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See also: , , and

Pali

Alternative forms

Pronoun

(yad)

  1. Devanagari script form of yad, which is neuter nominative/accusative singular of ? (ya, "which (relative)")

Sanskrit

Alternative forms

Etymology

From Proto-Indo-Aryan *Hyás, from Proto-Indo-Iranian *Hyás, from Proto-Indo-European *Hyós, *Hyéh?, *Hyód ("who, which"). Cognate with Ancient Greek (hós), ? (h?), ? (), Avestan (y?), Phrygian (ios /jos/), Old Church Slavonic (i?e), Lithuanian jis, ji.

Pronunciation

Pronoun

o (yád)

  1. who, which, what, whichever, whatever, that (RV. etc.)

Usage notes

Usually with correlatives (tad), (tyad), ? (etad), ? (idam), ? (adas), ? (tad etad), ? (etad tyad), (ida? tad), ? (tad idam), (t?da), ? (?da), (?d), (et?vad), by which it is oftener followed than preceded, or the correlative is dropped e.g.

yas tu n?*rabhate karma k?ipram bhavati nirdravya? - [he] indeed who does not begin work soon becomes poor (R.)

or the relative pronoun is dropped e.g.

andhakam bhart?ra? na tyajet s? mah?-sat? - she who does not desert a blind husband is a very faithful wife (Vet.)

yad is often repeated to express "whoever", "whatever", "whichever", e.g.

yo ya? - whatever man
y? y? - whatever woman
yo yaj jayati tasya tat - whatever he wins (in war) belongs to him (Mn. VII, 96)
yad yad vadati tad tad bhavati - whatever he says is true

or the two relatives may be separated by (hi), and are followed by the doubled or single correlative (tad) e.g.

upyate yad dhi yad b?jam tat tad eva prarohati - whatever seed is sown, that even comes forth (Mn. IX, 40)

Similar indefinite meanings are expressed by the relative joined with (tad) e.g.

yasmai tasmai - to any one whatever

especially in:

yadv? tadv? - anything whatever

or by (ya?) with ? (ka?ca), (ka?cana), ? (ka?cit), or (in later language, not in Manu) ko'pi e.g.

ya? ka?cit - whosoever
y?ni k?ni ca mitri - any friends whatsoever
yena ken?*py up?*yena - by any means whatsoever

yad is joined with (tvad) to express generalization e.g.

drs tvad ys tvad - either the dras or anybody else (?Br.)

or immediately followed by a personal pronoun on which it lays emphasis e.g.

yo 'ham - I that very person who
yas tva? katha? vettha - how do you know? (?Br.)

It is also used in the sense of "si quis" e.g.

striya? sped ya? - should any one touch a woman

yad is also used without the copula e.g.

andho ja?a? pha sarp? saptaty? sthavira?ca ya? - a blind man, an idiot, a cripple, and a man seventy years old (Mn. VIII, 394)

Sometimes there is a change of construction in such cases e.g ye ca m?nu for m?nu?-ca (Mn. X, 86).
The nominative singular neuter yad is then often used without regard to gender or number and may be translated by "as regards", "as for", e.g.

k?atra? v? etad vanaspat?n yan nyag-rodha? - as for the nyag-rodha, it is certainly the prince among trees (AitBr.)

or by "that is to say", "to wit" e.g.

tato dev? eta? vajra? dadur yad apa? - the gods then saw this thunderbolt, to wit, the water (?Br.)

yad as an adverbial conjunction generally means "that", especially after verbs of saying, thinking etc., often introducing an oratio directa with or without (iti); iti yad, at the end of a sentence = "thinking that", "under the impression that" e.g. Ratn?v. ii, 2÷8.
yad can also mean "so that", "in order that", "wherefore", "whence", "as", "in as much as", "since", "because" (the correlative being (tad), "therefore"), "when", "if" RV. etc.

ádha yád - even if, although (RV.)
yad api - id. (Megh.
yad u - evam - as - so (?vetUp.)
yad uta - that (B?lar.), that is to say, scilicet (K?ra., Divy?v.)
yat kila - that (Prasannar.)
yac ca - if, that is to say (Car.)
yac ca-yac ca - both - and (Divy?v.); that

According to P.. 3-3, 148 after expressions of "impossibility", "disbelief", "hope", "disregard", "reproach" and, "wonder":

yad v? - or else (often found in commentators), whether (K?v., R?jat.), however (B?lar.)
yad v? - yadi v? - if-or it (Bhag.)
yad bh?yas? - for the most part (Divy?v.)
yat satyam - certainly, indeed, of course (M?icch., Ratn?v.)
yan nu, with 1st person - what if I, let me (Divy?v.)

Declension

References


  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

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