%C3%89tudes (Chopin)
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%C3%89tudes Chopin

The Études by Frédéric Chopin are three sets of études (solo studies) for the piano published during the 1830s. There are twenty-seven compositions overall, comprising two separate collections of twelve, numbered Op. 10 and Op. 25, and a set of three without opus number.

History

Composition

Chopin's Études formed the foundation for what was then a revolutionary playing style for the piano. They are some of the most challenging and evocative pieces of all the works in concert piano repertoire. Because of this, the music remains popular and often performed in both concert and private stages.[1] Some are so popular they have been given nicknames; arguably the most popular of all is Op. 10, No. 3,[] sometimes identified by the names Tristesse ("Sadness") or "Farewell" (L'Adieu), as well as the "Revolutionary Étude" (Op. 10, No. 12) and "Winter Wind" (Op. 25, No. 11). No nicknames are of Chopin's original creation.[1]

All twenty-seven études were published during Chopin's lifetime; Op. 10, the first group of twelve, were composed between 1829 and 1832, and were published in 1833, in France, Germany, and England. The twelve études of Op. 25 were composed at various times between 1832 and 1835, and were published in the same countries in 1837. The final three, part of a series called Méthode des méthodes de piano compiled by Ignaz Moscheles and François-Joseph Fétis, were composed in 1839, without an assigned opus number. They appeared in Germany and France in November 1840, and England in January 1841.[1] Accompanying copies of these important early editions, there are usually several manuscripts of a single étude in Chopin's own hand, and additional copies made by his close friend, Jules Fontana, along with editions of Karol Mikuli, Chopin's student.[1]

The first études of the Opus 10 set were written when Chopin was still in his teens. They rank alongside the early works of Felix Mendelssohn as rare examples of extremely youthful compositions that are regarded as both innovative and worthy of inclusion in the standard canon. Chopin's études elevated the musical form from purely utilitarian exercises to great artistic masterpieces.[2]

Impact

Although sets of exercises for piano had been common from the end of the 18th century (Muzio Clementi, Johann Baptist Cramer, Ignaz Moscheles, and Carl Czerny were composers of the most significant), Chopin's Études not only presented an entirely new set of technical challenges, but were the first to become a regular part of the concert repertoire. His études combine musical substance and technical challenge to form a complete artistic form.[3] They are often held in high regard as the product of mastery of combining the two. His effect on contemporaries such as Franz Liszt was apparent, based on the revision Liszt made to his series of concert études after meeting Chopin. Contemporary Polish musicologist Tadeusz A. Zielinski wrote, on Op. 10, that "not only did they become an orderly demonstration of a new piano style and the formulas peculiar to it, but also an artistic ennoblement of this style."[4]

Chopin's Études are not without modern influence as well. Several of the études have lodged themselves in popular music, movies, or television shows.

List of Études

Études Op. 10

The first set of Études was published in 1833 (although some had been written as early as 1829). Chopin was twenty-three years old and already famous as a composer and pianist in the salons of Paris, where he made the acquaintance of Franz Liszt. Subsequently, Chopin dedicated the entire opus to him - "à mon ami Franz Liszt" (to my friend, Franz Liszt).

The etudes 8, 9, 10 and 11 date from October/November 1829, nos. 5 and 6 probably from summer 1830, nos. 1 and 2 from November 2, 1830, no. 12 from September 1831 (?), no. 7 from Spring 1832, no. 4 from August 6, 1832, and no. from 3 August 25, 1832 (Paris) (Krystyna Kobyla?ska).[full ]

Opus number Key Incipit Audio
Étude Op. 10, No. 1 C major

\new PianoStaff <<
\new Staff = "Up" <<
\new Voice \relative c' {
s^\markup{\italic legato} \f
}
\new Voice \relative c' {
\clef treble
\tempo "Allegro" 4=176
\key c \major
\time 4/4
\change Staff = "Down"
b16 \rest \sustainOn c, g' c
\change Staff = "Up"
e->-. c g' c e->-. c g' c
\ottava #1
\set Staff.ottavation = #"8va"
e->-. c g' c e->-. c g c,
\ottava #0
e->-. c g c, e->-. c g c, e->-. c
\change Staff = "Down"
g c, \sustainOff
}>>
\new Staff = "Down" \relative c{
\clef bass
\time 4/4
\key c \major
\tieDown
<c c,>1~<c c,>
}
>>
Étude Op. 10, No. 2 A minor

\new PianoStaff <<
\new Staff = "Up" <<
\new Voice \relative c' {
\clef treble
\tempo "Allegro" 4=144
\key a \minor
\time 4/4
\stemUp
a'16^\markup{\italic sempre \italic legato} ais b c cis d \< dis e f fis g gis a ais b c cis d dis \! e f e \> dis d cis c b bes a gis b a \!
}
\new Voice \relative c' {
\stemDown
<c e>16 \p s s s <e a> s s s <a d> s s s <d f> s s s <e a> s s s <a c> s s s <e a> s s s <c e > s s s
}
>>
\new Staff = "Down" \relative c{
\clef bass
\time 4/4
\key a \minor
a8-. r <e' a c!>-. r a,-. r <f' a d>-. r <a,, a'>-. r <e'' a c!>-. r <a c! e>-. r r4
}
>>
Étude Op. 10, No. 3 E major

\new PianoStaff <<
\new Staff = "Up" <<
\new Voice \relative c' {
\clef treble
\tempo "Lento ma non troppo" 8=100
\key e \major
\time 2/4
\partial 8
\stemUp
b8 \p \dynamicUp e_\markup{\italic legato} \< ^(dis16 e\!) fis4^(~fis16 \< gis \! gis \> fis \!) \slurUp gis4^> (s16)
}
\new Voice \relative c' {
\stemUp
s8 s4 dis4~\stemDown dis8 dis \stemUp e4
}
>>
\new Staff = "Down" <<
\new Voice \relative c{
\clef bass
\time 2/4
\key e \major
\partial 8
\stemUp
r8 gis'16 b gis b a b a b a b a b gis b gis b s16
}
\new Voice \relative c {
\stemDown
s8 e,16 b'8_> b16 b, b'8_> b16 b, b'8_> b16 e, b'8_> b16
}
\new Voice \relative c {
\stemUp
s8 e,4 b b e
}
>>
>>
Étude Op. 10, No. 4 C minor

\new PianoStaff <<
\new Staff = "Up" <<
\new Voice \relative c' {
\clef treble
\tempo "Presto" 2=88
\time 4/4
\partial 4
\key cis \minor
\stemUp
<gis' gis'>4^\markup{\italic con \italic fuoco} <cis cis'>8^. s s4 s16 s
}
\new Voice \relative c' {
\stemDown
\once \override NoteColumn.force-hshift = #1.7
gis''16 \f (fis e dis) cis \fp (dis bis cis dis e cis dis e fis dis e fis gis e fis \once \hide r16)
}
>>
\new Staff = "Down" \relative c{
\clef bass
\time 4/4
\partial 4
\key cis \minor
\dynamicUp
<gis gis'>4 <cis, cis'>8-. r \clef treble <fis'' a>-. r <e gis>-.^\markup{\raise #2 \italic cresc.} r <dis fis>-. r s16
}
>>
Étude Op. 10, No. 5 G major

\new PianoStaff <<
\new Staff = "Up" <<
\new Voice \relative c' {
\clef treble
\tempo "Vivace" 4=116
\time 2/4
\key ges \major
\ottava #1
\override TupletBracket.bracket-visibility = #'if-no-beam
\tuplet 3/2 8 {ges'''16^\markup{\italic brilliante} ([bes des,] ges ees ges des [ges bes,] des ges, bes}
\ottava #0
\omit TupletNumber
\tuplet 3/2 8 {ges16 [bes des,] ges ees ges des [ges bes,] des ges, bes)}
}
>>
\new Staff = "Down" <<
\new Voice \relative c{
\clef bass
\key ges \major
\dynamicUp
<ges' bes des ges>8-. \f [<ges ces ees ges>-. <ges bes des ges>-.] r <ges, ges'>-. \p \sustainOn <ces' ees ges>-. \sustainOff [<bes des ges>-.] r
}
>>
>>
Étude Op. 10, No. 6 E minor

\new PianoStaff <<
\new Staff = "Up" <<
\new Voice \relative c' {
\clef treble
\tempo "Andante" 4.=60
\time 6/8
\key ees \minor
\partial 8
ges'8 \p \dynamicUp ges4.^(~ges4 \< f16 ees \! \hide r)
}
>>
\new Staff = "Down" <<
\new Voice \relative c{
\clef bass
\key ees \minor
\stemUp
r8 bes'16_(ces a ces bes ges bes ces aes ces bes \change Staff = "Up" \stemDown ees) s
}
\new Voice \relative c{
\clef bass
s8 ees2._\markup{\italic sempre \italic legatissimo}
}
>>
>>
Étude Op. 10, No. 7 C major

\new PianoStaff <<
\new Staff = "Up" <<
\new Voice \relative c' {
\clef treble
\tempo "Vivace" 4.=84
\time 6/8
\key c \major
\partial 8
g'8 \p <e g>16 \< ^(<e c'> <f aes> \! <f d'> \> <d f> <d b'> \! <b d> \< <b g'> <c ees> <c a'> <d aes'> <d b'> \!)
}
>>
\new Staff = "Down" <<
\new Voice \relative c{
\clef bass
\key c \major
r8 <c, c'>-. r aes''->(g fis f)
}
>>
>>
Étude Op. 10, No. 8 F major

\new PianoStaff <<
\new Staff = "Up" <<
\new Voice \relative c' {
\clef treble
\override Score.MetronomeMark.Y-offset=#9
\tempo "Allegro" 2=80
\time 4/4
\key f \major
\partial 4
\afterGrace c''4 \f \trill ({b16 c} a'-> _\markup{\italic veloce} g f c a-> g f c a-> g f c \change Staff = "Down" \stemUp a^> g f c)
}
>>
\new Staff = "Down" <<
\new Voice \relative c{
\clef bass
\key f \major
r4 c2^(\acciaccatura b8) c-. d \rest \stemDown c_. b \rest
}
\new Voice \relative c{
s4 f,1 \sustainOn
}
>>
>>
Étude Op. 10, No. 9 F minor

\new PianoStaff <<
\new Staff = "Up" <<
\new Voice \relative c' {
\clef treble
\tempo "Allegro molto agitato" 4.=96
\time 6/8
\key f \minor
r8 \p f-._\markup{\italic legatissimo} (g-.) r aes-. (bes-.) r_\markup{\italic cresc.} c-. \< (des-. c-. aes'-. g-. \! \hide r16)
}
>>
\new Staff = "Down" <<
\new Voice \relative c{
\clef bass
\key f \minor
\stemDown
f,16 \sustainOn (c' aes' c, bes' c, \sustainOff) f, \sustainOn (c' c' c, des' c, \sustainOff) f, \sustainOn (c' c' c, bes' c, \sustainOff) f, \sustainOn (c' aes' c, bes' c, \sustainOff) s
}
>>
>>
Étude Op. 10, No. 10 A major

\new PianoStaff <<
\new Staff = "Up" <<
\new Voice \relative c' {
\clef treble
\tempo "Vivace assai" 4.=152
\time 12/8
\key aes \major
\partial 8
ees8 aes_\markup{\italic dolce} \(<c aes'> (bes) <des bes'>-> (b) <d b'> (c) <ees c'> (cis) <e cis'>-> (d) <f d'> (\hide r8)\)
}
>>
\new Staff = "Down" <<
\new Voice \relative c{
\clef bass
\key aes \major
\stemDown
\mergeDifferentlyHeadedOn
r8 aes_\markup{\italic legato} \sustainOn ([c' aes ees ees' aes,]) aes, ([c' aes ees ees' aes, \sustainOff ])
}
\new Voice \relative c{
\stemUp
s8 s4. ees2 s4 ees2
}
>>
>>
Étude Op. 10, No. 11 E major

\new PianoStaff <<
\new Staff = "Up" <<
\new Voice \relative c' {
\clef treble
\tempo "Allegretto" 4=76
\time 3/4
\key ees \major
\partial 8
bes''8 (<bes, g' ees'>-. \arpeggio \fz) <bes g' bes> \arpeggio \p (<bes g' a> \arpeggio <bes g' bes> \arpeggio <bes g' c> \arpeggio <bes g' bes> \arpeggio \hide r16)
}
>>
\new Staff = "Down" <<
\new Voice \relative c{
\clef bass
\key ees \major
r8 ees,-. \sustainOn <ees' bes' ees> \arpeggio <ees bes' ees> \arpeggio <ees bes' ees> \arpeggio <ees bes' ees> \arpeggio <ees bes' ees> \arpeggio \sustainOff s16
}
>>
>>
Étude Op. 10, No. 12 C minor

\new PianoStaff <<
\new Staff = "Up" <<
\new Voice \relative c' {
\clef treble
\tempo "Allegro con fuoco" 4=160
\time 4/4
\key c \minor
<b' d f g b>2-> \f r r r4 <aes ees' f aes>8.-> \< (<g g'>16 \!)
}
>>
\new Staff = "Down" <<
\new Voice \relative c{
\clef bass
\key c \minor
r8 aes''16_\markup{\italic legatissimo} (g f-> d ees d b-> g aes g f-> d ees d b-> g aes g f-> d ees d c-> g c g c-> g c g)
}
>>
>>

Études Op. 25

Chopin's second set of Études was published in 1837, and dedicated to Franz Liszt's mistress, Marie d'Agoult, the reasons for which are a matter of speculation.

The date of composition of all opus 25 Etudes is before June 30, 1835, the date of a contract between Chopin and Breitkopf & Hartel (awarding the publisher the rights for Germany) (Krystyna Kobylanska).

Opus number Key Incipit Audio
Étude Op. 25, No. 1 A major

\new PianoStaff <<
\new Staff = "Up" <<
\new Voice \relative c' {
\clef treble
\tempo "Allegro sostenuto" 4=104
\key aes \major
\time 4/4
\partial 4
\override TupletBracket.bracket-visibility = #'if-no-beam
\override TupletNumber.Y-offset = #3
\tupletSpan 8
\stemDown
ees'4 \p (\tuplet 3/2 {ees16 \< \tiny aes, c ees, aes c}
\omit TupletNumber
\tuplet 3/2 {\normalsize ees16 \tiny aes, c ees, aes c \normalsize ees16 \tiny aes, c ees, aes c \normalsize ees16 \tiny aes, c ees, aes c \!} \hide r16)
}
>>
\new Staff = "Down" <<
\new Voice \relative c{
\clef bass
\key aes \major
\override TupletBracket.bracket-visibility = #'if-no-beam
\override TupletNumber.Y-offset = #3
\tupletSpan 8
r4 \tuplet 3/2 {\stemUp aes,16 \sustainOn \stemDown \tiny ees'' aes c aes ees}
\omit TupletNumber
\tuplet 3/2 {\normalsize aes, \tiny ees' aes c aes ees \normalsize aes, \tiny ees' aes c aes ees \normalsize aes, \tiny ees' aes c aes ees} s16
}
>>
>>
Étude Op. 25, No. 2 F minor

\new PianoStaff <<
\new Staff = "Up" <<
\new Voice \relative c' {
\clef treble
\tempo "Presto" 2=112
\key f \minor
\time 2/2
\partial 4
\override TupletBracket.bracket-visibility = #'if-no-beam
\tupletSpan 4
c'4 \p (\tuplet 3/2 {c8_\markup{\italic molto \italic legato} [des b] c ees des c [des b!] c fis g}
\omit TupletNumber
\tuplet 3/2 {c, [des b] c ees des c [des b] c aes' f} \hide r16)
}
>>
\new Staff = "Down" <<
\new Voice \relative c{
\clef bass
\key f \minor
\tupletSpan 2
r4 \tuplet 3/2 {e \sustainOn (g' c,) bes! (g' c, \sustainOff) f, \sustainOn (aes' c,) aes (aes' c, \sustainOff)} s16
}
>>
>>
Étude Op. 25, No. 3 F major

\new PianoStaff <<
\new Staff = "Up" <<
\new Voice \relative c' {
\clef treble
\tempo "Allegro" 4=120
\key f \major
\time 3/4
\partial 4
\stemDown
c'4 _(f,8_\markup{\italic leggiero} [f']) c,_([c']) f,_(f') g,_([g']) c,,_([c']) g_(g')
}
\new Voice \relative c'{
\stemUp
s4 d'16 c8. g16 f8. d'16 c8. d16 c8. a16 g8. d'16 c8.
}
>>
\new Staff = "Down" <<
\new Voice \relative c{
\clef bass
\key f \major
\stemDown \dynamicUp
r4 \p c8 \sustainOn_([f, \sustainOff]) c' \sustainOn_([f, \sustainOff]) c' \sustainOn_([f, \sustainOff]) c' \sustainOn_([f, \sustainOff]) c' \sustainOn_([f, \sustainOff]) c' \sustainOn_([f, \sustainOff])
}
\new Voice \relative c{
\stemUp
s4 a'16 [f] s8 a16 [f] s8 a16 [f] s8 bes16 [e,] s8 bes'16 [e,] s8 bes'16 [e,]
}
>>
>>
Étude Op. 25, No. 4 A minor

\new PianoStaff <<
\new Staff = "Up" <<
\new Voice \relative c' {
\clef treble
\tempo "Agitato" 4=160
\key a \minor
\time 2/2
\partial 4
r4 r8 <e a e'>-! r <a e' a>-! r <a d a'>-! r <gis e' gis>-!
}
>>
\new Staff = "Down" <<
\new Voice \relative c{
\clef bass
\key a \minor
\dynamicUp
e4-> (a,8-! \p) [<e' a>-!] c-! <a' e'>-! b,-! [<f' d>-!] e-! <b' e>-!
}
>>
>>
Étude Op. 25, No. 5 E minor

\new PianoStaff <<
\new Staff = "Up" <<
\new Voice \relative c' {
\clef treble
\tempo "Vivace" 4=184
\key e \minor
\time 3/4
\partial 4
b'4 \p <dis, b'>16^\markup{\italic leggiero} (e8.) <fis e'>16 (g8.) <ais g'>16 (b8.) <b g'>16 (a!8.) <gis fis'>16 (a8.) <c a'>16 (b8.)
}
>>
\new Staff = "Down" <<
\new Voice \relative c{
\clef bass
\key e \minor
r4 <e, b' g'>^\markup{\italic scherzando} \arpeggio r <g e' b'> \arpeggio <a e' c'> \arpeggio r <c a' e'> \arpeggio
}
>>
>>
Étude Op. 25, No. 6 G minor

\new PianoStaff <<
\new Staff = "Up" <<
\new Voice \relative c' {
\clef treble
\tempo "Allegro" 2=69
\key gis \minor
\time 2/2
<b' dis>16_\markup{\italic sotto \italic voce} ([<cis e> <b dis> <cis e>] <b dis> <cis e> <b dis> <cis e> <b dis> [<cis e> <b dis> <cis e>] <b dis> <cis e> <b dis> <cis e> \hide r16)
}
>>
\new Staff = "Down" <<
\new Voice \relative c{
\clef bass
\key gis \minor
R1 s16
}
>>
>>
Étude Op. 25, No. 7 C minor

\new PianoStaff <<
\new Staff = "Up" <<
\new Voice \relative c' {
\clef treble
\key cis \minor
\override Score.TimeSignature.stencil = ##f
\hide Score.MetronomeMark
\tempo 4=40
\time 10/4
s2^\markup{\bold Lento} s1 r
\revert Score.TimeSignature.stencil
\bar "||"
\time 3/4
}
>>
\new Staff = "Down" <<
\new Voice \relative c{
\clef bass
\key cis \minor
\dynamicUp
gis4 \p \< (dis'4. \! cis8 \> cis [bis \!] a'4. gis8 fisis16 \< gis a gis \! b \> a e eis fis eis gis fis a gis cis, dis \!)
}
>>
>>
Étude Op. 25, No. 8 D major

\new PianoStaff <<
\new Staff = "Up" <<
\new Voice \relative c' {
\clef treble
\key des \major
\tempo "Vivace" 2=69
\time 2/2
\tupletSpan 4
\stemUp
\override TupletNumber.Y-offset = #-3
\override TupletNumber.X-offset = #3
\tuplet 3/2 {<ges' ees'>8_\markup{\italic molto \italic legato}^([<aes f'> <ges ees'>] <aes f'> <ges ees'> <aes f'> <f des'> [<ges ees'> <g e'>] <bes ges'!> <aes f'> <f des'>)}
}
>>
\new Staff = "Down" <<
\new Voice \relative c{
\clef bass
\key des \major
\omit TupletNumber
\omit TupletBracket
\tuplet 3/2 {aes,8-.^\markup{\italic messa \italic voce} \sustainOn <c' aes'> ([<ees c'>] <aes ees'> <ees c'> <c aes'> \sustainOff) des,-. \sustainOn <des' aes'> ([<f des'>] <des aes'> <f des'> <des aes'> \sustainOff)}
}
>>
>>
Étude Op. 25, No. 9 G major

\new PianoStaff <<
\new Staff = "Up" <<
\new Voice \relative c' {
\clef treble
\key ges \major
\tempo "Assai allegro" 4=112
\time 2/4
\stemDown
bes'16_> \p (<ges' bes>_\markup{\italic leggiero} <ces, ces'>-.) <c c'>-. des_> (<aes' des> <ees ees'>-.) <des des'>-. ges,_> (<ees' ges> <aes, aes'>-.) <a a'>-. bes_> (<f' bes> <ces! ces'!>-.) <bes bes'>-.
}
\new Voice \relative c' {
\stemUp
bes'8 s des s ges, s bes
}
>>
\new Staff = "Down" <<
\new Voice \relative c{
\clef bass
\key ges \major
ges'8-. <des' ges>-. f,-. <aes des aes'>-. ees-. <ges bes ees>-. des-. <f bes f'>-.
}
>>
>>
Étude Op. 25, No. 10 B minor

\new PianoStaff <<
\new Staff = "Up" <<
\new Voice \relative c' {
\clef treble
\key b \minor
\tempo "Allegro con fuoco" 2=72
\time 2/2
\tupletSpan 4
\omit TupletBracket
\tuplet 3/2 {<fis, fis'>8 \p ^(_\([<eis eis'> <fis fis'>] <g g'> <gis gis'> <a a'>\) <gis gis'>_\markup{\italic cresc. \italic poco \italic a \italic poco} _\([<fisis fisis'> <gis gis'>] <a a'> <ais ais'> <b b'>\)} \hide r16)
}
>>
\new Staff = "Down" <<
\new Voice \relative c{
\clef bass
\key b \minor
\tupletSpan 4
\omit TupletBracket
\tuplet 3/2 {<fis,, fis'>8 _\([<eis eis'> <fis fis'>] <g g'> <gis gis'> <a a'>\) <gis gis'> _\([<fisis fisis'> <gis gis'>] <a a'> <ais ais'> <b b'>\)} s16
}
>>
>>
Étude Op. 25, No. 11 A minor

\new PianoStaff <<
\new Staff = "Up" <<
\new Voice \relative c' {
\clef treble
\key a \minor
\omit Score.MetronomeMark
\tempo 4=50
\time 2/2
e4^\markup{\bold Lento} \p (e8. e16 e4 f e c \tempo 4=40 e2 \fermata) \tempo 4=50 <g, c e>4 \p ^(<g c e>8. <g c e>16 <g c e>4 <a c f> <g c e> <a c>_\markup{\italic rit.} \tempo 4=25 e'2 \fermata)
}
\new Voice \relative c'{
\stemDown
s1 s s s2 <g c>4 <gis d'>_\fermata
}
>>
\new Staff = "Down" <<
\new Voice \relative c{
\clef bass
\key a \minor
R1 s4. r1 \fermata
}
\new Voice \relative c{
s1 s c4 (c8. c16 c4 f,4 c f c b4_\fermata) \bar "||"
}
>>
>>
Étude Op. 25, No. 12 C minor

\new PianoStaff <<
\new Staff = "Up" <<
\new Voice \relative c' {
\clef treble
\key c \minor
\override Score.MetronomeMark.Y-offset = #10
\tempo "Molto allegro con fuoco" 2=80
\time 2/2
\stemUp
\change Staff = "Down"
ees,16^> \f ^([g
\change Staff = "Up"
ees' ees] g ees' ees g ees'^> [g, ees ees] g, ees ees
\change Staff = "Down"
g,)
}
>>
\new Staff = "Down" <<
\new Voice \relative c{
\clef bass
\key c \minor
\stemDown
c,16 \sustainOn [g' c c] g' c c
\change Staff = "Up"
g' c [g
\change Staff = "Down" c, c] g c, c g \sustainOff
}
>>
>>

Trois nouvelles études

Trois nouvelles études were written in 1839 as a contribution to Méthode des méthodes de piano, a piano instruction book by Ignaz Moscheles and François-Joseph Fétis, and were not given a separate opus number. While less technically brilliant than those of Op. 10 and 25, these three études nevertheless retain Chopin's original formula for harmonic and structural balance.

Opus number Key Incipit Recording
Étude No. 1 F minor

\new PianoStaff <<
\new Staff = "Up" <<
\new Voice \relative c' {
\clef treble
\key f \minor
\omit Score.MetronomeMark
\tempo 4=100
\time 2/2
\tupletSpan 2
\tuplet 3/2 {r^\markup{\bold Andantino} \p (_\(b c des bes f' e\) b _\(c des bes f' e\) b _\(c des c d} \hide r16 \))
}
>>
\new Staff = "Down" <<
\new Voice \relative c{
\clef bass
\key f \minor
R1 R R s16
}
>>
>>
Étude No. 2 A major

\new PianoStaff <<
\new Staff = "Up" <<
\new Voice \relative c' {
\clef treble
\key aes \major
\omit Score.MetronomeMark
\tempo 4=50
\time 2/4
\tupletSpan 4
\omit TupletBracket
\override TupletNumber.Y-offset = #-4
\tuplet 3/2 {r8^\markup{\bold Allegretto} \p <ees aes c> (<ees aes c> <ees aes c> <des ees bes'> <des ees bes'>}
\omit TupletNumber
\tuplet 3/2 {<des ees bes'> <des ees aes> <c ees aes> <c ees aes> <c ees> <bes des ees>} \hide r16)
}
>>
\new Staff = "Down" <<
\new Voice \relative c{
\clef bass
\key aes \major
\stemDown
aes8 ees' ees, ees' aes,, ees'' \stemUp ees,, ees'' s16
}
\new Voice \relative c{
aes4 ees^~ees
}
>>
>>
Étude No. 3 D major

\new PianoStaff <<
\new Staff = "Up" <<
\new Voice \relative c' {
\clef treble
\key des \major
\omit Score.MetronomeMark
\tempo 4=132
\time 3/4
\partial 8
aes'8-. \p^\markup{\bold Allegretto} bes-._\markup{\italic dolce} aes-. bes-. aes-. bes-. aes-. g-. aes-. g-. aes-. ges-. aes-. \stemDown f_._\markup{\italic stacatto} aes_. f_. aes_. des,_. ges_.
}
\new Voice \relative c{
\stemUp
s1. s8 f''4^(f8 des bes c \hide r16)
}
>>
\new Staff = "Down" <<
\new Voice \relative c{
\clef bass
\key des \major
r8 R2. R des,4-. <des' aes' des>-. ges,-. s16
}
\new Voice \relative c{
s8 s2. s2. s4. \sustainOn s4. \sustainOff
}
>>
>>

Technical aspects and student guides

Chopin's Études are technically demanding, and require players to have significant experience with speed, arpeggios, and trills even in weaker fingers.[5]

For all études

  • Casella, Alfredo. F. Chopin. Studi per pianoforte. Milano: Edizioni Curci, 1946.
  • Cortot, Alfred. Frédéric Chopin. 12 Études, op. 10. Édition de travail des oeuvres de Chopin. Paris: Éditions Salabert, 1915.
  • Cortot, Alfred. Frédéric Chopin. 12 Études, op. 25. Édition de travail des oeuvres de Chopin. Paris: Éditions Salabert, 1915.
  • Galston, Gottfried. Studienbuch [Study Book]. III. Abend [3rd Recital] (Frédéric Chopin). Berlin: Bruno Cassirer, 1910.

For selected études

  • Busoni, Ferruccio. Klavierübung in zehn Büchern [Piano Tutorial in Ten Books], zweite umgestaltete und bereicherte Ausgabe. Buch 8 (Variationen und Varianten nach Chopin). Leipzig: Breitkopf & Härtel, 1925.
  • Godowsky, Leopold. Studien über die Etüden von Chopin (Studies on Chopin's Etudes). New York: G. Schirmer Inc., 1899 (Berlin: Schlesinger'sche Buch- und Musikhandlung, 1903).
  • Joseffy, Rafael. Etudes for the Piano. Instructive Edition. New York: G. Schirmer, 1901.

Paraphrases

  • Godowsky, Leopold. 53 Studies on Chopin's Études. New York: G. Schirmer Inc., 1899 (Berlin: Schlesinger'sche Buch- und Musikhandlung, 1903).
  • Wührer, Friedrich. Achtzehn Studien zu Frédéric Chopins Etuden [sic] [18 Studies on Chopin's Études]. In Motu Contrario [In Contrary Motion]. Heidelberg: Willy Müller, Süddeutscher Musikverlag, 1958.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d Palmer, Willard A., ed. (1992). Chopin Études for the Piano, Practical Performing Edition. USA: Alfred Publishing Co. ISBN 0-7390-2497-3.
  2. ^ Smendzianka, Regina (2007). "How to Play Chopin? Part 3: Chopin's Études" (PDF). Chopin Foundation of the United States. Retrieved 2015.
  3. ^ Ståhlbrand, Robert (2006). "Chopin Etudes". Piano Society. Retrieved .
  4. ^ Tadeus, Zieli?ski A. (1993). Chopin ?ycie i droga twórcza (Chopin - His Life and Artistic Path) (in Polish). Kraków: Polskie Wydawnictwo Muzyczne (Polish Music Publishers). p. 238.
  5. ^ "The Chopin Etudes: An indispensable pedagogical tool for developing piano technique", D Mus thesis by Andreas Klein, Rice University, May 1989[page needed]

Further reading

  • Bülow, Hans von. "Remarks on the Separate Studies." In Auserlesene Klavier-Etüden von Fr. Chopin. München: Jos. Aibl, 1880.
  • Collet, Robert. "Studies, Preludes and Impromptus." In Frédéric Chopin: Profiles of the Man and the Musician. Ed. Alan Walker. London: Barrie & Rockliff, 1966.
  • Czerny, Carl. School of Practical Composition London: R. Cocks & Co., [1848]; Reprint, New York: Da Capo Press, 1979.
  • Deschaussées, Monique. Frédéric Chopin: 24 études - vers une interprétation. Fondettes: Van de Velde, 1995.
  • Eigeldinger, Jean-Jacques. Chopin: Pianist and Teacher as Seen by his Pupils. Cambridge University Press, 1986
  • Ekier, Jan, ed. (National Edition)."About the Etudes." "Performance Commentary." "Source Commentary." Chopin Etudes. Warsaw: Polskie Wydawnictwo Muzyczne, 1999.
  • Finlow, Simon. "The Twenty-seven Études and Their Antecedents." In Jim Samson (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Chopin. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992.
  • Galston, Gottfried. Studienbuch. III. Abend (Frédéric Chopin). Berlin: Bruno Cassirer, 1910.
  • Huneker, James. "The Studies--Titanic Experiments." In Chopin: The Man and His Music. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1900.
  • Kogosowski, Alan. "Mastering the Chopin Études." A compendium to Chopin: Genius of the Piano. E-Book, 2010.
  • Leichtentritt, Hugo. "Die Etüden." In Analyse der Chopin'schen Klavierwerke [Analysis of Chopin's Piano Works]. Band II. Berlin: Max Hesses Verlag, 1922.
  • Lear, Angela Chopin's Grande Etudes. February 5, 2007.
  • Leontsky, Jan: Interpreting Chopin. Etudes op. 10 & op. 25. Analysis, comments and interpretive choices. Tarnhelm editions.
  • Niecks, Frederick. Chopin as a Man and Musician. London: Novello, Ewer and Co., 1888.
  • Paderewski, Ignacy Jan, Ludwik Bronarski, Józef Turczynsky, ed. ("Paderewski" Edition). "The Character of the Present Edition." "Commentary." Chopin Studies (Etudes). Warsaw: Instytut Fryderyka Chopina, 1949.
  • Samson, Jim. "Baroque reflections." In The Music of Chopin. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1985.
  • Schumann, Robert. "Die Pianoforte-Etuden, ihren Zwecken nach geordnet" ["The Pianoforte Études, Categorized According to their Purposes"]. Neue Zeitschrift für Musik No. 11, February 6, 1836, p. 45.
  • Zimmermann, Ewald, ed. (Henle Edition). "Kritischer Bericht" (Critical Report). Chopin Etudes. München: G. Henle Verlag, 1983.

External links

Analysis and scores

Performances (video)


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