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?ivinbudas was one of the five senior Lithuanian dukes mentioned in the treaty with Halych-Volhynia in 1219.[1] The treaty lists a total of 21 dukes, five of them being elder or superior. Since ?ivinbudas is mentioned first in the list, it is presumed that he was the supreme ruler of Lithuania.[2] He is not mentioned in any other sources and the mention in the treaty is the only bit of information available about him. However, some historians argue he was ancestor of Traidenis, Grand Duke of Lithuania ca. 1270-1282.[3] That is probably influence of the Palemonids legends popularized by fake 16th century genealogies that connected a mythical Palemon, a prince of Venice who settled in Lithuania in the 10th century, to the Gediminids, an established dynasty.[4]

The Russian Gustinskaya Chronicle mentions ?ivibundas under the year 1218.


  1. ^ Baranauskas, Tomas. "?ivinbudas". Universal Lithuanian Encyclopedia (in Lithuanian). Retrieved 2021.
  2. ^ Kiaupa, Zigmantas; J?rat? Kiaupien?; Albinas Kunevi?ius (2000) [1995]. The History of Lithuania Before 1795 (English ed.). Vilnius: Lithuanian Institute of History. pp. 50-51. ISBN 9986-810-13-2.
  3. ^ Rowell, C. S. (1994). Lithuania Ascending: A Pagan Empire Within East-Central Europe, 1295-1345. Cambridge Studies in Medieval Life and Thought: Fourth Series. Cambridge University Press. xxxiii. ISBN 978-0-521-45011-9.
  4. ^ For example, family tree in Urban, William (1994). The Baltic Crusade (2nd ed.). Chicago, Illinois: Lithuanian Research and Studies Center. p. 344. ISBN 0-929700-10-4. lists a number of people known only from 16th century sources like the Bychowiec Chronicle.

  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.



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