Appendix:Georgian Swadesh List
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Appendix:Georgian Swadesh List

This is a Swadesh list of words in Georgian, compared with that of English.


For further information, including the full final version of the list, read the resource article: Swadesh list.

American linguist Morris Swadesh believed that languages changed at measurable rates and that these could be determined even for languages without written precursors. Using vocabulary lists, he sought to understand not only change over time but also the relationships of extant languages. To be able to compare languages from different cultures, he based his lists on meanings he presumed would be available in as many cultures as possible. He then used the fraction of agreeing cognates between any two related languages to compute their divergence time by some (still debated) algorithms. Starting in 1950 with 165 meanings, his list grew to 215 in 1952, which was so expansive that many languages lacked native vocabulary for some terms. Subsequently, it was reduced to 207, and reduced much further to 100 meanings in 1955. A reformulated list was published posthumously in 1971.


edit (207)
1I (1sg) (me)
2you (2sg) (?en)
3he, she, it (3sg) (is)
4we (1pl)? (?ven)
5you (2pl) (tkven)
6they (3pl) (isini)
7this (es)
8that (is)
9here (ak)
10there (ik)
11who (vin)
12what (ra)
13where (sad)
14when (rodis )
15how (rogor )
16not (ar)
17all (q?velaperi)
18many (bevri)
19some (ramdenime)
20few? (co?a)
21other? (sxva)
22one? (erti)
23two (ori)
24three? (sami)
25four? (otxi)
26five? (xuti)
27big? (didi)
28long (gr?eli)
29wide (parto), ? (ganieri)
30thick (skeli)
31heavy (m?ime)
32small (?a?ara)
33short (mo?le)
34narrow (vic?ro)
35thin (txeli)
36woman? (kali)
37man (adult male)? (?aci)
38man (human being) (adamiani)
39child (bav?vi)
40wife? (coli)
41husband (kmari)
42mother? (deda)
43father? (mama)
44animal? (cxoveli)
45fish (tevzi)
46bird? (?i?i)
47dog (?a?li)
48louse? (?ili)
49snake (gveli)
50worm (ia)
51tree (xe)
52forest (?q?e)
53stick? (?oxi)
54fruit? (xili)
55seed (tesli)
56leaf (potoli)
57root (pesvi)
58bark (of a tree) (kerki)
59flower? (q?vavili)
60grass (balaxi)
61rope? (to?i)
62skin? (?ani)
63meat (xorci)
64blood (sisxli)
65bone (?vali)
66fat (noun)? (koni), (cximi)
67egg? (?vercxi)
68horn (rka)
69tail? (?udi)
70feather? (prta)
71hair (tma)
72head? (tavi)
73ear? (q?uri)
74eye (tvali)
75nose (cxviri)
76mouth? (?iri)
77tooth (?bili)
78tongue (organ) (ena)
79fingernail? (pr?xili)
80foot (?erpi)
81leg? (pexi)
82knee (muxli)
83hand? (xeli)
84wing? (prta)
85belly (muceli)
86guts? (nac?lavi)
87neck (?iseri)
88back (zurgi)
89breast (m?erdi)
90heart? (guli)
91liver (?vi?li)
92to drink (sma)
93to eat? (ama)
94to bite (?bena)
95to suck? (c?ova)
96to spit? (purtxva)
97to vomit (rc?q?eva)
98to blow (berva)
99to breathe? (suntkva)
100to laugh (sicili)
101to see (naxva)
102to hear (smena)
103to know (codna)
104to think (pikri)
105to smell (q?nosva)
106to fear? (?i?i)
107to sleep? (?ili)
108to live (cxovreba)
109to die (?vdeba)
110to kill? (?vla)
111to fight (br?ola)
112to hunt (nadiroba)
113to hit (r?q?ma)
114to cut (ra)
115to split? (m?vreva)
116to stab? (?ar?q?ma), (?acema)
117to scratch (pxana)
118to dig (barva)
119to swim (curva)
120to fly (prena)
121to walk? (siaruli)
122to come (mosvla)
123to lie (as in a bed)? (c?ola)
124to sit (?doma)
125to stand (adgoma), (dgoma)
126to turn (intransitive) (?riali)
127to fall (dacema)
128to give (micema)
129to hold? (era)
130to squeeze (dac?ola)
131to rub (c?menda)
132to wash (recxva)
133to wipe (c?menda)
134to pull (treva)
135to push? (bi?geba)
136to throw (gadagdeba)
137to tie? (?exveva)
138to sew (?erva)
139to count? (tvla)
140to say? (tkma)
141to sing (m?era)
142to play (tama?oba)
143to float (curva)
144to flow? (dena)
145to freeze? (gaq?inva)
146to swell (gadideba)
147sun (mze)
148moon (mtvare)
149star? (vars?vlavi)
150water (c?q?ali)
151rain (c?vima)
152river? (mdinare)
153lake (?ba)
154sea? (z?va)
155salt (marili)
156stone (kva)
157sand? (sila)
158dust (m?veri)
159earth? (mic?a)
160cloud? (?rubeli)
161fog (nisli)
162sky (ca)
163wind? (kari)
164snow (tovli)
165ice (q?inuli)
166smoke (?vamli)
167fire (cecxli), ? (xan?ari)
168ash (perpli)
169to burn (c?va)
170road (gza)
171mountain (mta)
172red (c?iteli)
173green (mc?vane)
174yellow? (q?viteli)
175white (tetri)
176black? (?avi)
177night? (?ame)
178day (d?e)
179year? (c?eli)
180warm (tbili)
181cold? (civi)
182full (savse)
183new (axali)
184old (?veli)
185good (?argi)
186bad? (cudi)
187rotten? (dam?ali), ? (gapuebuli)
188dirty (uq?iani)
189straight (?irda?iri)
190round? (mrgvali)
191sharp (as a knife) (basri), (mreli)
192dull (as a knife) (blagvi)
193smooth (gluvi)
194wet (sveli)
195dry (m?rali)
196correct (zus?i)
197near? (axlo)
198far? (?ori)
199right (mar?vena)
200left (marcxena)
201at- (-?i)
202in- (-?i)
203with- (-tan)
204and (da)
205if, (tu, rom)
206because (radgan)
207name (saxeli), (gvari)

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