? And from the evil of darkness when it settles[q 1]
? And from the evil of the blowers in knots[r 1]
? And from the evil of an envier when he envies
Al Falaq (113)
bismillah-ir rahmanir rahim
Qul au dhubi rabbil falaq (1)
min sharri ma khalaq (2)
wamin sharri ghasiqin idha waqab (3)
wamin sharrin naf fathati fil uqad (4)
wamin sharri hasidin idha hasad(5)
This surah and the 114th (and last) surah in the Qur'an, an-N?s, are collectively referred to as al-Mu'awwidhatayn "the Refuges", as both begin with "I seek refuge", an-N?s tells to seek God for refuge from the evil from within, while al-Falaq tells to seek God for refuge from the evil from outside, so reading both of them would protect a person from his own mischief and the mischief of others.
The word "al-Falaq" in the first verse, a generic term referring to the process of 'splitting', has been restricted in most translations to one particular type of splitting, namely 'daybreak' or 'dawn'.
Verse 4 refers to one of soothsayer techniques to partially tie a knot, utter a curse and spit into the knot and pull it tight. In the pre-Islamic period, soothsayers claimed the power to cause various illnesses. According to soothsayers the knot had to be found and untied before the curse could be lifted. This practice is condemned in verse 4.
Say: "I seek refuge with (Allah) the Lord of the daybreak,
"From the evil of what He has created;
"And from the evil of the darkening (night) as it comes with its darkness; (or the moon as it sets or goes away).
"And from the evil of the witchcrafts when they blow in the knots,
"And from the evil of the envier when he envies."
Say, "I seek refuge in the Lord of daybreak
From the evil of that which He created
And from the evil of darkness when it settles
And from the evil of the blowers in knots
And from the evil of an envier when he envies."
Say: I seek refuge with the Lord of the Dawn
From the mischief of created things;
From the mischief of Darkness as it overspreads;
From the mischief of those who practise secret arts;
And from the mischief of the envious one as he practises envy.
Say: I seek refuge in the Lord of the Daybreak
From the evil of that which He created;
From the evil of the darkness when it is intense,
And from the evil of malignant witchcraft,
And from the evil of the envier when he envieth.
The first and foremost exegesis/tafsir of the Qur'an is found in hadith of Muhammad. Although scholars including ibn Taymiyyah claim that Muhammad has commented on the whole of the Qur'an, others including Ghazali cite the limited amount of narratives, thus indicating that he has commented only on a portion of the Qur'an. ?ad?th (?) is literally "speech" or "report", that is a recorded saying or tradition of Muhammad validated by isnad; with Sirah Rasul Allah these comprise the sunnah and reveal shariah. According to Aishah, the life of Muhammad was practical implementation of Qur'an. Therefore, higher count of hadith elevates the importance of the pertinent surah from a certain perspective. This surah was held in special esteem in hadith, which can be observed by these related narratives. According to hadith, Muhammad used to recite this surah before sleeping every night.
Abu 'Abdullah narrated that Ibn 'Abis Al-Juhani told him that: The Messenger of Allah [SAW] said to him: "O Ibn 'Abis, shall I not tell you of the best thing with which those who seek refuge with Allah may do so?" He said: "Yes, O Messenger of Allah." He said: "Say: I seek refuge with (Allah) the Lord of the daybreak."(Al-Falaq), "Say: I seek refuge with (Allah) the Lord of mankind."(Al-Nas) - these two Surahs."
Aishah reported: Whenever the Messenger of Allah (?) went to bed, he would blow upon his hands recite Al-Mu'awwidhat; and pass his hands over his body (Al-Bukhari and Muslim).
Aishah said : Every night when he prophet (May peace be upon him) went to his bed, he joined his hands and breathed into them, reciting into them:"say: he is Allah, One"(Al-Ikhlas) and say ; I seek refuge in the Lord of the dawn(Al-Falaq) and Say: I seek refuge in the Lord of men(Al-Nas). Then he would wipe as much of his body as he could with his hands, beginning with his head, his face and the front of his body, doing that three times.
Uqba ibn Amir reported: The Messenger of Allah (?) said: "Do you not know that last night certain Ayat were revealed the like of which there is no precedence. They are: 'Say: I seek refuge with (Allah) the Rubb of the daybreak' (Al-Falaq), and 'Say: I seek refuge with (Allah) the Rubb of mankind' (Surah 114)."
It is narrated from Muhammad that whoever recites this Surah in the month of Ramadhan in any of his prayers, it is as if he has fasted in Makkah and he will get the reward for performing Hajj and 'Umra.
Imam Muhammad al-Baqir said that in the prayer of Shafa'a (in Salaatul-layl) one should recite Surah al-Falaq in the first rak'aat and an-Naas in the second.
^o The original word properly signifies a cleaving, and denotes, says , the production of all things from the darkness of privation to the light of existence. Hence it is used more particularly to signify the breaking forth of the light from darkness.
^p ie from the mischiefs/evils proceeding either from the perverseness and evil choice of those beings with free will, or the effects of necessary natural agents: fire, poison etc, the world being good in the whole, though evils may follow from those two causes.
^q May also be rendered, "From the mischief of the moon, when she is eclipsed".
^rWitches, were believed to tie string into a number of knots while blowing upon them and murmuring magic incantations. The Knots which the wizards in the northern parts tie, when they sell mariners a wind (if the stories told of them be true), are also relics of the same superstition. The commentators relate that Lobeid, a Jew, with the assistance of his daughters, bewitched Mohammed, by tying eleven knots on a cord, which they hid in a well; whereupon Mohammed falling ill, GOD revealed this chapter and the following, and Gabriel acquainted him with the use he was to make of them, and of the place where the cord was hidden: according to whose directions the prophet sent Ali to fetch the cord, and the same being
brought, he repeated the two chapters over it, and at every verse (for they consist of eleven) a knot was loosed, till on finishing the last words, he was
entirely freed from the charm.