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See also: Ius, IUs, and -ius




  1. Romanization of


Alternative forms


Etymology 1

From Proto-Italic *jowos, from Proto-Indo-European *h?yew-, an extended form of the root *h?ey- (the source of aevum and iuvenis). Cognate with Sanskrit ? (yós).


i?s n (genitive i?ris); third declension

  1. law, right
    163 BCE, Publius Terentius Afer, Heauton Timorumenos :
    Ius summum saepe summa est malitia.
    Supreme law is often supreme malice.
  2. subjective right, individual right
  3. court of law

Third-declension noun (neuter, imparisyllabic non-i-stem).

Derived terms
  • Asturian: xuru
  • English: jury, jurisprudence
  • German: Jura, Jus
  • Galician: xuro
  • Italian: gius, giure

Etymology 2

From Proto-Indo-European *yows-, from *yew- ("to mix (of meal preparation)"). Cognate with Sanskrit (ya), Ancient Greek (z?mós), (z?míon), Proto-Germanic *justaz (whence Old Norse ostr), Proto-Slavic *juxa (whence Polish jucha, Russian (uxa)).


i?s n (genitive i?ris); third declension

  1. gravy
  2. broth, soup
  3. sauce
  4. juice

Third-declension noun (neuter, imparisyllabic non-i-stem).

Derived terms


  • ius in Charlton T. Lewis (1891) An Elementary Latin Dictionary, New York: Harper & Brothers
  • ius in Charles du Fresne du Cange's Glossarium Mediæ et Infimæ Latinitatis (augmented edition, 1883-1887)
  • ius in Gaffiot, Félix (1934) Dictionnaire illustré Latin-Français, Hachette
  • Carl Meissner; Henry William Auden (1894) Latin Phrase-Book[1], London: Macmillan and Co.
    • to have become independent, be no longer a minor: sui iuris factum esse
    • to teach some one letters: erudire aliquem artibus, litteris (but erudire aliquem in iure civili, in re militari)
    • to grant a people its independence: populum liberum esse, libertate uti, sui iuris esse pati
    • to administer justice (said of the praetor): ius dicere
    • to administer justice (said of the praetor): ius reddere (Liv. 3. 33)
    • to assert one's right: ius suum persequi
    • to obtain justice: ius suum adipisci (Liv. 1. 32. 10)
    • to maintain one's right: ius suum tenere, obtinere
    • to waive one's right: de iure suo decedere or cedere
    • to go to law with a person: (ex) iure, lege agere cum aliquo
    • to proceed against some one with the utmost rigour of the law; to strain the law in one's favour: summo iure agere cum aliquo (cf. summum ius, summa iniuria)
    • to summon some one before the court: in ius, in iudicium vocare aliquem
    • a sound judicial system: aequa iuris descriptio (Off. 2. 4. 15)
    • to live with some one on an equal footing: aequo iure vivere cum aliquo
    • to reduce law to a system: ius ad artem redigere
    • absence of justice: ius nullum
    • to trample all law under foot: ius ac fas omne delere
    • against all law, human and divine: contra ius fasque
    • with full right: optimo iure
    • prerogative, privilege: ius praecipuum, beneficium, donum, also immunitas c. Gen.
    • to violate the law of nations: ius gentium violare
    • quite rightly: et recte (iure, merito)
    • quite rightly: et recte (iure) quidem
    • quite rightly: recte, iure id quidem
    • with perfect right: meo (tuo, suo) iure
    • with perfect right: iusto iure
    • legitimately; with the fullest right: optimo iure (cf. summo iure, sect. XV. 1).
    • (ambiguous) to give the state a constitution: civitati leges, iudicia, iura describere
    • (ambiguous) anarchy reigns supreme: omnia divina humanaque iura permiscentur (B. C. 1. 6. 8)
    • (ambiguous) to trample all law under foot: omnia iura pervertere
  • ius in Harry Thurston Peck, editor (1898) Harper's Dictionary of Classical Antiquities, New York: Harper & Brothers
  • Pokorny, Julius (1959) Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch [Indo-European Etymological Dictionary] (in German), volume II, Bern, München: Francke Verlag, page 507

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