day (March 7, 2020). "Amazon nixed 'green' shipping proposal to avoid alienating shoppers". Bloomberg.
  186. ^ "Amazon Commits $10.6 Million to Create 130 Affordable Homes and Expand Social Services in Nashville, Bringing Total Commitment in Local Affordable Housing to Nearly $100 Million". Business Wire. May 5, 2022. Retrieved 2022.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  187. ^ a b Kalra, Aditya; Stecklow, Steve (October 13, 2021). "Amazon copied products and rigged search results to promote its own brands, documents show". Reuters. Retrieved 2021.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  188. ^ Greene, Jay (November 14, 2019). "How Amazon's quest for more, cheaper products has resulted in a flea market of fakes". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2020.
  189. ^ "'GMA' Investigates: Inexpensive lightning cables that could harm your phone". Good Morning America. May 4, 2018. Retrieved 2020.
  190. ^ Suthivarakom, Ganda (February 11, 2020). "What to Do If You Think Your Amazon Purchase Is a Fake". Wirecutter. The New York Times Company. Retrieved 2020.
  191. ^ Suthivarakom, Ganda (February 11, 2020). "Welcome to the Era of Fake Products". Wirecutter. The New York Times Company. Retrieved 2020.
  192. ^ Varghese, Daniel (May 25, 2018). "Bogus Umbrellas, Towels, and Luggage Zippers: New This Week". Wirecutter. The New York Times Company. Retrieved 2020.
  193. ^ Palmer, Annie (October 20, 2019). "Amazon is shipping expired food, from baby formula to old beef jerky, scaring consumers and putting big brands at risk". CNBC. Retrieved 2020.
  194. ^ Levi, Ari (May 26, 2016). "Amazon counterfeiters wreak havoc on artists and small businesses". CNBC. Retrieved 2020.
  195. ^ Quirk, Mary Beth (May 12, 2014). "Does Amazon's Inventory Commingling Help Fake Products Fly Under The Radar?". Consumerist. Retrieved 2020.
  196. ^ Nguyen, Nicole (June 14, 2019). "'Amazon's Choice' Does Not Necessarily Mean A Product Is Good". BuzzFeed News. Retrieved 2020.
  197. ^ Berzon, Alexandra; Shifflett, Shane; Scheck, Justin (August 23, 2019). "Amazon Has Ceded Control of Its Site. The Result: Thousands of Banned, Unsafe or Mislabeled Products". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 2020.
  198. ^ a b c Palmer, Annie (August 29, 2019). "Senators ask Jeff Bezos to crackdown on thousands of unsafe products on Amazon". CNBC. Retrieved 2020.
  199. ^ Safdar, Khadeeja; Shifflett, Shane; Blostein, Denise (December 18, 2019). "You Might Be Buying Trash on Amazon - Literally". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 2020.
  200. ^ Jones, Mark (December 19, 2019). "Shocking report finds dumpster divers selling trash on Amazon". Retrieved 2020.
  201. ^ Palmer, Annie (August 13, 2020). "California court rules Amazon can be liable for defective goods sold on its marketplace". CNBC. Retrieved 2020.
  202. ^ "Amazon investigated by UK authorities over tax avoidance". The Independent. April 5, 2012. Archived from the original on May 10, 2021. Retrieved 2021.
  203. ^ Neate, Rupert (December 2, 2019). "New study deems Amazon worst for 'aggressive' tax avoidance". The Guardian. Retrieved 2021.
  204. ^ Franck, Thomas (April 3, 2018). "Amazon shares turn negative after Trump bashes company for a fourth time in a week". CNBC. Retrieved 2018.
  205. ^ "Amazon shares fall 6 percent as Trump renews attack". Reuters. Retrieved 2018.
  206. ^ Manchester, Julia. "Fox's Shep Smith fact-checks Trump's Amazon claims: 'None of that was true'". The Hill. Retrieved 2018.
  207. ^ Wohlfeil, Samantha (September 6, 2018). "Workers describe pressures at Amazon warehouses as Bernie Sanders gears up to make the corporation pay". Inlander. Retrieved 2018.
  208. ^ a b Matsakis, Louise (September 6, 2018). "Bernie Sanders and the Truth About Amazon, Food Stamps, and Tax Breaks". Wired. ISSN 1059-1028. Retrieved 2019.
  209. ^ Bloodworth, James (September 17, 2018). "I worked in an Amazon warehouse. Bernie Sanders is right to target them". The Guardian. Retrieved 2018.
  210. ^ Robertson, Adi (September 5, 2018). "Bernie Sanders introduces "Stop BEZOS" bill to tax Amazon for underpaying workers". The Verge. Retrieved 2018.
  211. ^ Gibson, Kate (September 5, 2018). "Bernie Sanders targets Amazon, Walmart with 100% tax". CBS. Retrieved 2018.
  212. ^ Delaney, Arthur (August 31, 2018). "Why Bernie Sanders and Tucker Carlson agree on food stamps". The Huffington Post. Retrieved 2018.
  213. ^ Taibbi, Matt (September 18, 2018). "Bernie Sanders' Anti-Amazon Bill is an Indictment of the Media, Too". Rolling Stone. Retrieved 2018.
  214. ^ Porter, Jon (October 2, 2018). "Amazon raises minimum wage to $15 for all 350,000 US workers following criticism". The Verge. Retrieved 2018.
  215. ^ "Short shrift for unions in Amazon's silicon jungle - Independent, The (London) - Find Articles at". April 10, 2008. Archived from the original on April 10, 2008. Retrieved 2017.
  216. ^ Jon Henley and Ed Pilkington (February 26, 2008). "Divide and rule". Guardian. London. Retrieved 2010.
  217. ^ Bryan Menegus (September 26, 2018). "Amazon's Aggressive Anti-Union Tactics Revealed in Leaked 45-Minute Video". Gizmodo. Retrieved 2022.
  218. ^ Claburn, Thomas (April 2, 2020). "Amazon says it fired a guy for breaking pandemic rules. Same guy who organized a staff protest over a lack of coronavirus protection". The Register. Retrieved 2020.
  219. ^ Peterson, Hayley (April 20, 2020). "Amazon-owned Whole Foods is quietly tracking its employees with a heat map tool that ranks which stores are most at risk of unionizing". Business Insider. Retrieved 2020.
  220. ^ "Whole Foods Secretly Upgrades Tech to Target and Squash Unionizing Efforts". April 24, 2020.
  221. ^ Peterson, Hayley (April 21, 2020). "Amazon-owned Whole Foods is quietly tracking its employees with a heat map tool that ranks which stores are most at risk of unionizing". Business Insider Australia.
  222. ^ Weise, Karen (April 5, 2021). "Amazon Illegally Fired Activist Workers, Labor Board Finds". The New York Times. Archived from the original on December 28, 2021. Retrieved 2021.
  223. ^ Selyukh, Alina (April 9, 2021). "It's A No: Amazon Warehouse Workers Vote Against Unionizing In Historic Election". National Public Radio. Retrieved 2021.
  224. ^ O'Brien, Sara Ashley (April 2022). "Amazon workers at New York warehouse vote to form company's first US union". CNN. Retrieved 2022.
  225. ^ "Amazon beaten by workers in fight for unionisation in New York". BBC News. April 1, 2022. Retrieved 2022.
  226. ^ Hogan, Gwynne (April 1, 2022). "Staten Island workers prevail in vote for first ever Amazon union". Gothamist. Retrieved 2022.
  227. ^ Ken Klippenstein (April 3, 2022). "LEAKED: NEW AMAZON WORKER CHAT APP WOULD BAN WORDS LIKE "UNION," "RESTROOMS," "PAY RAISE," AND "PLANTATION"". The Intercept. Retrieved 2022.
  228. ^ Dani Anguiano (April 6, 2022). "Amazon to ban 'union' and other words from staff chat app - report". The Guardian. Retrieved 2022.
  229. ^ "Amazon workers in Albany, N.Y., file for a union election". Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved 2022.
  230. ^ Ciubotariu, Nick (August 16, 2015). "An Amazonian's response to 'Inside Amazon: Wrestling Big Ideas in a Bruising Workplace'". LinkedIn Pulse.
  231. ^ "Amazon under fire for staffing practices in Randstad contract". Recruiter. August 2, 2013. Archived from the original on August 4, 2013.
  232. ^ Edwards, Jim (August 5, 2013). "Brutal Conditions In Amazon's Warehouse's Threaten To Ruin The Company's Image". Business Insider. Retrieved 2014.
  233. ^ a b Soper, Spencer (September 18, 2011). "Inside Amazon's Warehouse". The Morning Call. Retrieved 2018.
  234. ^ Soper, Spencer; Kraus, Scott (September 25, 2011). "Amazon gets heat over warehouse". The Morning Call. Retrieved 2018.
  235. ^ Yarrow, Jay; Kovach, Steve (September 20, 2011). "10 Crazy Rules That Could Get You Fired From Amazon Warehouses". Business Insider. Retrieved 2013.
  236. ^ O'Connor, Sarah (February 8, 2013). "Amazon unpacked". Financial Times. Retrieved 2013.
  237. ^ "Kritik an Arbeitsbedingungen bei Amazon" (in German). Tagesschau. Retrieved 2013.
  238. ^ "Ausgeliefert! Leiharbeiter ... - Ausgeliefert! Leiharbeiter bei Amazon - Reportage & Documentation - ARD | Das Erste". February 13, 2013. Archived from the original on February 18, 2013. Retrieved 2013.
  239. ^ Paterson, Tony (February 14, 2013). "Amazon 'used neo-Nazi guards to keep immigrant workforce under control' in Germany - Europe - World". The Independent. London. Archived from the original on February 16, 2013. Retrieved 2013.
  240. ^ "Amazon to investigate reports temporary staff in Germany were mistreated". Retrieved 2015.
  241. ^ Woodman, Spencer (March 26, 2015). "Exclusive: Amazon makes even temporary warehouse workers sign 18-month non-competes". The Verge. Retrieved 2015.
  242. ^ Kasperkevic, Jana (March 27, 2015). "Amazon to remove non-compete clause from contracts for hourly workers". The Guardian. Retrieved 2015.
  243. ^ Kantor, Jodi; Streitfeld, David (August 15, 2015). "Inside Amazon: Wrestling Big Ideas in a Bruising Workplace". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2019.
  244. ^ a b Streitfeld, David; Kantor, Jodi (August 17, 2015). "Jeff Bezos and Amazon Employees Join Debate Over Its Culture". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on August 17, 2015. Retrieved 2019.
  245. ^ Cook, John (November 8, 2017). "Full memo: Jeff Bezos responds to brutal NYT story, says it doesn't represent the Amazon he leads". GeekWire. Retrieved 2018.
  246. ^ "Amazon increases paid leave for new parents". The Seattle Times. November 2, 2015. Retrieved 2015.
  247. ^ Picchi, Aimee (April 19, 2018). "Inside an Amazon warehouse: 'Treating human beings as robots'". CBS MoneyWatch. Retrieved 2018.
  248. ^ Sainato, Michael (July 30, 2018). "Accidents at Amazon: workers left to suffer after warehouse injuries". The Guardian. Retrieved 2018.
  249. ^ Peterson, Hayley (September 11, 2018). "Missing wages, grueling shifts, and bottles of urine: The disturbing accounts of Amazon delivery drivers may reveal the true human cost of 'free' shipping". Business Insider.
  250. ^ Osborne, Mark (October 2, 2018). "Amazon to raise wages for more than 350,000 employees". ABC News. Retrieved 2019.
  251. ^ Partington, Richard (October 2, 2018). "Amazon raises minimum wage for US and UK employees". The Guardian. Retrieved 2019.
  252. ^ Soper, Spencer (October 3, 2018). "Amazon Warehouse Workers Lose Bonuses, Stock Awards for Raises". Bloomberg. Retrieved 2018.
  253. ^ Hamilton, Isobel Asher (November 23, 2018). "'We are not robots': Thousands of Amazon workers across Europe are striking on Black Friday over warehouse working conditions". Business Insider. Retrieved 2018.
  254. ^ Zahn, Max; Paget, Sharif (March 11, 2019). "'Colony of Hell': 911 Calls From Inside Amazon Warehouses". The Daily Beast. Retrieved 2019.
  255. ^ Chen, Michelle (July 16, 2019). "Amazon Prime Day deals aren't worth the moral cost of exploiting their workers". NBC News. Retrieved 2019.
  256. ^ Woodyatt, Amy; Wojazer, Barbara. "Amazon workers go on strike in Germany as Prime Day begins". CNN Business. Retrieved 2019.
  257. ^ "'Fake' Amazon ambassadors baited on Twitter". BBC News. August 16, 2019. Retrieved 2020.
  258. ^ "'Fake' Amazon workers defend the company on Twitter". BBC News. March 30, 2021.
  259. ^ Jones, Lora (March 17, 2020). "Amazon staff told to work overtime as virus hits". BBC News. Retrieved 2020.
  260. ^ GMB Union (October 14, 2020). "Government must stand up to Amazon on workers' rights".
  261. ^ Amazon (May 27, 2020). "Notice of 2020 Annual Meeting of Shareholders & Proxy Statement" (PDF).
  262. ^ "Black Friday rush must not cost Amazon workers their health and safety". Amnesty International. November 27, 2020. Retrieved 2020.
  263. ^ Reuters Staff (January 6, 2021). " to spend $2 billion in homebuilding near key U.S. offices". Reuters. Retrieved 2021.
  264. ^ Reuters Staff (January 22, 2021). "Amazon to open pop-up COVID-19 vaccine clinic in Seattle headquarters". Reuters. Retrieved 2021.
  265. ^ McFarland, Matt (February 25, 2021). "Amazon is putting cameras in its delivery vans and some drivers aren't happy". CNN Business. Retrieved 2021.
  266. ^ Klippenstein, Ken (March 25, 2021). "Documents Show Amazon Is Aware Drivers Pee in Bottles and Even Defecate En Route, Despite Company Denial". The Intercept. Retrieved 2021.
  267. ^ Paul, Kari (March 25, 2021). "Leaked memo shows Amazon knows delivery drivers resort to urinating in bottles". the Guardian. Retrieved 2021.
  268. ^ Kalia, Shubham (April 3, 2021). David Holmes (ed.). "Amazon acknowledges issue of drivers urinating in bottles in apology to Rep. Pocan". Bangalore: Reuters. Archived from the original on April 3, 2021. Retrieved 2021.
  269. ^ Gurley, Lauren Kaori (July 8, 2021). "Amazon Workers Describe 'Excessive Heat,' 'Fainting' in NYC Warehouse". Vice. Retrieved 2021.
  270. ^ Chariton, Jordan (July 8, 2021). "Prime Delivery: Amazon Workers Fainting, Carted Off on Stretchers Amid Sweltering Warehouse Heat". Status Coup. Retrieved 2021.
  271. ^ "The CIA, Amazon, Bezos and the Washington Post : An Exchange with Executive Editor Martin Baron". The Huffington Post. January 8, 2014.
  272. ^ Streitfeld, David; Haughney, Christine (August 17, 2013). "Expecting the Unexpected From Jeff Bezos". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2019.
  273. ^ "Amazon puts high-profile Seattle plans on ice over proposal to tax large employers". The Seattle Times. May 2, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  274. ^ "'Show of force': Business-backed opponents of Seattle head tax outspent supporters 2 to 1". The Seattle Times. July 13, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  275. ^ a b c Reicher, Mike (January 4, 2019). "Tennessee wants to keep its incentives offer for Amazon's HQ2 secret for 5 years". The Tennessean. Retrieved 2019.
  276. ^ White, Peter (December 13, 2018). "Will Amazon be Naughty or Nice?". Tennessee Tribune. Retrieved 2018. PATHE does not want Metro to give Amazon a dime. They want the city to build at least 5,000 more affordable homes to address the "Amazon effect" on the local housing market. And they want a new transit referendum that focuses on the needs of working people and better public bus service.
  277. ^ Mazza, Sandy (November 19, 2018). "Did Tennessee taxpayers get a good deal with $102M Amazon payment?". The Tennessean. Retrieved 2019.
  278. ^ Koehn, Alexandra (November 29, 2018). "Metro employees feel 'left behind' after no pay raise". News Channel 5. Retrieved 2018.
  279. ^ "Nashville police union: Amazon getting 'corporate welfare'". Associated Press. November 30, 2018. Retrieved 2019.
  280. ^ Garrison, Joey (February 6, 2019). "Nashville council approves $15M in infrastructure work for future home of Amazon hub". The Tennessean. Retrieved 2019.
  281. ^ "Yes, Amazon is tracking people".
  282. ^ "Amazon Teams Up With Government to Deploy Dangerous New Facial Recognition Technology".
  283. ^ Murdock, Jason (June 26, 2018). "Orlando Stops Using Amazon's Face-Scanning Tech Amid Spying Concerns". Retrieved 2019.
  284. ^ "Alexa, what is hidden behind your contract with the NHS?". Privacy International. December 6, 2019. Archived from the original on January 25, 2020. Retrieved 2020.
  285. ^ Walker, Amy (December 8, 2019). "NHS gives Amazon free use of health data under Alexa advice deal". The Guardian. Retrieved 2020.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  286. ^ "Panorama - Amazon: What They Know About Us". BBC. Retrieved 2022.
  287. ^ "Amazon: How Bezos built his data machine". BBC News.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  288. ^ Chaturvedi, Arpan. "Future-Amazon Deal: There Was Misrepresentation And Concealment, CCI Argues". BloombergQuint. Retrieved 2022.
  289. ^ "Explained: Why CCI withdrew approval for Amazon's investment in Future Group". The Indian Express. December 23, 2021. Retrieved 2022.
  290. ^ Pop, Valentina; Schechner, Sam (June 11, 2020). "Amazon to Face Antitrust Charges From EU Over Treatment of Third-Party Selles". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 2020.
  291. ^ McKinnon, Ryan Tracy, Dana Mattioli and John D. (June 12, 2020). "WSJ News Exclusive | California Is Examining Amazon's Business Practices". The Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved 2022.
  292. ^ "Tech bosses grilled over claims of 'harmful' power". BBC News. July 30, 2020. Retrieved 2020.
  293. ^ Brian Fung. "Congress grilled the CEOs of Amazon, Apple, Facebook, and Google. Here are the big takeaways". CNN. Retrieved 2020.
  294. ^ Bond, Shannon; Selyukh, Alina; Allyn, Bobby (October 6, 2020). "How Are Apple, Amazon, Facebook, Google Monopolies? House Report Counts The Ways".
  295. ^ Tracy, Ryan (March 29, 2022). "WSJ News Exclusive | Antitrust Bill Targeting Amazon, Google, Apple Gets Support From DOJ". The Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved 2022.
  296. ^ Mattioli, Christine Mai-Duc and Dana (September 14, 2022). "California Sues Amazon, Alleging Antitrust Violations Inflated Prices and Stifled Competition". The Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved 2022.
  297. ^ Naughton, John (August 8, 2020). "How Amazon puts misinformation at the top of your reading list". The Guardian. Retrieved 2020.
  298. ^ "How Amazon's Algorithms Curated a Dystopian Bookstore". Wired. May 3, 2019. Retrieved 2020.
  299. ^ "Amazon Prime Video is full of dodgy documentaries pushing dangerous cancer 'cures'". Wired. June 3, 2019. Retrieved 2020.
  300. ^ "House Rep. Schiff calls Amazon's anti-vaccination content 'direct threat to public health' in letter to Bezos". CNBC. March 1, 2019. Retrieved 2020.
  301. ^ Zadrozny, Brandy (May 28, 2019). "Amazon removes books promoting dangerous bleach 'cures' for autism and other conditions". NBC News. Retrieved 2020.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  302. ^ a b "Pride: Amazon restricts LGBT goods in United Arab Emirates". BBC News. June 30, 2022. Retrieved 2022.
  303. ^ Stecklow, Steve; Dastin, Jeffrey (December 18, 2021). "Special Report: Amazon partnered with China propaganda arm". Reuters. Retrieved 2021.
  304. ^ Weise, Karen (June 29, 2022). "Amazon Restricts L.G.B.T.Q. Products in United Arab Emirates". The New York Times. Retrieved 2022.
  305. ^ "United Arab Emirates: Amazon agrees to remove LGBT products from its search results". The Guardian. June 30, 2022. Retrieved 2022.
  306. ^ Grant, Nico (August 30, 2022). "Google Employee Who Played Key Role in Protest of Contract With Israel Quits". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2022.
  307. ^ Biddle, Sam (July 24, 2022). "Documents Reveal Advanced AI Tools Google Is Selling to Israel". The Intercept. Retrieved 2022.
  308. ^ "Israel picks Amazon's AWS, Google for flagship cloud project". Reuters. Reuters. April 21, 2021. Retrieved 2022.
  309. ^ Biddle, Sam (May 18, 2022). "Google and Amazon Face Shareholder Revolt Over Israeli Defense Work". The Intercept. Retrieved 2022.
  310. ^ a b Anonymous Google and Amazon workers (October 12, 2021). "We are Google and Amazon workers. We condemn Project Nimbus | Anonymous Google and Amazon workers". the Guardian. Retrieved 2022.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  311. ^ Del Rey, Jason (May 13, 2020). "Amazon extends bonus pay for front-line workers but says it ends in June". Vox. Retrieved 2020.
  312. ^ Davis, Charles. "Amazon set to end 'unlimited unpaid time off' policy". Business Insider. Retrieved 2020.
  313. ^ "Amazon ends COVID paid leave for U.S. workers". Reuters. May 1, 2022. Retrieved 2022.
  314. ^ a b "Amazon hiring spree as orders surge under lockdown". BBC News. April 14, 2020. Retrieved 2020.
  315. ^ Otto, Ben (September 14, 2020). "Amazon to Hire 100,000 in U.S. and Canada". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 2020.
  316. ^ a b "Amazon workers protest over normal shifts despite Covid-19 cases". Financial Times. March 19, 2020. Retrieved 2020.{{cite news}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  317. ^ a b c "Amazon workers strike over virus protection". BBC News. March 31, 2020. Retrieved 2020.
  318. ^ a b c d Dzieza, Josh (March 30, 2020). "Amazon warehouse workers walk out in rising tide of COVID-19 protests". The Verge. Retrieved 2020.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  319. ^ a b c Johnson, Jake (March 31, 2020). "New York AG Denounces 'Immoral and Inhumane' Firing of Amazon Worker Who Led Protest Over Lack of Coronavirus Protections". Common Dreams. Retrieved 2020.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  320. ^ Rubin, Ben Fox (March 31, 2020). "Amazon fires warehouse worker who organized Staten Island protest". CNET. Retrieved 2020.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  321. ^ Paul, Kari (April 14, 2020). "Amazon fires two employees who condemned treatment of warehouse workers". the Guardian. Retrieved 2020.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  322. ^ Paul, Kari (May 4, 2020). "Amazon executive resigns over company's 'chickenshit' firings of employee activists". The Guardian. Retrieved 2020.
  323. ^ "Amazon Q1 2020 Earnings Release" (PDF). April 30, 2020. Retrieved 2020.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  324. ^ Palmer, Annie (October 1, 2020). "Amazon says more than 19,000 workers got Covid-19". Retrieved 2020.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  325. ^ Olivia Détroyat (April 16, 2020). "Amazon ferme ses entrepôts pour cinq jours en France". Le Figaro (in French).
  326. ^ a b Gold, Hadas (May 19, 2020). "Amazon is reopening its warehouses in France after dispute with workers ends". cnn. Retrieved 2020.
  327. ^ Gold, Hadas (April 24, 2020). "Amazon loses appeal against worker safety ruling in France that prompted it to close". CNN.
  328. ^ "Amazon's Lobbying Expenditures". Retrieved 2021.
  329. ^ Parkhurst, Emily (May 24, 2012). "Amazon shareholders met by protesters, company cuts ties with ALEC".
  330. ^ Romm, Tony. "In Amazon's shopping cart: D.C. influence". Politico. Retrieved 2014.
  331. ^ Kang, Cecilia (December 27, 2015). "F.A.A. Drone Laws Start to Clash With Stricter Local Rules". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on December 28, 2015. Retrieved 2019.
  332. ^ Matt McFarland. "Amazon gets closer to drone delivery with FAA approval". CNN. Retrieved 2020.
  333. ^ "Client Profile:". Centre for Responsive Politics. Retrieved 2020.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)

Further reading

External links

  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.



Music Scenes