Abdullah Ibn Umar
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Abdullah Ibn Umar
Abdullah ibn Omar
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Personal
Bornc.610 CE
Died693 (aged 82–83)
ReligionIslam
ParentsOmar ibn Al-Khattab
Zaynab bint Madhun
EraEarly Islamic Period
RegionIslam scholar
Main interest(s)Hadith and Fiqh

Abdullah ibn Omar ibn al-Khattab (Arabic: ? ‎) (c.610-693 CE) was companion of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and son of the second Caliph Omar. He was a prominent authority in hadith and law. He also fought alongside the likes of Khalid Ibn Walid in the army of the Rashidun caliphate against their adversaries such as the Byzantines.

Muhammad's era -- 610 to 632

Abdullah ibn Umar was born c.610 in Mecca,[1] the son of Omar ibn al-Khattab and Zaynab bint Madhun.[1] His full siblings were Hafsa and Abdulrahman. His paternal brothers, born to his stepmother Umm Kulthum bint Jarwal, were Zayd and Ubaydullah. He had another stepmother, Qurayba bint Abi Umayya, but she had no children of her own.[1]

The young Abdullah had vivid memories of his father's conversion to Islam. He remembered following him around the town as Omar declared his conversion to the neighbours and on the steps of the Kaaba. Ibn Omar asserted, "Although I was very young at the time, I understood everything I saw."[2] His mother Zaynab also became a Muslim, but his two stepmothers did not.[2][3]

The family emigrated to Medina in 622.[2] A few months later, just before the Battle of Uhud in March 625, Muhammad called Ibn Omar, who was then fourteen years old, to present himself. But when Ibn Omar appeared, Muhammad would not allow him to fight in the battle. Two years later, as the Battle of the Trench approached, Muhammad again called Ibn Omar, and this time he decreed that the youth was old enough because he was mature and reached puberty. He was also present at the Battle of Al-Muraysi in 628.[4]

Ibn Omar's sister Hafsa married Muhammad in 625.[5] Muhammad once told her: "Abdullah is a good man. I wish he prayed the night prayers." After that, every night Abdullah would pray much and sleep but a little.[6]

Family

After his father became Caliph in 634, Ibn Omar married Safiya bint Abu Ubayd, and they had six children: Abu Bakr, Abu Ubayda, Waqid, Omar, Hafsa and Sawda.[5] He had a number of other sons by Ummul Walad, including Abdulrahman, Salim and Hamza.[]

Political interests

Ibn Omar participated in battles in Iraq, Persia and Egypt, but he remained neutral throughout the first civil war.[7] In 656, he prevented his sister Hafsa from following Aisha to the Battle of the Camel.[8] Following the peace-treaty that ensued between Hasan ibn Ali and Mu'awiyah, 'Abdullah ibn Omar, along with the rest of the Muslims agreed to pledge his allegiance to Muawiyah I so that he may accede to the Caliphate in 661/41 AH.[]

While in Medina during the Second Fitna of the 680s, Ibn Omar, together with Abd Allah ibn al-Zubayr and Ibn Abbas, advised Husayn ibn Ali to make Mecca his base and fight against Yazid I from Mecca. Husayn did not take this advice but chose Kufa.[9]

Death

Abdullah ibn Omar died in Mecca in 693 (74 AH).[7]

Legacy

Abdullah ibn Omar was the second most prolific narrator of ahadith, with a total of 2,630 narrations.[7] It was said that he was extremely careful about what he narrated, and that he narrated with his eyes full of tears.[7]

He has a positive reputation among Sunni Muslims. "In spite of the great esteem and honour in which he was held by all the Muslims and notwithstanding the suggestion repeatedly made to him to stand up for the caliphate (which he obstinately refused), he kept himself entirely aloof from party strife, and throughout these years led an unselfish, pious life. He is known for his neutrality."[7]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c Muhammad ibn Saad. Kitab al-Tabaqat al-Kabir vol. 3. Translated by Bewley, A. (2013). The Companions of Badr. London: Ta-Ha Publishers.
  2. ^ a b c Muhammad ibn Ishaq. Sirat Rasul Allah. Translated by Guillaume, A. (1955). The Life of Muhammad. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  3. ^ Bukhari 3:50:891.
  4. ^ Muslim 19:4292.
  5. ^ a b Muhammad ibn Saad. Kitab al-Tabaqat al-Kabir vol. 8. Translated by Bewley, A. (1995). The Women of Madina. London: Ta-Ha Publishers.
  6. ^ Bukhari 2:21:222.
  7. ^ a b c d e Siddiqi, M. Z. (1961, 2006). Hadith Literature: Its Origin, Development, Special Features and Criticism. Kuala Lumpar: Islamic Book Trust.
  8. ^ Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari. Tarikh al-Rusul wa'l-Muluk. Translated by Brockett, A. (1997). Volume 16: The Community Divided, pp. 41-42. Albany: State University of New York Press.
  9. ^ Balyuzi, H. M. (1976). Muhammad and the course of Islam, p. 193. Oxford: George Ronald.
Muhammad (570-632 the Constitution of Medina, taught the Quran, and advised his companions
`Abd Allah bin Masud (died 650) taughtAli (607-661) fourth caliph taughtAisha, Muhammad's wife and Abu Bakr's daughter taughtAbd Allah ibn Abbas (618-687) taughtZayd ibn Thabit (610-660) taughtUmar (579-644) second caliph taughtAbu Hurairah (603-681) taught
Alqama ibn Qays (died 681) taughtHusayn ibn Ali (626-680) taughtQasim ibn Muhammad ibn Abu Bakr (657-725) taught and raised by AishaUrwah ibn Zubayr (died 713) taught by Aisha, he then taughtSaid ibn al-Musayyib (637-715) taughtAbdullah ibn Umar (614-693) taughtAbd Allah ibn al-Zubayr (624-692) taught by Aisha, he then taught
Ibrahim al-Nakha'i taughtAli ibn Husayn Zayn al-Abidin (659-712) taughtHisham ibn Urwah (667-772) taughtIbn Shihab al-Zuhri (died 741) taughtSalim ibn Abd-Allah ibn Umar taughtUmar ibn Abdul Aziz (682-720) raised and taught by Abdullah ibn Umar
Hammad bin ibi Sulman taughtMuhammad al-Baqir (676-733) taughtFarwah bint al-Qasim Jafar's mother
Abu Hanifa (699-767) wrote Al Fiqh Al Akbar and Kitab Al-Athar, jurisprudence followed by Sunni, Sunni Sufi, Barelvi, Deobandi, Zaidiyyah and originally by the Fatimid and taughtZayd ibn Ali (695-740)Ja'far bin Muhammad Al-Baqir (702-765) Muhammad and Ali's great great grand son, jurisprudence followed by Shia, he taughtMalik ibn Anas (711-795) wrote Muwatta, jurisprudence from early Medina period now mostly followed by Sunni in Africa and taughtAl-Waqidi (748-822) wrote history books like Kitab al-Tarikh wa al-Maghazi, student of Malik ibn AnasAbu Muhammad Abdullah ibn Abdul Hakam (died 829) wrote biographies and history books, student of Malik ibn Anas
Abu Yusuf (729-798) wrote Usul al-fiqhMuhammad al-Shaybani (749-805)Al-Shafi'i (767-820) wrote Al-Risala, jurisprudence followed by Sunni and taughtIsmail ibn IbrahimAli ibn al-Madini (778-849) wrote The Book of Knowledge of the CompanionsIbn Hisham (died 833) wrote early history and As-Sirah an-Nabawiyyah, Muhammad's biography
Isma'il ibn Ja'far (719-775)Musa al-Kadhim (745-799)Ahmad ibn Hanbal (780-855) wrote Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal jurisprudence followed by Sunni and hadith booksMuhammad al-Bukhari (810-870) wrote Sahih al-Bukhari hadith booksMuslim ibn al-Hajjaj (815-875) wrote Sahih Muslim hadith booksMuhammad ibn Isa at-Tirmidhi (824-892) wrote Jami` at-Tirmidhi hadith booksAl-Baladhuri (died 892) wrote early history Futuh al-Buldan, Genealogies of the Nobles
Ibn Majah (824-887) wrote Sunan ibn Majah hadith bookAbu Dawood (817-889) wrote Sunan Abu Dawood Hadith Book
Muhammad ibn Ya'qub al-Kulayni (864- 941) wrote Kitab al-Kafi hadith book followed by Twelver ShiaMuhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari (838-923) wrote History of the Prophets and Kings, Tafsir al-TabariAbu al-Hasan al-Ash'ari (874-936) wrote Maq?l?t al-isl?m?y?n, Kit?b al-luma, Kit?b al-ib?na 'an us?l al-diy?na
Ibn Babawayh (923-991) wrote Man la yahduruhu al-Faqih jurisprudence followed by Twelver ShiaSharif Razi (930-977) wrote Nahj al-Balagha followed by Twelver ShiaNasir al-Din al-Tusi (1201-1274) wrote jurisprudence books followed by Ismaili and Twelver ShiaAl-Ghazali (1058-1111) wrote The Niche for Lights, The Incoherence of the Philosophers, The Alchemy of Happiness on SufismRumi (1207-1273) wrote Masnavi, Diwan-e Shams-e Tabrizi on Sufism
Key: Some of Muhammad's CompanionsKey: Taught in MedinaKey: Taught in IraqKey: Worked in SyriaKey: Travelled extensively collecting the sayings of Muhammad and compiled books of hadithKey: Worked in Iran

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