|o Mayor||Ji?í Svoboda (ANO)|
|o Total||55.71 km2 (21.51 sq mi)|
|Elevation||381 m (1,250 ft)|
|o Density||1,700/km2 (4,400/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+1 (CET)|
?eské Bud?jovice (Czech: ['tsk?: 'bujov?ts?] ; German: Budweis ['b?tva?s] ; Latin: Budovicium) is a city in the South Bohemian Region of the Czech Republic. It has about 94,000 inhabitants. It is located in the valley of the Vltava River, at its confluence with the Mal?e.
?eské Bud?jovice is the largest city in the region and its political and commercial capital, the seat of the Roman Catholic Diocese of ?eské Bud?jovice, of the University of South Bohemia, and of the Academy of Sciences. It is famous for the Budweiser Budvar Brewery. The historic city centre is well preserved and is protected by law as an urban monument reservation.
The city was founded in 1265 by King Ottokar II of Bohemia, who granted its municipal charter in 1265. The siting and planning of the city was carried out by the king's knight Hirzo. The settlers were coming from the Bohemian Forest and Upper Austria. The royal city was created as a platform of the king's power in South Bohemia and to counterbalance the powerful noble House of Rosenberg, which became extinct in 1611.
In 1341 King John of Bohemia allowed Jewish families to reside within the city walls, and the first synagogue was built in 1380; however several pogroms occurred in the late 15th and early 16th century. Since the Hussite Wars, the city was traditionally a bulwark of the Catholic Church during the long-lasting religious conflicts in the Kingdom of Bohemia. A part of the Habsburg Monarchy from 1526, Budejovice remained a loyal supporter of Emperor Ferdinand II in the Thirty Years' War. Bud?jovice underwent a short occupation by Prussia during the Silesian Wars, and the war between the Habsburgs and the French army in 1742.
During the World War II in March 1945, Bud?jovice's marshalling yard was twice targeted by United States Army Air Forces raids that greatly damaged the city and caused great loss of life. At the end of the war, on 9 May 1945, Soviet troops liberated the city. On the following day, the Red Army and the United States Army met on the main square in a joint celebration of the city's liberation.
The vast majority of the city's population today are Czechs (94.9% in 2001), with 1.15% Slovaks. In the past, the city had a significant proportion of ethnic Germans, who had formed the majority since medieval times. The city remained a German-speaking enclave until 1880, after which Czechs became the majority. Until the end of World War II, the city contained a significant German minority (about 15.5% in 1930). For example, the ratios between the Germans and the Czechs were in 1880: 11,829 Germans to 11,812 Czechs, in 1890: 11,642 to 16,585, in 1900: 15,400 to 23,400, in 1910: 16,900 to 27,300 and in 1921: 7,415 to 35,800. The entire German population was forcibly expelled in 1945 under the Bene? decrees.
?eské Bud?jovice is a low-lying city spread mostly across a plain, making it nearly flat in the inner parts with hillier areas in the eastern suburbs. The lowest point lies at 375 meters (1,230 feet) above sea level, and the highest point at 452 meters (1,483 feet). Because it is not very well ventilated some strong winters do occur; the strongest winter plummeted to -42.2 °C (-44.0 °F) in 1929 in the southern part of the city with lower temperatures elsewhere in the meantime. Nevertheless, such a strong winter is exceptional, especially outside of valley bottoms.
?eské Bud?jovice has a cooler and wet inland version of a humid continental climate (Dfb) with an average annual temperature of 8.3 °C (46.9 °F). There are four seasons, with a murky dry winter between early December and early March, a sunny and wetter spring between half of March up to half of May changing to a rainy and warm summer during late May and early September when a dry autumn lasting to late November begins. There are between 1550 and 1800 hours of sunshine in most years.
|Climate data for ?eské Bud?jovice|
|Average high °C (°F)||1.4
|Daily mean °C (°F)||-1.9
|Average low °C (°F)||-5.1
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||42
|Source: Climate Data ORG|
Bud?jovice has long been well known for the beer brewed there since the 13th century. For a time, the town was the imperial brewery for the Holy Roman Emperor, and Budweiser Bier (i.e. beer from Budweis) became, along with Pilsner from Plze?, one of the best-known lagers. Brewing remains a major industry. In 1256 the Svitavy brewery was founded there, which was closed in 2002.
The largest brewery, founded in 1895, is "Pivovar Bud?jovický Budvar" (Budweiser Budvar Brewery) which has legal rights to market its beer under the "Budweiser" brand name in much of Europe. The same product is also sold elsewhere under the names "Budvar" and "Czechvar" due to legal disagreements with Anheuser-Busch over the Budweiser brand and Anheuser-Busch sells its beer as "Bud" in most of the European Union. The American lager was originally brewed as an imitation of the famous Bohemian original, but over time has developed its own identity and attained remarkable commercial success. Anheuser-Busch has made offers to buy out the Czech brewing company in order to secure global rights to the name "Budweiser", but the Czech government has refused all such offers, regarding the Czech Budweiser name as a matter of national pride.
The oldest (founded in 1795) and second largest brewery was renamed to "Pivovar Samson", replacing its original German name "Budweiser Bürgerbräu" during the communist period. It also exported, mostly under the "Samson" and "Crystal" labels. Recently, they reacquired naming rights for Budweiser for Europe while offering "B. B. Bürgerbräu" in the US since 2005.
The old town preserves interesting architecture from the Gothic, Renaissance, Baroque, and 19th century periods. This includes buildings around the large P?emysla Otakara II. Square, the old city hall with murals and bronze gargoyles, and the 16th century Black Tower (?erná v). The most valuable historic building in ?eské Bud?jovice is the Dominican convent with the Gothic Presentation of the Virgin Mary church from the 13th century. The Iron Maiden Tower and the Raben?tejn Tower are a 14th-century former prisons and one of the few remainings of the Old Town's Gothic fortifications.
The Museum of South Bohemia dates to 1877 and holds a large collection of historic books, coins, weapons and other articles. It was closed for reconstruction in 2012-2014.
The city can be reached from other locations by inter-city buses and by train. The town will receive access to the planned D3 motorway running from Prague to the Austrian border at Dolní Dvo?i?t?. Internationally, a direct railroad built by the Austrian Empress Elisabeth Railway company in 1871, connecting the Czech capital Prague with Zürich, via Linz and Salzburg, also makes a stop in ?eské Bud?jovice.
The city is served by ?eské Bud?jovice railway station, a Neo-Renaissance style station building in the new town. The horse-drawn railroad line connecting ?eské Bud?jovice to Linz was the second oldest public line in continental Europe (after the St.Étienne-Andrézieux line in France), constructed from 1824 to 1832; traces of the line can be seen south of the city. Local buses and trolleybuses take passengers to most areas of the city.
Public domestic and non-public international ?eské Bud?jovice Airport is located 6 kilometres (3.7 miles) south-west from ?eské Bud?jovice, at the nearby village of Planá. Modernization of the airport will allow public international flights, construction of the new terminal started in December 2017 and full operation is planned at the end of 2020.
?eské Bud?jovice is the site of many sports facilities and national stadiums. For example, the football Stadion St?elecký ostrov, the hockey Budvar Arena and the Athletic Stadium Sokol. The Swimming Stadium ?eské Bud?jovice features a 50-meter indoor pool, a diving pool, saunas, an outdoor swimming pool and a children's pool. After the modernization in 1998 a covered water slide was added and after the modernization in 2017 a new whirlpool. Major sport clubs include: