The Administration of the Patrimony of the Apostolic See (APSA; Italian: Amministrazione del Patrimonio della Sede Apostolica) is the office of the Roman Curia that deals with the "provisions owned by the Holy See in order to provide the funds necessary for the Roman Curia to function". It was established by Pope Paul VI on 15 August 1967 and reorganized on 8 July 2014. APSA acts as the treasury and central bank of Vatican City and the Holy See.
Both before and after the reorganization of its functions in 2014, APSA has been distinct from the Prefecture for the Economic Affairs of the Holy See.
The assets entrusted to the administration (previously in the care of what was its Extraordinary Section) were initially 750 million Italian lire (at that time equivalent to £8,152,000) in cash and 1 billion Italian lire (at that time equivalent to £10,869,000) in Italian State bonds, an amount less than Italy would have paid under the Law of Guarantees of 1871, if the Holy See had accepted this. A 2012 report from the Council of Europe identified the value of a section of the Vatican's property assets as an amount in excess of EUR680 million (£570 million); as of January 2013, a papal official in Rome named Paolo Mennini manages this portion of the Holy See's assets--consisting of British investments, other European holdings and a currency trading arm. The Guardian described Mennini as "in effect the pope's merchant banker [who] heads a special unit inside the Vatican called the extraordinary division of APSA - Amministrazione del Patrimonio della Sede Apostolica - which handles the so-called 'patrimony of the Holy See'."
Pope Paul VI established APSA as part of his broader reform of the Roman Curia in the apostolic constitution Regimini Ecclesiae universae issued on 15 August 1967. It is the latest in a series of bodies first established in 1878 and subject to periodic modifications in name and remit.
APSA was composed originally of two sections:
On 9 July 2014, the Ordinary Section of APSA was transferred to the Secretariat for the Economy. Only the Extraordinary Section remained within the purview of APSA. Since then APSA focuses exclusively on its role as a treasury for the Holy See and the Vatican City State.
Although Pope John Paul II's apostolic constitution Pastor bonus specified that APSA is headed by a prelate with the rank of cardinal, the custom of giving the president of APSA the temporary title of "Pro-President" until he becomes a cardinal has fallen into disuse; Pope John Paul and his successors have all given the title of president to prelates who were not yet cardinals.
The apostolic constitution Praedicate evangelium, which takes effect in June 2022, identifies the head of APSA as a president without any requirement as to clerical status. The current president is a bishop who has not been given the personal title of archbishop, which was previously the custom for both the president and, as recently as 2002, the secretary of the agency. Since 2011, the secretary has been a priest, not a bishop.