Use of the title Encyclopædia Britannica is strictly to acknowledge the original title of this material, which has gone into the public domain due to the expiration of the copyright of this material. Any reference to this material should explicitly note the original date of publication (1911), the edition (11th), or both.
Articles from the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica are based upon the information available to the editors and contributors at the time of their original publication in the early 20th century. Changing circumstances and more recent research may have rendered this information obsolete or revealed it to be inaccurate, especially in the areas of science, law, and ethnography. In addition, lapses from neutrality of the contributors and editors and their political or social attitudes can introduce bias to the articles. Readers should bear this in mind when using the information.
These articles are transcribed from the originals by volunteers, sometimes directly and sometimes by correcting a preliminary OCR conversion. We strive for absolute accuracy, but the articles may suffer errors in transcription.