Airport Rail Link
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Airport Rail Link

An airport rail link is a service providing passenger rail transport from an airport to a nearby city by mainline or commuter trains, rapid transit, people mover, or light rail. Direct links operate straight to the airport terminal, while other systems require an intermediate use of people mover or shuttle bus.

Although airport rail links have been popular solutions in Europe and Japan for decades, only recently have links been constructed in North America, Oceania, and the rest of Asia. Advantages for the rider include faster travel time and easy interconnection with other public transport, while authorities have benefited from less highway and parking congestion, less pollution, and additional business opportunities. Additionally, the links benefit airports by drawing in more passengers via easy access.

Connection types

Mass transit

Capital Airport Express, Beijing Subway
Toronto's Union Pearson Express links the city centre with the airport, but also has intermediate stations. This has made it a popular premium alternative for local commuters.

For airports built within or close to the city limits, extending mass transit urban rail systems like rapid transit or light rail to airport terminals allows full integration with other public transport in the city, and seamless transport to all parts of town. Service frequency will be high, although travel time is a drawback as the services make many intermediate stops before reaching the city center and thus there may not be enough space for the baggage commonly carried by airport-bound passengers. Furthermore, luggage stowing facilities are not commonly found on mass transit vehicles as their primary objective is to provide high-capacity transport, as in the Airport & South Line in Sydney, Australia. A common solution involves building a separate people mover from a mass transit station to the airport terminal (see below), often using automated systems, allowing faster travel time and fare discrimination, for instance Orlyval. Because they are solely dedicated to passengers using the airport, luggage stowing facilities are more likely to appear on these systems.

The first rapid transit station to connect an airport with a mass transit system was the Berlin U-Bahn's Paradestraße station which opened in 1927 as Flughafen (Airport) and was built to provide direct access to Berlin Tempelhof Airport. The connection between Tempelhof Airport and the Berlin U-Bahn at Paradestraße was however revoked in 1937 and the preceding station Platz der Luftbrücke was instead granted that connection and remained so until Tempelhof Airport's closure in 2008. Other early examples of mass transit stations located at airports include the MBTA Blue Line's Airport station which is situated at Boston's Logan International Airport and opened for service in 1952 and rebuilt in 2004, and Cleveland RTA Rapid Transit Red Line's Cleveland Hopkins International Airport station which opened in 1968 and rebuilt in 1994, although Cleveland's rapid transit is considered the first direct airport-to-downtown rapid transit system in the Western Hemisphere. Boston's Blue Line requires a short bus transfer from the airport rail station to the airport terminal.

Mainline rail

Dedicated railway lines to airports have become popular since the 1980s. In many cases, there are stations at the airport terminal(s) for express, intercity and commuter trains, allowing direct travel to the check-in halls. In most cases, this solution requires the building of new track, whether it is a newly built main line or a branch (spur) line from an existing main line.

A cheaper option is to open a new station on an existing line, again connected to the airport by people mover or shuttle bus (see below). While this option is commonly chosen to reduce construction costs, it is only feasible when the station is located within proximity to the airport itself. Some early examples of mainline rail stations built to serve an airport are Don Mueang Station (which opened in 1898 in Don Mueang District and which happens to be located opposite Don Mueang International Airport opened for commercial flights in 1924), Berlin Schönefeld Flughafen station (which opened in 1951 and served Berlin Schönefeld Airport until 2020 and now Terminal 5 of Berlin Brandenburg airport), Gatwick Airport railway station (of which its first incarnation was opened in 1891 to serve a nearby racecourse and was later rebuilt to directly serve Gatwick Airport in 1958), Brussels National Airport railway station (which opened in 1958 and serves Brussels Airport) and Frankfurt Airport regional station (which opened in 1972 and is one of the two railway stations that serve Frankfurt Airport).

Integration with intercity services has produced alliances where airlines sell air tickets that include the connecting rail service. Central Europe has seen integration of high-speed rail into airports, with domestic and international TGV services from Aéroport Charles de Gaulle 2 TGV in Paris and ICE services from Frankfurt Airport long-distance station. Because of this, many airport railway stations have received IATA codes.

Yet another option for airports is to use a high-speed "airport express" train to the city centre, especially if the airport is outside the urban area and some way from the mass transit system, but a direct downtown service is required, such as Flytoget serving Oslo Airport, Gardermoen. There are various ways this can be done: it may operate on a combination of existing and newly built mainline rail or mass transit track using a dedicated fleet of rolling stock designed for airport service. These solutions often have the drawback of lower frequencies (e.g. twice per hour), and often charge a premium fare higher than other services, but are more likely to have luxury features such as luggage racks, power outlets, Wi-Fi, and washrooms.

Most dedicated railways use mainline trains and trackage, while mass transit "airport express" lines are usually found in Asia, as in the case of the Airport Express Line in Hong Kong. Other airports, such as Heathrow Airport, are served by both express trains and mass transit. This is becoming increasingly popular in China, where several airports now have both high-speed rail and metro connections.

Shuttle

In many cases, there is no train station directly at the airport, usually because the infrastructure on which the service operates makes it impractical to build such a station. When this happens, a shuttle system is required for the last part of the journey; using either a people mover (often automated, such as AirTrain JFK in New York City) or a bus. The former allows low operating costs[] and higher perceived quality; the latter does not require specialized infrastructure to be built, and is often the preferred choice at smaller or low-cost airports. Shuttles do not provide a direct connection, and often involve a wait for a transfer to the next stage of the journey. Thus their market shares are often lower.

In some airports, such as San Francisco International Airport, the rail link may not serve some or all of the terminals or concourses directly; passengers using terminals that lack such connections must use a people mover or airport circulator to access their terminal. These circulators typically also serve parking lots, and sometimes airport hotels and off-site car rental locations.

Current examples

Main-line or commuter rail

Commuter rail-type service directly from a city centre to the airport, without needing to change trains and sometimes without intermediate stops.

Africa

A Gautrain at the airport station in Johannesburg, South Africa

Asia

The Royal Railway Airport Shuttle service at Royal railway station in Phnom Penh, Cambodia
An MTR Airport Express train in Hong Kong
The Minangkabau Airport Rail Link comes to a stop at the airport station in Padang, Indonesia
The Narita Express in 2021
Country City Airport Rail Link Station Name
 Bangladesh Dhaka Shahjalal International Airport Bangladesh Railway Dhaka Airport railway station
 Cambodia Phnom Penh Phnom Penh International Airport Royal Railway Airport Shuttle Royal railway station
 China Beijing Beijing Daxing International Airport Beijing-Xiong'an intercity railway Daxing Airport station
 China Chengdu Chengdu Tianfu International Airport Chengdu-Zigong high-speed railway Tianfu Airport station
 China Chengdu Chengdu Shuangliu International Airport Chengdu-Mianyang-Leshan intercity railway Shuangliu Airport railway station
 China Guangzhou Guangzhou Baiyun International Airport Guangzhou-Foshan circular intercity railway Baiyun Airport North railway station
 China Guiyang Guiyang Longdongbao International Airport Guiyang-Guangzhou High-Speed Railway Longdongbao railway station
 China Haikou Haikou Meilan International Airport Hainan eastern ring high-speed railway Meilan railway station
 China Jieyang Jieyang Chaoshan International Airport Meizhou-Shantou Railway Jieyang Airport railway station
 China Jilin Changchun Longjia International Airport Changchun-Jilin Intercity Railway Longjia railway station
 China Lanzhou Lanzhou Zhongchuan International Airport Lanzhou-Zhongchuan Airport intercity railway Zhongchuan Airport railway station
 China Qingdao Qingdao Jiaodong International Airport Jinan-Qingdao high-speed railway Jiaodong Airport station
 China Sanya Sanya Phoenix International Airport Hainan Western Ring Railway Sanya Phoenix Airport railway station
 China Shanghai Shanghai Hongqiao International Airport Beijing-Shanghai high-speed railway
Shanghai-Hangzhou Passenger Railway
Shanghai-Nanjing intercity railway
Shanghai Hongqiao railway station
 China Shenzhen Shenzhen Bao'an International Airport Guangzhou-Shenzhen intercity railway Shenzhen Airport station
 China Turpan Turpan Jiaohe Airport Lanzhou-Xinjiang high-speed railway Turpan North railway station
 China Wuhan Wuhan Tianhe International Airport Wuhan-Xiaogan intercity railway Tianhe International Airport station
 China Xuzhou Xuzhou Guanyin International Airport Xuzhou-Yancheng high-speed railway Guanyin Airport railway station
 China Yinchuan Yinchuan Hedong International Airport Yinchuan-Xi'an high-speed railway Hedong Airport railway station
 China Zhengzhou Zhengzhou Xinzheng International Airport Zhengzhou-Xinzheng Airport intercity railway Xinzheng Airport railway station
 China Zhuhai Zhuhai Jinwan Airport Zhuhai-Zhuhai Airport intercity railway Zhuhai Airport station
 Hong Kong Hong Kong Hong Kong International Airport MTR Airport Express MTR Airport station
 India Chennai Chennai International Airport Chennai Suburban Railway South Line Tirusulam railway station
 Indonesia Jakarta Soekarno-Hatta International Airport Soekarno-Hatta Airport Rail Link SHIA railway station
 Indonesia Medan Kualanamu International Airport Kualanamu Airport Rail Link Kualanamu International Airport railway station
 Indonesia Padang Minangkabau International Airport Minangkabau Airport Rail Link Minangkabau International Airport railway station
 Indonesia Surakarta Adisumarmo International Airport Adisumarmo Airport Rail Link Adisoemarmo International Airport railway station
 Indonesia Yogyakarta Adisutjipto International Airport KRL Commuterline Yogyakarta-Solo Maguwo Railway Station
 Israel Tel Aviv Ben Gurion International Airport Israel Railways Ben Gurion Airport railway station
 Japan Nagoya Chubu Centrair International Airport Meitetsu Airport Line Central Japan International Airport Station
 Japan Osaka Kansai International Airport Haruka
Rapi:t
Kansai Airport Station
 Japan Sapporro New Chitose Airport Chitose Line New Chitose Airport Station
 Japan Sendai Sendai Airport Sendai Airport Line Sendai Airport Station
 Japan Tokyo Narita International Airport Narita Express
Keisei Narita Airport Line
Keisei Main Line
Narita Airport Terminal 1 Station
Narita Airport Terminal 2·3 Station
Haneda Airport Keiky? Airport Line Haneda Airport Terminal 1·2 Station
Haneda Airport Terminal 3 Station
 Malaysia Kuala Lumpur Kuala Lumpur International Airport KLIA Ekspres Kuala Lumpur International Airport ERL station
 North Korea Pyongyang Pyongyang International Airport Pyongui Line Sunan station
 Russia Vladivostok Vladivostok International Airport Express Primorya Knevichi railway station
 South Korea Seoul Incheon International Airport AREX
Incheon Airport Maglev
Incheon Int'l Airport Terminal 1 station
Incheon Int'l Airport Terminal 2 station (AREX only)
 Thailand Bangkok Don Mueang International Airport Northern Line
Northeastern Line
Don Mueang station
Suvarnabhumi Airport Bangkok Airport Rail Link Suvarnabhumi Station
 Turkey ?zmir Adnan Menderes Airport ?ZBAN Adnan Menderes Airport railway station

Europe

A Vienna City Airport Train in 2012
A Ouigo TGV trainset, which serves airports in both Lyon and Paris
Hamburg S-Bahn trains at Hamburg Airport station on its opening day in 2008
The Munich S1, which serves Munich Airport at two stops
A train stopped at Vilnius Airport railway station, Lithuania
Airport rail link train at Gda?sk Lech Wasa Airport
Rodalies de Catalunya R2 service approaches passengers at El Prat Airport in Barcelona
Rolling stock of the Stansted Express arriving in Colchester
Trains on the TransPennine Express, which serves Manchester Airport
Country City Airport Rail Link Station Name
 Austria Vienna Vienna International Airport City Airport Train
Railjet
Vienna S-Bahn S7
Vienna Airport railway station
 Belgium Brussels Brussels Airport InterCity
Intercity Direct
Brussels National Airport railway station
 Denmark Aalborg Aalborg Airport Aalborg Airport railway line Aalborg Airport station
 Denmark Copenhagen Copenhagen Airport InterCity
Øresundståg
Copenhagen Airport, Kastrup Station
 Finland Helsinki Helsinki Airport Helsiniki commuter rail I/P Helsinki Airport station
 France Lyon Lyon-Saint-Exupéry Airport LGV Rhône-Alpes
Ouigo
TGV
Lyon-Saint-Exupéry TGV station
 France Paris Charles de Gaulle Airport Ouigo
RER B
TGV inOui
Thalys
Aéroport Charles de Gaulle 1 (RER B only)
Aéroport Charles de Gaulle 2 TGV
 France Strasbourg Strasbourg Airport TER Grand Est Entzheim-Aéroport station
 Georgia Tbilisi Tbilisi International Airport Georgian Railways Tbilisi Airport station
 Germany Berlin Berlin Brandenburg Airport Flughafen-Express
Intercity
Regional-Express
Regionalbahn
Berlin S-Bahn 45
Berlin S-Bahn 9
BER Airport - Terminal 1-2 station
Berlin S-Bahn S45
Berlin S-Bahn S9
BER Airport - Terminal 5 station
 Germany Cologne and Bonn Cologne Bonn Airport Intercity Express
Regional-Express
Regionalbahn
Rhine-Ruhr S-Bahn S13
Rhine-Ruhr S-Bahn S10
Cologne/Bonn Airport station
 Germany Dresden Dresden Airport Dresden S-Bahn Dresden Flughafen station
 Germany Düsseldorf Düsseldorf Airport InterCity
Intercity Express
Regional-Express
Rhine-Ruhr S-Bahn S1
Düsseldorf Airport station
Rhine-Ruhr S-Bahn S11 Düsseldorf Airport Terminal station
 Germany Frankfurt Frankfurt Airport Regional-Express
Rhine-Main S-Bahn S8
Rhine-Main S-Bahn S9
Frankfurt Airport regional station
InterCity
Intercity Express
Regionalbahn
Frankfurt Airport long-distance station
 Germany Friedrichshafen Friedrichshafen Airport Interregio-Express Friedrichshafen Flughafen
 Germany Hamburg Hamburg Airport Hamburg S-Bahn S1 Hamburg Airport station
 Germany Hannover Hannover Airport Hannover S-Bahn S5
Hannover S-Bahn S8
Hannover Flughafen railway station
 Germany Halle and Leipzig Leipzig/Halle Airport InterCity
Mitteldeutschland S5
Mitteldeutschland S5X
Leipzig/Halle Airport station
 Germany Lübeck Lübeck Airport Regional-Express 83 Lübeck-Flughafen station
 Germany Munich Munich Airport Munich S1
Munich S8
Regionalbahn
Munich Airport Besucherpark station (S1 and S8 only)
Munich Airport Terminal station
 Germany Stuttgart Stuttgart Airport Stuttgart S-Bahn S2
Stuttgart S-Bahn S3
Stuttgart Flughafen/Messe station
 Greece Athens Athens International Airport Proastiakos Athens Line 1
Proastiakos Athens Line 4
Proastiakos Athens Line 5
Athens Airport Station
 Hungary Budapest Budapest Ferenc Liszt International Airport Hungarian State Railways Ferihegy railway station
 Ireland County Kerry Kerry Airport Iarnród Éireann Commuter
Iarnród Éireann InterCity
Farranfore railway station
 Italy Milan Milan Malpensa Airport Malpensa Express
TILO
Malpensa Aeroporto Terminal 1 railway station
Malpensa Aeroporto Terminal 2 railway station
 Italy Palermo Palermo Airport Palermo metropolitan railway service Punta Raisi railway station
 Italy Rome Leonardo da Vinci-Fiumicino Airport Frecciargento
Lazio regional railways FL1
Leonardo Express
Fiumicino Aeroporto railway station
 Italy Turin Turin Airport Line SFMA Caselle Aeroporto railway station
 Lithuania Vilnius Vilnius International Airport Lithuanian Railways Vilnius Airport railway station
 Netherlands Amsterdam Amsterdam Airport Schiphol Intercity Direct
NS Intercity
NS Sprinter
Thalys
Schiphol Airport railway station
 Norway Oslo Oslo Airport, Gardermoen Flytoget
Oslo Commuter Rail L12
Oslo Airport Station
 Norway Trondheim Trondheim Airport, Værnes Nordland Line
Trøndelag Commuter Rail
Vygruppen
Trondheim Airport Station
 Poland Gda?sk Gda?sk Lech Wasa Airport Pomorska Kolej Metropolitalna Gda?sk Airport station
 Poland Kraków Kraków John Paul II International Airport Koleje Ma?opolskie Kraków Airport
 Poland Szczecin Solidarity Szczecin-Goleniów Airport Polregio Szczecin Goleniów station
 Poland Warsaw Warsaw Frederic Chopin Airport Koleje Mazowieckie
Szybka Kolej Miejska
Warsaw Chopin Airport railway station
 Romania Bucharest Henri Coand? International Airport Romanian State Railways Bucharest Airport station
 Russia Kazan Kazan International Airport Aeroexpress Kazan Airport station
 Russia Moscow Moscow Domodedovo Airport Moscow Aeroexpress Aeroport Domodedovo railway station
Sheremetyevo International Airport Moscow Aeroexpress Sheremetyevo railway station
Vnukovo International Airport Moscow Aeroexpress Aeroport Vnukovo railway station
 Russia Sochi Sochi International Airport Aeroexpress Sochi Airport railway station
 Spain Barcelona Josep Tarradellas Barcelona-El Prat Airport Rodalies de Catalunya R2 Airport T2 station
 Spain Cádiz Jerez Airport Cercanías Cádiz Aeropuerto de Jerez
 Spain Madrid Adolfo Suárez Madrid-Barajas Airport Cercanías Madrid C-1
Cercanías Madrid C-10
Aeropuerto T4
 Spain Málaga Málaga Airport Cercanías Málaga C-1 Aeropuerto station
 Sweden Stockholm Stockholm Arlanda Airport Arlanda Express Arlanda North Station
Arlanda Central Station
Arlanda South Station
  Switzerland Geneva Geneva Airport InterCity
InterRegio
Geneva Airport railway station
  Switzerland Zürich Zurich Airport EuroCity
InterCity
InterRegio
Zürich S-Bahn S2
Zürich S-Bahn S16
Zürich S-Bahn S24
Zürich Airport railway station
 Ukraine Kyiv Kyiv Boryspil Airport Kyiv Boryspil Express Boryspil-Aeroport railway station
Kyiv International Airport (Zhuliany) Kyiv Urban Electric Train Kyiv-Volynskyi
 United Kingdom Belfast George Best Belfast City Airport Belfast-Bangor railway line Sydenham railway station
 United Kingdom Birmingham Birmingham Airport Avanti West Coast
Cambrian Line
CrossCountry network
West Midlands Trains
Birmingham International railway station
 United Kingdom Glasgow Glasgow Prestwick Airport Ayrshire Coast Line
Glasgow South Western Line
Prestwick International Airport railway station
 United Kingdom London Heathrow Airport Heathrow Express
TfL Rail
London Underground Piccadilly Line
Heathrow Terminals 2 & 3 railway station
Heathrow Terminal 4 railway station (TfL Rail only)
Heathrow Terminal 5 station (Heathrow Express only)
Gatwick Airport Gatwick Express
Govia Thameslink
Southern Railway
Gatwick Airport railway station
London Stansted Airport CrossCountry network
Greater Anglia
Stansted Express
Stansted Airport railway station
London Southend Airport Greater Anglia Southend Airport railway station
 United Kingdom Manchester Manchester Airport Chester-Warrington line
Northern Trains
TransPennine Express
Manchester Airport station
 United Kingdom Southampton Southampton Airport CrossCountry network
Great Western Railway
South Western Railway
Southern Railway
Southampton Airport Parkway railway station
 United Kingdom Tees Valley Teesside International Airport Tees Valley line Teesside Airport railway station

North America

A TEXRail train comes to a stop at DFW Airport/Terminal B station
Two Tri-Rail trains awaiting passengers at Miami International Airport
Country City Airport Rail Link Station Name
 Canada Toronto Toronto Pearson International Airport Union Pearson Express Toronto Pearson Terminal 1 station
 USA Anchorage Ted Stevens Anchorage International Airport Alaska Railroad Anchorage Airport station
 USA Baltimore Baltimore/Washington International Airport Acela
Northeast Regional
Penn Line
Palmetto
Vermonter
BWI Rail Station
 USA Chicago O'Hare International Airport North Central Service O'Hare Transfer station
 USA Dallas Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport TEXRail DFW Airport/Terminal B station
DFW Airport North station
Trinity Railway Express CentrePort/DFW Airport station
 USA Denver Denver International Airport RTD A Line Denver Airport station
 USA Fort Lauderdale Fort Lauderdale-Hollywood International Airport Tri-Rail Fort Lauderdale Airport station
 USA Los Angeles Hollywood Burbank Airport Coast Starlight
Pacific Surfliner
Ventura County Line
Burbank Airport-South station
 USA Miami Miami International Airport Tri-Rail Miami Intermodal Center
 USA Milwaukee Milwaukee Mitchell International Airport Hiawatha Service Milwaukee Airport Railroad Station
 USA Orlando Orlando International Airport Brightline
SunRail
Orlando International Airport Intermodal Terminal
 USA Philadelphia Philadelphia International Airport SEPTA Airport Line Philadelphia International Airport stations
 USA Providence T. F. Green Airport Providence/Stoughton Line T. F. Green Airport station
 USA South Bend South Bend International Airport South Shore Line South Bend Airport station

Oceania

South America

Light rail or metro

Many cities also provide a link to their airports through their rapid transit or light rail systems, which, unlike express trains, often make numerous stops on the way to the airport. At some airports, such as O'Hare in Chicago or Hartsfield-Jackson in Atlanta, the rapid transit train only visits one terminal or concourse; passengers must transfer to an airport circulator (people mover system) to reach other terminals or concourses.

Africa

Asia

KMRT's Kaohsiung International Airport Station

Europe

Copenhagen Metro has unmanned trains.

North America

A Baltimore Light Rail vehicle at BWI's international terminal

South America

Rail to airport people mover

A hybrid solution adopted in some cities is a direct rail connection to an airport train station instead of to the airport itself. At the airport train station, the passenger switches to a people mover or other train that goes to the airport terminals. The same system can also serve passengers moving between different terminals and traveling between the terminals and car rental lots or parking areas. Several very large airports have rail stations near some terminals, but people movers are used by many to get to some other terminals. Examples: Paris Charles de Gaulle and Oakland.

Asia

Europe

North America

South America

Rail to bus to airport

Another common arrangement requires the passenger to take a train (or metro) to a railway station (usually) near the airport and then switch to a bus that goes to the airport terminals. Most medium and large size airports have bus connections from the inner city. This list only contains connections by bus from a railway station strongly associated, by branding or by name, with the airport.

Asia

Europe

North America

Discontinued services

South America

Oceania

Proposed airport rail links

Other cities are considering airport rail link services.

Africa

Asia

Europe

North America

Oceania

See also

References

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External links


  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

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