Lectures On Modern History/Index
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Lectures On Modern History/Index

INDEX


Act of Parliament--

Pacification, 171; Test, 212; the Second, 214; Habeas Corpus, 215; Succession, 256; Settlement, 264; Septennial, 270-71; Triennial, 270; Stamp, 309

Adams, John, 308

Addison, cited, 259

Aden, attack by Albuquerque, 57

Adrian VI., Pope, 38, 65, 103, 108, 137

Ægean, the, 36

Africa, early explorations, 53-4

Agnadello, battle of, 45

Ahlden, the prisoner of, 266-7

Ailly, Pierre d', 60

Albemarle, 251

Albigenses, 111, 113

Albuquerque--

Policy of, 57-8; death, 58; Commentaries, 59; work in the New World, 65

Aldobrandini. See Clement VIII., Pope

Aldus, 83

Aleander, the nuncio, 98, 140

Alençon--

Netherlands, 145; death, 146, 165

Alessandrina, Cardinal, 161

Alexander VI., Pope--

Alliance with Lewis XII., 40; partition of Naples, 41-2; death, 43; dispensation to Emmanuel of Portugal, 137

Alexander VII., Pope, 210

Alexis, son of Peter the Great, 283

Alhambra, the, 61

"All the Talents," 275

Almagro, conquests of, 69-70

Almanza, battle of, 260

Almeida, Viceroy, 56-8

Alsace, recovered by Lewis XIV., 240, 242

Altenburg, meeting of Miltitz and Luther, 94

Alva, Duke of--

Pius V. and, 122; persecutions in the Netherlands, 124, 145, 158-9, 161

Amadeus, Victor, 258

Amboise, persecutions at, 157

Amerbach. See Froben and Amerbach

America, Spanish--

Development of the Republics, 70; Jesuits in, 115

American Colonies, the--

Question of Taxation, 307-11; outbreak of the Revolution, 311-12; Declaration of Independence, 312; the Federal Constitution formed, 314

American War of Independence--

Causes, 305-11; chief events, 311-13

Anabaptists, the, 104, 105, 135; the German, 207

Andrewes, L., and James I., 197

Angelo, Michael, 47, 82 Angevins, the, 38

Anhalt, Calvinism in, 136

Anne Boleyn, 139-40

Anne, Empress of Russia, 291

Anne of Austria, 252

Anne of England--

Lewis XIV. and, 225; succession of, 256; and the Electress Sophia, 266

Anti-Trinitarianism, 134

Aquaviva, 116

Arabia, Selim's conquest, 36

Archimedes, 74

Aristotle, 74, 80

Arlington, Lord, 210, 212

Armada, the--

Flight of, 122; magnitude, 153

Arminians, 136, 174

Arnim, Wallenstein and, 190

Arundel, Earl of--

Dover Treaty, 213, 223; trial, 215

Asiento, the, 255, 263

Assisi, St. Francis of, 31

Assistance, Writs of, 307

Auger, 162

Augsburg--

Confession of, 102, 127, 129, 157; Diet of, 93, 94, 106-7, 123, 136; League of, 247; Peace of Religion, 127

Augustinians, the, 92, 114

Augustus, the Elector, the Strong, 266-7, 279

Aulic Council, the, 192

Aurispa, 75

Austria--

Religious policy, 9, 182; Counter-Reformation in, 123-4; the army raised by Wallenstein, 186; Hague Treaty concluded, 255; domination over Italy, 258; policy of Kaunitz, 293-4

Avaux, D', and James II., 229

Avrigny, D', Jesuit, 118


Bacon, Francis, 59, 196; impeachment, 199

Baer, method of, 21

Bajazet, rule of, 36

Balboa, discoverer of the Pacific, 69

Bâle, Council of, 90

Bank of England, 230

Baptists, 201

Barberini, Cardinal, See Urban VIII., Pope

Barberini, family of, 226

Barcelona, Treaty of, 40, 141

Barclay, retreat of, 298

Barillon, 7; cited, 223

Barnabites, 114

Barnevelt, Olden, death, 174

Baronius, Cardinal, 83, 121, 173

Barrier Fortresses, 254

Barros, cited, 59

Barrow, Isaac, 223

Bartolus, 72

Basilica of Constantine, 82

Bastille, the, 243

Battle, 153

Baumgarten, A., 161

Bavaria, Duke of, 184

Bavaria, Elector of, 259

Bavaria, Prince of, 250-51

Baxter, R., 209, 246

Bayard, defeated by Gonsalvo, 42

Baylet, 136; cited, 27

Bedloe, 213

Belgium, war of Spanish Succession in, Belgrade, 36

Bellarmin, R., in siege of Paris, 169; theories of, 178

Bellasis and the Dover Treaty, 213, 223

Belling, 213

Belvedere, the, 79

Benedict XIV., Pope, 92

Benedictines, the, 78, 101, 114, 209

"Benefizio," the, 110, 119

Bengal, 299

Bentham, 20

Bentinck and William III., 257

Berlin--

Jewish persecutions, 85; religion in, 285; Huguenots settle in, 286

Bernard, St., 98

Berne, 131

Bernstorff, Russian Chancellor, 294, 303

Berwick, Duke of--

and William of Orange, 222; invitation to govern Ireland, 229; and Harley, 263; rising of 1715, 269

Besançon, 244

Bessarion, 75, 84

Beust, minister, 296

Béziers, Council of, 112

Bibbiena, Comedies, 79

Bill--

Limitation, 214; second Exclusion, 214; of Rights, 231, 264; Peerage, 271; Excise, 272-3

Bishops, trial of the Seven, 224

Bismarck, 199

"Black Box," the, 215, 218

Black Hole, the, 295

Blenheim, battle of, 259, 260

Blondel, 78

Blucher, 185

Boccaccio, 72

Bohemia--

Hussitism in, 128; the Majestätsbrief, 182, 183; religious toleration, 182; revolt against Ferdinand, 183-5; the League formed, 184; the Union formed, 184; flight of the Elector, 185

Bolingbroke--

Policy, 262, 263; on government by Party, 268; disgrace of, 270; and the slave trade, 274; formation of the "King's Friends," 275

Bollandists, 78

Bologna, Concordat of, 47

Bombay, Albuquerque and, 57

Bonaparte, Napoleon, 298-9; partition of Poland, 302

Bond of Craigmillar, the, 147

Bonnet, Parliamentary reports, 276

Bordier, cited, 161

Borghese family, 173, 226

Borgia, Cæsar--

Lewis XII. and, 40-41; character, 42-3; Julius II. and, 43-5

Borromeo, St. Charles, 122

Bosnia, Turkish invasion, 35

Bossuet, 111, 179, 221, 245, 247

Boston--

Legality of customs-house action, 307-8; siege of, 312

Bothwell, Earl of, 147-51

Bourbon and Francis I., 47, 49

Boyne, Battle of the, 230

Brabant, question of succession, 236-7

Braddock, expedition against Duquesne, 293

Bramante, 47; Julius II. and, 82

Bramball, Abp., 223

Brandenburg, religious toleration in, 286; House of, becomes Calvinist, 136, 181, 286

Brandenburg, the Elector of--

Alliance with Gustavus, 188; and Lewis XIV., 242

Braunau, 182

Breda, Declaration of, 208

Breitenfeld, battle of, 188

Breslau, battle of, 297

Bried's Hill. See Bunker Hill

Brig of Almond, 148

Brihuega, battle of, 260

Broglie, Duc de, 27

Brooke, Lord, cited, 201

Brougham, Lord, 20

Browne, Robert, 200

Browne, Sir Thomas, cited, 28

Brühl, Saxon minister, 296

Bucer, at Diet of Worms, 99

Buchanan, George, 196

Bucholtz, 15

Bull, vindication of the early fathers, 223

Bunker Hill, battle of, 312

Burgoyne, General, surrender at Saratoga, 312-13

Burke, Edmund, 59, 306; cited, 28, 231; writings of, 217; speeches, 276

Burnet, 15, 271; cited, 216

Burton, 150

Bute, Earl of, Prussian policy, 300

Butler, Colonel, 193

Butler, Jesuit, 116


Cabbala, the, 84

Cabinet, the, 264-5

Cabral, commands force in India, 55, 59

Cadogan, leads the Dutch auxiliaries, 269

Cætani, Cardinal, 169

Cajetan, Cardinal--

Cited, 49; and Luther, 93-4; and the indulgences, 97; and Miltitz, 109

Calcutta, capture of, 295

Calendar, reformation of the, 84, 121, 162

Calicut, 55, 56

Calixtus III., Pope, 79

Calvin, John--

In Geneva, 131-2; the Institute composed, 131; and Servetus, 134-5; influence of, 136; attitude towards Catholics, 146; theory of revolution, 196

Calvinism. (See also Protestantism and Lutheranism)--

In France, 155 et seq.; in Germany, 181; coalition between Lutherans and Calvinists in Prague, 184; results of the Thirty Years' War, 194; in Prussia, 286

Cambray, League of, 46

Camden, American speeches, 217

Campana, Mme., 15

Campbell of Glenlyon, 228-9

Campeggio, Cardinal, 106, 108; and the divorce, 139-40

Canada, conquest, 299; loyalty during American War, 312

Capito, 134

Capo d'Istria, Bishop of, 110

Capuchins, the, 110 114, 123

Caraffa, Bishop of Chieti. See Paul IV., Pope

Carberry Hill, 148

Carlos, Don, 146

Carlstadt, Andreas R.--

Dispute with John Eck, 96; teachings of, 104; dispute with Luther, 105

Carlyle, 11, 289

Carvajal, Cardinal, 108

Casa, Della, and the Index, 120

Casale, French occupation, 242-3

Casas, Las, 53, 67, 68

Casaubon, cited, 170; and James I., 197

Casket Letters, the, 149-52

Castellio, 136

Castlemaine, Lord, 227

Casuists, the, 226

Catesby, 197

Catharine of Aragon, opposition to Wolsey, 137-8; the divorce, 137-41

Catharine of Medici--

Regency, 157 et seq.; and Coligny, 159-61; massacre of St. Bartholomew, 159-62; death of, 167

Catharine of Russia, 284-5; peace with Frederic, 300; Polish policy, 301-2

Catharine, wife of Peter the Great, 283

Catholic Peers, trial of, 215

Catholic Reformation. See Counter-Reformation, the

Catholics--

Measures at Diet of Spires, 106; results of the Thirty Years' War on, 194; under James I., 197-8; under Charles I., 210; under James II., 220-21; promises of William of Orange, 225-6; in Prussia, 286

Cato, 25

Caussin, Jesuit, 116, 178

Cavendish, report of Parliamentary debates, 276

Celibacy of the clergy, 90

Celle, Duke of, 266

Cervera, 153

Cervina, elevation to the Papacy, 121-2

Cesarini, Cardinal, 90

Chaise, Père La, 214

Champel, 135

Charlemagne, 82

Charles, Archduke of Austria, 186, 252, 260, 262

Charles I. of England--

Policy, 201-2; execution, 202, the Civil War, 203

Charles I. of Spain. (See also Charles V.)--

Election, 47; sack of Rome, 48-9; enthroned as Emperor Charles V., 50

Charles II. of England--

Reaction under, 204-6; Restoration, 204, 207; conditions for return, 207; Treaty of Dover, 210-15; Declaration of Indulgence, 212; Test Act, 212; Writs of Assistance, 307

Charles II. of Spain--

Accession of, 236; death, 252-3; will of, 253

Charles V., Emperor--

Slave trade under, 67-8; at Diet of Worms, 99-101; at Diet of Augsburg, 106-7; and the Index, 120; attitude towards German Reformation, 126-9; and the Peace of Religion, 128-9, abdication of, 129; flight before Maurice, 136; invasion of Rome, 138; peace with the Pope, 140; and the English divorce, 141

Charles VI., Emperor, protects Alexis, 283; policy, 290; death, 291

Charles VIII. of France--

Conquest of Naples, 38-9; Treaty of Barcelona, 39-40; death of, 40

Charles IX. of France--

Minority of, 157 et seq.; treaty with Elizabeth, 158; massacre of St. Bartholomew, 159-63; murder of Coligny, 159-60

Charles XII. of Sweden, 280, 281

Charlottenburg, 300

Chatham, Earl of--

American speeches, 217; "King's Friends," 275; resignation, 276; continental policy, 295-6; alliance with Frederic II., 299-300; sympathy with the Colonists, 309; death, 313

Chatillon, Duke of, 160

Chieregato, Bishop, Memoirs, 108

Chigi, family of, 226

China, early Indian trade, 55; Jesuits in, 115

Christian IV. of Denmark, 185-6

Chrysoloras, 75

Chuquet, Wars of the Revolution, 18

Church and State, separation, 91, 107

Church of England, John Robinson and, 206

Cicero, 72

Civil war in England, division of the country, 203; results, 205

Clarendon, Lord, 163; policy, 209

Clausewitz, 298

Clément, Jacques, assassinates Henry III., 167

Clement, St., 78

Clement VI., Pope, 93

Clement VII., Pope--

Imprisonment and sack of Rome, 48-9, 107, 139, 142; and the Reformation, 109; and the Jews, 112; and the divorce question, 139-40

Clement VIII., Pope, 197

Clement XI., Pope, 253

Cleveland, Duchess of, 227

Coburg, Castle of, 106

Cochin, 56

Cochlæus, 105

Coimbra, 247

Coire, Provost of, cited, 106

Coke, Sir Edward, 199

Colbert, Jean Baptiste, 12, 234, 239, 244

Coleman, Secretary to Duchess of York, 213, 246

Coligny, Admiral, policy of, 158; murder of, 159-60

Cologne, Abp. of, 181

Cologne, Jewish persecutions, 85

Columbus, Christopher, 3-4, 60-64

Commonwealth, results of the, 205

Commynes, 19, 195

Compagni, Dino, 16

Comte, 11, 22

Concini and Mary of Medici, 175

Conclave, establishment of the, 50

Concordat of Bologna, 47

Condé, victories of, 259

Congregationalists--

Rise of the, 171, 199; political consequences of movement, 200; Petition of 1616, principles, 206

Congress of the States, 312

Congress of Vienna, 302

Connecticut, 199; government of, 311

Conscience, liberty of, 31-4

Constance, Council of, 75, 100

Constantine, Basilica of, 82

Constantine, Donation of, 77, 80, 102

Constantinople, fall of, 34, 75, 83; centre for Greek learning, 75

Contarini, Paul III. and, 109; at Ratisbon, 110, 132

Convention at Westminster, 294

Convention Parliament, the, 208

Coornhert, 136

Copernicus, 4

Corn Laws, 230

Cornwallis, Lord, surrender at Yorktown, 313

Cortese and Paul III., 109; and the Reformation, 110

Cortez, exploits of, 50, 64; conquest of Mexico, 68-9

Cottington, 202

Coulanges, Fustel de, cited, 12

Council--

Pisa, 46; Lateran, 46, 98, 108; Constance, 75, 100; Florence, 75, 77; Bâle, 90; Béziers, 112; Narbonne, 112; Toledo, 112; Toulouse, 112; Ratisbon, 118; Aulic, 192; Trent. See Trent, Council of

Councils, promulgation of, 118

Counter-Reformation, 183

Cowper, Lord, on government by party, 268

Craigmillar, Bond of, 147

Crawford, Darnley's officer, 151

Cromwell, Oliver--

Character and policy, 203; the Civil War, 203; failure of the Rebellion, 204-5

Cromwell, Thomas, 142

Crotus, Epistoloe Obscurorum Virorum,

Crusades, 24-5

Cuba, Columbus and, 63

Cullen, 20

Cumberland, Duke of--

Defence of Hanover, 295; beaten by the French, 297

Cuvier, 22

Cyril, St., 78


Dalgleish and the Casket Letters, 150-51

Dampier, voyage of, 66

Danes destroy Wallenstein's fleet, 187

Dangerfield, 213

Dante, 72, 76, 95

Darnley, Lord, marriage to Mary Stewart, 147

Dartmouth, the, 311

Darwin, method of, 21

Daun defeats Frederic II., 297

Debates, Parliamentary, made public, 276

Declaration of Breda, 208

Declaration of Independence, 199, 312

Declaration of Indulgence, 212; Bishops' protest, 224

Decree of Worms, 48

Defoe, 23

Delcano, lieutenant to Magellan, 66

Denain, 262

Derby, Earl of, 202

Derwentwater, Earl of, 270

Deseado, Cape, 66

Devereux, Captain, 193

Deza, Archbishop of Seville, 62

Diaz, Bartholomew, voyage of, 54

Dionysius the Areopagite, 77

Divine Right, Luther and, 104

Dohna, Count, 225

Dominica, Rodney's success, 314

Dominicans, 112, 114 in the New World, 67; plaintiffs against Reuchlin, 86; and the indulgences, 92

Doria, change of sides, 49

Dort, Synod of, 174

Dover, Treaty of, 210-15

Drake, 58, 66, 146, 153

Dresden, seized by Frederick II., 296

Dunkirk, 153

Duperron, influence on Henry IV., 170

Duquesne and Washington, 293

Duranti, Memoirs, 162

Dykvelt, 225


Eck, John, 105; dispute with Luther, 96-7

Economists, the, 21

Edict of Nantes, 171; revocation of, 244-7

Edict of Restitution, 187

Edict, the Perpetual, 237; repealed, 241

Eger, Castle of, 193

Egidius, Cardinal, 108

Egmont, Count, in the Netherlands, 145

Elizabeth of England--

Deposed by Pius V., 122; and claim of Mary Stewart, 146; detention and death of Mary Stewart, 151-3; Armada, 153; proposes terms to Philip, 154; and Charles IX., 160; claim to English throne, 197

Elizabeth of Russia, 300

Elizabeth Stuart, Princess Palatine, 184, 265

Elliot, success at Gibraltar, 314

Emanuel, Philibert, 49

Emmanuel of Portugal, 53, 54, 65,81, 137

England--

Tudor, 37; relations with Rome during divorce question, 137-43; break with Rome, 141; suppression of the Orders, 142; external policy after Elizabeth, 195; civil war of Charles I., 203; attempt at absolute monarchy, 205; Triple Alliance, 210, 238; policy under Charles II., 241; Partition Treaty, 254; policy in Succession War, 260; commercial interest in Succession War, 262, 263; South American trade, 274; Seven Years' War, 292 et seq.; alliance with Frederick the Great, 295 et seq.; expansion under Pitt, 299; European combination against, 313

England, New. See New England

Epirus, 35

Erasmus--

At Rome, 80; New Testament and the Fathers, 83; the letters to Ortwin Gratius, 86; character, 86-7; translations of, 87-8; later years, 88-9; and Luther, 97, 100; "Bible only," 98; summons to Rome, 103; and freewill, 105; and Paul III., 109; and Henry VIII., 138

Estaing, D', 313

Esthonia, retention by Peter the Great, 281

Estrées, D', beats D. of Cumberland, 295

Eugene, Prince, 186, 287--

Attempt on Milan, 258; joins Marlborough, 259; successes of, 260; at the Hague, 261; deserted by Ormonde, 262

Eugenius IV., Pope, 77, 90

Europe, improved state following Seven Years' War, 302-4

Excise Bill, the, 272-3

Exclusion Bill, the, 26; the second, 214


Fabricius, Bohemian Secretary, 183

Fairfax, Lord, 207

Faraday, M., 21

Farnese, Cardinal. (See also Paul III., Pope), 118

Farnese, Duke of Parma, in the Netherlands, 49, 145, 153, 154, 166; death, 168

Faure, Jesuit, cited, 116-7

Fawkes, Guy, 198

Fénelon, 5-6, 269

Ferdinand of Aragon--

Marriage with Isabella, 37; Treaty of Barcelona, 39-40; partition of Naples, 41-2; death, 47

Ferdinand of Brunswick, 295, 296

Ferdinand II.--

Succession, 183; policy, 128, 192; appeal to Germany, 184; the League and, 186; commissions Wallenstein, 186; issues Edict of Restitution, 187; rupture with Wallenstein, 187-8; subsequent relations with Wallenstein, 189-93

Ferrara, Duchess of, 42

Feuillade, Marshal La, 262

Ficino, cited, 80

Filelfo, 75; writings of, 80

Finland, 281

Firmian, 303

Firth, Lives, 203

Fisher, Bishop, 105; and the Royal Supremacy, 141

Flaminio, "Benefit of the Death of Christ," 110, 119

Flanders, French designs on, 158-9; Turenne overruns, 237-8

Fleury, policy, 290

Florence--

Conquest by Charles VIII., 38-9; Cæsar Borgia and, 43; Council of, 75, 77

Fonseca, D.--

Envoy of Ferdinand, 40; protects Magellan, 65; Cortez and, 68

Fontenoy, 267

Forbes, report of Calicut, 56

Formosus, 82

Fornovo, battle of, 40

Fort Duquesne, 293

Fortescue, 195

Foscari, Doge, 45

France--

Policy of expansion, 37-8; League of Cambray, 45-6; Calvinism in, 155 et seq.; settlement of religious frontiers, 155; religious wars in, 157-8; designs on Flanders, 158-9; massacre of St. Bartholomew, 159-63; Treaty of Vervins, 170; siege of Rochelle, 177; results of Richelieu's rule, 179; Peace of the Pyrenees,
233; treaties of Nimeguen, 240-42; fleet destroyed at Vigo, 260; war of Spanish Succession. See Spanish Succession, war of; gains by, 262; Seven Years' War, 292 et seq.; triumphs over Frederick II., 297

Franche Comté, annexed by Lewis XIV., 240, 242; restored, 239

Francis I.--

Concordat of Bologna, 47; sack of Rome, 47-9; captivity of, 137; religious persecutions, 155

Francis II., 157

Franciscans, 114, 209

Frederic of Naples, 41-2

Frederic of Saxony, protector of Luther, 47, 94

Frederic, the Elector Palatine--

The Winter King, 184-5; outlawed, 185

Frederic II. of Prussia--

Personality, 290, 303-4; battle of Molwitz, 291-2; treaty with France, 292; Convention at Westminster concluded, 294; expansive policy, 294; alliance with England, 295 et seq.; siege of Dresden and battle of Prague, 296; defeats in 1757 and 1759, 297; military genius, 297-8; subsequent victories, 297; alliance with Pitt, 299-300; Bute's policy, 300; peace with Catharine, 300; partition of Poland, 302

Frederic William I., policy, 287-8; founding of the army, 288-9

Frederic William, Prince, 265

Free Trade, Walpole and, 274

Fréret, 14

Friars, Grey and Black, 142

Friedlingen, battle of, 262

Froben and Amerbach, 83, 87, 88

Froude, 11, 150; cited, 27

Fugger of Augsburg, 92

Furstenburg, Bishop of Strasburg, 242


Galican Church in France, 96, 155, 157, 164, 169, 173, 178, 226, 245, 246

Gama, Vasco da, 53, 54, 56

Gardiner, Bishop, 142

Gardiner, S. R., historian, 203

Gattinara, Spanish Chancellor, 98; at Diet of Worms, 99

General Warrants, question of, 308

Geneva--

Calvin in, 131-2; position of, 131; revision of the Constitution, 132-4; execution of Servetus, 135

Genlis, relief of Mons, 159

George I.--

Relations with the Government, 264-5; character, 265-7; policy, 267 et seq.; rising of 1715, 269-70; letter to Philip V., 273

George II.--

Attitude towards his father, 267; policy, 271; Writs of Assistance, 307

George III., 68

Germany--

Invention of printing, 83; Renaissance in, 83-4; Counter-Reformation in, 123; Reformation in, 126-9; Lutheranism in, 129, 130; Calvinism in, 136, 181; Catholic element in, 181

Gerson, 96

Gibbon, 14, 20

Giberti, Cardinal, the Datario, 48; admiration for Wolsey, 138

Gibraltar, conquest of, 260, 262; proposed restitution, 273; Elliot's success, 314

Giovio, Paolo, cited, 83

Glapion, at Diet of Worms, 99, 100

Glencoe, Massacre of, 228-9

Gnostics, 111

Goa, Albuquerque's capital, 57; Inquisition introduced, 59

Godfrey, Sir Edmondbury, murder of, 213-4

Godwin, Independent, 206

Gonsalvo, the "Great Captain," 40; defeats Bayard, 42

Gonzaga, Ferrante, 49

Good Hope, Cape of, 54

Gordon, employed by Peter the Great, 280; crushes rebellion of the Strelitz, 281

Grammont, Cardinal, 138

Granada, fall of, 37, 61, 62

Granby, Marquis of, at Warburg, 295-6

Grand Alliance, the, 247, 248, 257

Grandval, assassin, 222, 243

Grasse, Admiral De, 313

Gratius, Ortwin, letters to, 86

Gravelines, the Armada at, 153

Greek--

Testament, printing of, 88; first translations, 103

Green, Berry, and Hill, 214

Gregory VII., Pope, 31; celibacy imposed, 90

Gregory XIII., reform of the Calendar, 162; and the League, 165

Gregory Nazianzen, 85

Gretser of Ingolstadt, 116

Gropper of Cologne, 132

Grote, 2

Grotius, escape of, 174

Guarino studies Greek, 75

Guelph, House of, 265

Gueux, the, 145

Guicciardini, 81

Guiscard stabs Harley, 262

Guise, Duke of, 147--

Massacre of Vassy, 157; Massacre of St. Bartholomew, 159-60; and the League, 165-6; death of, 167

Guizot, cited, 161; Richard Cromwell, 207; policy, 272

Gustavus of Sweden--

Defeats imperialists at Breitenfeld, 188; policy, 189; struggle with Wallenstein, 190-91; conquests, 279; lost by Charles XII., 281


Habeas Corpus Act, 215; recalled, 220

Habsburgs, the--

Temporal power favoured by, 50; Henry IV. and, 174, 179; religious toleration under, 181-3; policy, 182-3, 187, 188; Richelieu and, 193; William of Orange and, 225, 226

Hague, the--

Death of De Witt, 239; treaty of, 255-6; negotiations between Louis XIV. and the Allies, 260-61

Halifax, Lord--

Policy, 26-7; and the Limitation Bill, 214; toleration of the Catholics, 221

Hallam, H., 7

Hampden, J., 289

Hanover, defence of, 295

Hanoverian Settlement, the, 264-76

Hansard, Parliamentary reports, 276

Harley, Robert, 262-3

Harrach, the ambassador, 251

Harrington, liberalism of, 204, 205

Hatfield Letters, the, 151-2

Hebrew, study of, in Renaissance, 85-6

Heidelberg Library, the, sent to Rome, 185

Heights of Abraham, 293

Heinsius, 257; with Marlborough, 259; at the Hague, 261

Hellespont, the, 36

Helmstädt University, 246

Helvetius, cited, 115

Henry II. of France, 156

Henry III. of France, question of succession, 165; policy and death of, 166-7

Henry IV. of France, 49-50--

Marriage to Margaret of Valois, 158-9; succession of, 165, 167; becomes a Catholic, 169-70; religious toleration under, 170-71; Edict of Nantes, 171; recall of the Jesuits, 172; conciliatory policy, 172-3; mediator between Rome and Venice, 174; protectorate over Netherlands, 174; his grand design, 174-5; assassinated, 175; designs on Bohemia, 184

Henry VIII. of England, Luther's advice to, 105; the divorce question, 137-42

Henry of Anjou, elected King of Poland, 161

Henry of Ghent, 75

Henry of Portugal (the Navigator), 52-3

Henry, Patrick, and the Stamp Duty, 309

Herbert, Admiral, invitation to William of Orange, 224

Hermitage, the, 15

Hesse Cassel, 312

Hippocrates, 74

History--

Relation to religion, 12; to philosophy, 22; theories regarding, 24-8: contemporary, studied in France, 2; priority of ecclesiastical over civil, 3; international, 6; modern, unity of, 1-2; delimitation of, 3, 34; necessity for study of, 8; characteristics of, 11; compared with medieval, 31

Hobbes, 205, 209, 216, 245

Hochkirch, battle of, 297

Hochstraten, inquisitor, 85

Hoffmann, Parliamentary reports, 276

Hogue, La, battle of, 230, 248

Hohenzollerns, the, 181

Holden, 247

Holland--

Acquisitions in India, 59; the Revolution, 124, 145, 154, 158; policy of Ferdinand, 128; Inquisition under Charles V. and Philip II., 144-5; the Water Beggars, 158; protectorate of Henry IV., 174; Dutch War of 1672, 211; France's claims for Maria Theresa, 236-7; Triple Alliance with England and Sweden, 238; Hague Treaty, 255; results from Spanish Succession War, 262

Holy Office, the, 112, 113, 119

Holy Roman Empire, dissolution, 288

Holy Synod, the, established in Russia, 284

Holyrood, 146, 147

Homer, 76

Hooker, 19

Horn, Cape, discovery, 66

Hort, Professor, 17

Hradschin, the, 183

Hudson Bay Territory, acquisition, 263

Huguenots--

Tenets, 77; persecution, 147; defeat at Jarnac and Moncontour, 158; Massacre of St. Bartholomew, 159-60; under Lewis XIII., 177; under Richelieu, 179; suppressed in France, 223; settlement in Berlin, 286

Humanists, the, 72, 75-7, 79, 85, 86, 100, 105

Hungary--

Battle of Mohacs, 36; Calvinism in, 136

Hunter, John, 21

Hunyadi, John, 35

Hus, John, 96, 100, 103

Hussitism, 182

Hutten, Ulrich von, 77, 86, 99, 102


Imperialists, the--

Invasion of Rome, 138-9; defeat at Breitenfeld, 188; victory at Nördlingen, 193; French defeated by, 240

Independence, Declaration of, 199

Independents. See Congregationalists

Index, the--

Erasmus on, 88; the prohibited books, 119-21; Tridentine, 120; the first Roman, 120

India--

Portuguese acquisitions, 53 et seq.; da Gama's voyage, 54-5

Indulgence, Declaration of, 212

Indulgences--

Abuse of, 91; Luther's protest, 97-8

Ingolstadt, fortress of, 189; university, 96

Ingria, retention by Peter the Great, 281

Innocent XI., Pope (Odescalchi), 226-7

Innocent XII., Pope, 253

Inquisition, the--

Introduced into Portugal, 59; the Spanish upheld by Charles V., 101; introduction urged by Caraffa, 110-11; objects of the, 111-13; Rome and the, 112-13; the Spanish, 112; the Official, 113; in the Netherlands, 144-5; in France, 156; extinction of the Roman, 178

International Law in relation to Asiatics, 59

Ireland, Jacobite Schemes, 229-30

Ironsides, the, organisation and discipline, 203

Isabella, d. of Philip of Spain, 166

Isabella of Castile--

Marriage to Ferdinand, 37; and Columbus, 61; and the New World slaves, 67

Isernia, Bishop of, "Bible only," 98

Italy, decline as a political power, 50

Ivry, 185


Jacobite Rising of 1715, 269-70

James, Duke of York. {See also James II.)--

Sails for the Guinea Coast, 210; becomes a Roman Catholic, 212; Test Act and, 212; schemes for exclusion, 212-15

James Stuart, lands at Aberdeen, 269

James I. of England--

Policy, 195-99; beginnings of Colonial Empire, 199

James II. of England--

Innocent XI. and, 226; succession of, 218; policy, 219-22; and the Abbé de Rancé, 221-2; loss of the Crown, 222 et seq.; dispensing power assumed, 223; trial of the Bishops, 224; Irish schemes, 229-30; and the Nonjurors, 230; death, 256

Janissaries, the, 35

Jansenists, 178, 223, 244, 245

Jarnac, Huguenot defeat, 158

Jefferson, draws up Declaration of Indulgence, 312

Jeffreys, Judge, 220; and the Whigs, 220; and James II., 224

Jerome of Prague, 103

Jesuits, the--

Society founded by St. Ignatius, 114 sqq.; as revolutionists, 117-8; in France, 117, 178; and the Counter-Reformation, 123; recall by Henry IV., 172; Innocent XI. and, 226; protected by Frederic II., 304

Jews, the--

Expelled from Spain, 61-2; persecutions in Spain, 85, 112; in France, 111; decree of Peter the Great, 283

John, Prester, 53, 57

Johnson, Dr., and Parliamentary debates, 276

Johnston, retreat before Sherman, 298

Jones, Sir William, tracts, 217

Joseph, Emperor, death, 261

Juan, Don, 145

Julius II., Pope, 38--

Venetian schemes, 44-6; summons Lateran Council, 46; Roman schemes, 46-7; patron of Renascent Art, 81-2; St. Peter's, 82; Indulgence of, 91; the dispensation to Henry VII., 137, 139

Justification by faith--

Brought forward at Ratisbon Conference, 110; Lutheran, 132


Kaunitz, policy of, 292-4, 302

Keller, Jesuit, cited, 118

Kempis, St. Thomas à, Imitation, 83

Kendal, Duchess of, 266, 272

Keppel, 257

Kerr, and James's Declaration, 230

"King's Friends," the, 275

Kinsky, Countess, 193

Kirk-o'-Field, 147

Klostergrab, Protestant Church built at, 182

Knights of St. John, 36

Knox, John, 146, 196

Kollin, battle of, 297

Konias, and burning of books, 121

Königsmarck, Aurora von, 266-7

Königsmarck, Count, 266-7

Kunersdorf, battle of, 297


La Ferrière, correspondence of Catharine de Medici, 162

La Trappe, abbey of, 221

Ladislas, King of Hungary, 36

Ladrones, discovery of the, 66

Lagos, 299

Lambert and the Restoration, 207

Landen, battle of, 222, 230

Lanfrey, Carnot, 18

Langside, battle of, 149

Languet, Hubert, 164

Lateran Council, the, 46, 98, 108

Laud, Archbishop--

Influence on Charles I., 201; cited, 202

Launoy, 78

Lautrec, commands force in Italy, 139, 140

Lauzun, French adviser of James II., 229

League of Augsburg, 247

League of Cambray, 46

League of Schmalkalden, 107

League, the--

Origin, 165, 184; objects, 166; dissolution, 168; supports Ferdinand II., 184-6; Tilly and, 186; Wallenstein's policy, 187-8

Lee, Archbishop, denounces Erasmus, 88

Lefort, the Genevese, employed by Peter the Great, 280

Leibniz, policy of, 14, 265, 267-8, 284

Leicester, Earl of, in the Netherlands, 146

Leighton and the Dover Treaty, 213

Leighton, Archbishop--

Appointed to Glasgow, 209; religious policy, 223, 246

Leipzig--

Disputation of, 97; captured by Tilly, 188

Leo X., Pope--

Concordat of Bologna, 47; policy, 47; Erasmus and, 88; question of indulgences, 91-3, 95; Luther and, 95, 101; Adrian VI. and, 103

Leopold of Austria--

Supports William of Orange, 225; heir to Philip IV., 238, 249; Turkish war, 243

Leopold of Tuscany, 304

Lepanto, battle of, 36, 153

Lesley, Scottish officer, 193

Leuthen, battle of, 9, 297

Lewis XII.--

Conquest of Milan, 40-41; relations with Cæsar Borgia, 40-41; partition of Naples, 41-2; League of Cambray, 45-6; Wolsey's policy, 138

Lewis XIII., assassination of Concini, 175

Lewis XIV.--

Treaty of Dover, 210-15, 239; relations with James II., 220; suppression of Protestantism, 221, 223, 246; relations with William of Orange, 222, 254-5; designs regarding the Princess Anne, 225; Irish designs, 229-30; character and policy, 234-5, 240-41, 249; marriage, 235-6; employs the right of Devolution, 237; Pomponne dismissed, 241-2; designs on Strasburg, 242; internal state of France under, 244; marries Mme. de Maintenon, 244; revocation of Edict of Nantes, 245-7; ravages the Palatinate, 247; first Partition Treaty, 250; the second, 252; and the will of Charles II., 253; policy on death of James II., 256; the Hague negotiations, 260-61; further policy and death, 269

Lewis XV., agreement with Austria, 293

Lewis XVIII., 199

Lexington, 312

Liberty of conscience, 206, 207; Congregationalists fight for, 201

Liebig, Organic Chemistry, 20

Liegnitz, Frederic II. at, 299

Lightfoot, Bishop, 17

Lilburne, 205

Lille, 239, 244, 260, 262

Limerick, "City of the Broken Treaty," 230

Limitation Bill, the, 214

Lingard, 7

Linnæus, 20

Lionne, 234; influence over Lewis XIV., 239

Lisbon, port of, 58

Lisola, Austrian statesman, 243

Livonia, retention by Peter the Great, 281

Livy, 110

Loaysa, Cardinal, 106

Locke, John, 136; principles, 217

Lollardry, 137

Lombard, Peter, 74

Lorraine, surrendered to France, 126

Lorraine, Cardinal, 147--

Head of Gallicans, 119; character, 157; death, 167

Lorraine, Duke of, 243

Louvain University, 120

Louvois, cited, 229; influence over Lewis XIV., 239; policy, 243-4

Loyola, Ignatius, 114 sqq,

Ludovisi, family of, 226

Luther, Martin--

Beginnings of the Reformation, 47; the letters to Ortwin Gratius, 86; question of the indulgences, 92-8, meeting with Miltitz, 94-5; and the Councils, 96-7; and Elector of Saxony, 97; excommunication of, 97; Reformation Tracts, 98; at the Diet of Worms, 98-101; and Erasmus, 100; outlawed by Charles V., 101; and Melanchthon, 101-2; stay at the Wartburg, 102; translation of the Bible, 102-3; Conservatism of, 104-5; passion for authority, 105; character, 129-30; and divine right, 196

Lutheranism. (See also Calvinism and Protestantism)--

Repression of, 123-4; characteristics, 130, 136; in France, 155; in Prussia, 286

Lützen, battle of, 192

Luxemburg, becomes French, 243, 244

Luynes, favourite of Lewis XIII., 175

Lyons, Calvinism in, 156


Macaulay, Lord, 12, 15; cited, 27, 110, 231, 275

Macdonalds, massacre of the, 228-9

Machiavelli, 45, 50-51, 81, 95, 120, 142, 172, 196

Madrid, Treaty of, 48

Magdeburg, siege of, 188-9

Magellan, voyage of, 50, 65-6; acquisition of the Philippines, 66

Mahomet, seizes Otranto, 35

Maimonides, Jews forbidden to read, 86

Maintenon, Mme. de, 244

Maitland, advises Mary regarding Darnley, 147

Malacca, fall of, 57, 65

Malindi, 54

Malplaquet, battle of, 260, 261

Malta, Turkish repulse, 36

Manichees, 111

Mansfeld, account of, 186-7

Marchiali, mystery of, 243

Margaret of Valois, marriage with Henry IV., 158-9

Maria Theresa, empress, 291-2

Maria Theresa, wife of Lewis XIV., 235-6; renunciation of estates, 237-8

Mariana and the Jesuits, 116; cited, 167; teachings of, 169

Maria Mancini, Lewis XIV. and, 235

Marignano, battle of, 47

Marlborough, Duchess of, 261

Marlborough, Duke of--

Personality, 257-8; campaign of, 259 et seq.; at the Hague, 261; dismissed by the Tories, 261

Marmont and Napoleon, 298-9

Martin of Connemara, 222

Martinitz, Bohemian minister, 183

Mary of Medici and Richelieu, 175-7

Mary, Princess of Orange, succession, 214

Mary Stuart--

Religious policy, 146; marriage with Darnley, 146-7; death of Darnley, 147; marriage with Bothwell and imprisonment at Loch Leven, 148; battle of Langside and flight to England, 149; the Casket Letters, 149-52; Elizabeth and, 152-3; marriage with the Dauphin, 157

Mary Tudor, persecutions under, 119; proposed marriage of, 138, 140; Sir Thomas More and, 141

Masenius and Paradise Lost, 116

Massachusetts, attempt to coerce, 311-12

Maurice of Nassau, 126, 174

Max Emmanuel of Bavaria, 250

Maximilian, Emperor--

Siege of Padua, 45; Council of Pisa, 46; the Jewish persecutions, 85

Maximilian II., Religious policy, 124, 182

Maximilian of Bavaria, 184-5

Mayenne, breach with Paris, 168

Mayflower, the, 199

Mazarin, Cardinal, 177, 234--

English policy, 210; character, 235-6

Mazeppa, Charles XII. at, 281

Mecklenburg, Duke of. See Wallenstein

Medici, Lorenzo de', 38, 43

Melanchthon--

Luther and, 101-2, 105; Confession of Faith, 106; at Diet of Ratisbon, 109, 132

Mendoza, Cardinal, 62

Mentz, religious controversy, 98; Gustavus holds his court at, 189

Mentz, Archbishop of--

Indulgence question, 92; and Luther, 102; religious policy of, 128

Mexico, conquest by Cortez, 68-9

Michelet, 15, 19

Mignet, 15

Milan--

Conquest by Lewis XII., 40-41, 47; Eugene's attempt on, 258; under Maria Theresa, 303

Mill, J. S., Logic, 20

Miltitz--

Luther and, 94-5, 102; and Cajetan, 109

Milton, 205

Minorca, captured, 260; loss of, 295

Mirandola, Pico della, 84

Mohacs, battle of, 36

Molina, teaching regarding grace, 116

Moltke, 126, 289, 298; victory of, 191; cited, 195

Moluccas, products, 58

Molwitz, battle of, 291-2

Mommsen, 12

Moncontour, battle of, 158

Monk, General, 207-8

Monmouth, Duke of--

Question of legitimacy, 215; rebellion, 219-20

Mons, relief of, 159

Montagu, 223

Montalto, Cardinal. See Sixtus V., Pope Montcalm, Pitt's policy, 295; foretells the American Revolution, 306

Montecucculi and Turenne, 240

Montesino on rights of savages, 67

Montespan, Mme. de, 111

Montesquieu, 3; Grandeur et Décadence, 290

Montgomery, General, death of, 312

Montrose, 203

Moors, Indian trade of the, 55

Moray, Earl of, 151

More, Sir Thomas, 105; the Royal Supremacy, 141

Morea, the, Turkish invasion, 35

Morley, John, 203

Mornay, Duplessis, 164, 170

Morone, Cardinal, imprisonment and rescue, 119

Morton, Chancellor, and the Casket Letters, 150

Moscow, Charles XII. and, 281

Mozley, James, cited, 27

Müeller, Johannes, method of history, 26

Mühlberg, defeat of German troops, 126

Müller, J., Ephemerides, 84

Münnich, employed by Peter the Great, 280

Münster, peace of. See Westphalia, peace of

Muratori, 14


Nantes, Edict of, 171; revocation of, 244-7

Naples--

Rising of the Barons, 38; conquest by Charles VIII., 38-9; partition of, 41-2; Spaniards drive out French, 42; united to Spain, 46

Napoleon. See Bonaparte

Narbonne, Council of, 112

Narvaez and Cortez, 68

National Assembly of France, 303

National Debt, 230, 272

Nautical Almanack, the, 84

Navigation Laws, suspension of the 310

Nazareth, Archbishop of, 161

Negroes. See Slave Trade

Neoplatonism, 80

Neri, St. Philip, 122

Nestorians, the, at Cochin, 56

New England, founding of, 199

New York, 314

Newcastle, Duke of, Prussian policy, 300

Newfoundland, acquisition of, 263

Newman, Cardinal, cited, 11, 21, 278

Newton and Leibniz, 268

Nicholas V., Pope--

Slavery authorised, 53; attitude towards Renaissance, 75, 78-9, 81

Niebuhr, historical method, 19-20

Nimeguen, peace of, 240; treaties of, 241-2

Nonconformists, 201

Nonjurors, 230

Nördlingen, battle of, 193

North, Lord, administration, 310, 313

Nottingham, Charles I. and, 203

Nova Scotia, acquisition of, 263

Novara, battle of, 41, 46

Nuremberg, manufacture of nautical instruments, 84; Diet of, 103


Oates, Titus, 22-3, 213-14, 218

Ockham, William of, 72

Odescalchi. See Innocent XI., Pope

Oldmixon, 226

Oñate, Spanish envoy, 192

Oquendo, Admiral, 153

Oratorians, 114

Order of Christ, 52

Orders in the Church, creation of new, 114

Orleans, Duchess of, 247

Orleans, Duke of. See Lewis XII.

Orleans, siege of, 159

Ormonde, Duke of--

Supplants Marlborough, 261; deserts Eugene, 262; in the Jacobite rising, 269

Ormuz, fortress of, 57

Orvieto, Clement flees to, 139

Orvilliers, d', 313

Osnabrück, 193

Ossat, Cardinal d', 170

Ossuna library, the, 15

Ostermann, Peter the Great and, 280

Otis, James, speech of, 307

Otranto, seized by Mahomet, 35

Ottoman Conquest, the, 34-7

Oudenarde, battle of, 260

Oxenstiern and Gustavus, 190, 191; and Wallenstein, 191

Oxford and Charles I., 203


Pacheco, Duarte, defends Cochin, 56

Pacification, Acts of, 171

Padua, siege of, 45

Palatinate, the, Calvinism in, 136

Pamphili, family of, 226

Pappenheim, 190-91; siege of Magdeburg, 188

Parentucelli. See Nicholas V., Pope

Paris--

Massacre of St. Bartholomew, 160; and the League, 165; opposition to Henry IV., 167, 168; siege of, 168-9

Parliament--

Long, 205, 207, 208, 216; the Convention, 208; Septennial Act, 270-71; "All the Talents," 275; reports of debates, 276; the "Unreported," 276

Parma, Duke of. See Farnese

Parsons, 209

Partition Treaty, the First, 250; the Second, 252

Party, Government by, 264-8, 274-6

Paruta, ambitions for Venice, 45

Passive Obedience, Luther defends, 104

Pater, cited, 76

Patkul, agent of Augustus of Saxony, 279

Paul III., Pope, 88, 109, 121

Paul IV., Pope--

Introduction of Inquisition, 110; and the Theatines, 114; and Cardinal Pole, 119; and the Index, 120; Roman rejoicings at death of, 122

Paul V., Pope, quarrel with Venice, 173

Paul, Father, 108-9; cited, 119; History of the Council of Trent, 173-4

Pavia, battle of, 39, 47

Peace Conference at Ratisbon, 109

Peace of Religion, 123, 127, 129, 136, 165, 171, 181, 183; of St. Germain, 161; of Westphalia, 193; of the Pyrenees, 233; of Nimeguen, 240; of Ryswick, 250; of Utrecht, 290

Pearson, 78

Pedro, Regent Dom, 53

Peel, Sir Robert, 9

Peerage Bill, the, 271

Peers, exclusion of Catholic, 214; trial of, 215

Penal Laws--

Beginning of the, 152; James I. and the, 197; declared inoperative under Charles II., 212

Penn, William, 136; and James II., 219, 223

Pennsylvania, government of, 311

Perez, Juan, Franciscan, 62

Perpetual Edict, the, 237; repealed, 241

Persian Gulf, closed by Albuquerque, 57

Perth, cited, 227

Peruzzi, 82

Pescara, 48, 49

Petavius, Father, Jesuit, 117

Peter the Great--

Internal policy, 277-9, 282-7; Polish policy, 279; journey through Europe, 280-81; personality, 280-81; mutiny of the Strelitz, 281; possession of Baltic coast, 281; founding of St. Petersburg, 281-2; assumes title of Emperor, 282; Austrian policy, 282; reformation of the aristocracy, 282-3; domestic policy, 283; abolition of the Patriarchate, 284; reformed government established, 284; religious policy, 284

Petition of Right, 201

Peto succeeds Cardinal Pole, 119

Petrarca and the Latin restoration, 72-4

Petre, the Jesuit, 227

Pfefferkorn--

Jewish persecutions, 85; attack on Reuchlin, 86-7

Philadelphia, convention at, 31

Philip II.--

Annexes Portugal, 58, 145, 166; policy, 129; inquisition in the Netherlands, 144-5; preparation for the Armada, 153; refuses Elizabeth's terms, 154; and the League, 165-6; death of, 170

Philip IV.--

Infanta married to Lewis XIV., 235; will regulating succession, 238, 249, 250, 251

Philip V.--

Acknowledged by England, 255; position during the war, 259-60; results of the Succession War, 262; desire to regain Gibraltar, 273

Philip, the Landgrave, and Luther, 105

Philippines, annexation to Spain, 66

Philippson, cited, 161

Piccolomini, made field-marshal, 192

Piccolomini, Æneas Sylvius. See Pius II., Pope

Piedmont, social question, 303

Pilsen, Wallenstein at, 192, 193

Pirkheimer, death of, 105

Pisa, Council at, 46

Pitt (the Elder). See Chatham, Earl of

Pitt, William, Napoleon's Spanish check predicted by, 23

Pius II., Pope (Æneas Sylvius Piccolomini), 77; attitude towards the Renaissance, 79; History, 80

Pius IV., Pope, closes Council of Trent, 122

Pius V., Counter-Reformation under, 122; and the Regent Catharine, 157

Pizarro, Francisco, conquests of, 69-70

Platina, History of the Popes, 80

Plato, 75, 76, 80

Plutarch, Pericles, 16

Plymouth, Duke of, death of, 215

Pocock, 15

Poggio, 80

Poland--

Jesuits in, 115; Socinian Church in, 123; Counter-Reformation in, 124; Henry of Anjou elected king, 161; religious toleration in, 182; peace with Gustavus of Sweden, 188; aid for Austria, 243; overrun by Charles XII., 281; aristocracy and right of veto, 301; partition of, 279, 301-2

Pole, Cardinal, 72--

Paul III. and, 109; and Justification, 110; at Council of Trent, 118-19; and the English heretics, 119; and Machiavelli, 142

Politian, 80

Politics--

Relation to History, 2-3, 9-10; of the Renaissance, 80-81; ethics and, 173

Politiques, the, 172; origin, 163-4; principles, 171

Polo, Marco, 53

Polygamy, preached by Luther, 105

Pomerania, alliance with Gustavus, 188

Pompadour, Mme. de, 293

Pomponne, Minister to Lewis XIV., 241-2

Poniatowski, Stanislas, 301

Port Mahon, conquest of, 262

Port Royal, suppression of, 115

Portocarrero, Cardinal, and will of Charles II., 252

Portugal--

Expansive policy, 37, 52-70; early trade with India, 56, 58; annexed to Spain, 58, 145, 166; Inquisition in, 59, 121; treatment of pagans, 59; Brazil obtained, 64; treaty of Tordesillas, 64

Pragmatic Sanction, the, 291

Prague--

Window outrage at, 183-4, 198; army of the League at, 185; Lutheran peace at, 193; victory of Frederic II. at, 296

Presbyterians--

And the Civil war, 203; under the Restoration, 204, 209; excluded from the Long Parliament, 207

Press, liberty of the, 219, 276

Preston, Scots surrender at, 269

Pride, Colonel, 204

Prierias, Silvester, defence of Indulgences, 92-3

Printing, inveution of, 83

Prisons, reformation of, 303

Privileged altars, 91

Privy Council, the, 264

Procopovitch, religious changes made by, 284

Protection, 230

Protestantism. (See also Calvinism and Lutheranism)--

Origin of name, 106; Jesuits fight against, 115; Council of Trent and, 118-19; disappearance from Italy, 122-3; the League, 126; strength in France, 156, 172; suppression in Bohemia, 185; and the Edict of Restitution, 187-8; results of the Thirty Years' War on, 193-4; suppressed in France, 221, 223; effect of the Revocation on, 247

Prussia. (See also Frederic the Great)--

Rise of, 285-9; first king of, 287; under Frederic William I, 288-9

Ptolemy, MS. of, 84

Pultawa, battle of, 282

Pulteney, The Craftsman, 275

Puritan Revolution, the, 199-201

Puritans, policy of the, 209-10

Pyrenees, Treaty of the, 235


Quakers, 201

Quebec, fall of, 306

Quiberon, 299

Quintilian, 74


Racine, 111

Rafael, 82

Ramillies, battle of, 260

Rancé, Abbé de, and James II, 221-2

Ranke--

Researches of, 7; on history and religion, 9; historical method, 11, 18-20, 26

Rastadt, peace of, 262

Ratisbon--

Peace Conference of Paul III., 109; Diet of, 131-2, 136; taken by Duke of Weimar, 192

Ravaillac assassinates Henry IV., 175

Ravenna, battle of, 46

Rebellion, the, reason of failure, 204-5

Recalde, Admiral, 153

Red Sea, closed by Albuquerque, 57

Reformation, the--

In England, 9-10; in Germany, 126-9; in Geneva, 131; difference between Continental and English, 142; in France, 155; in Prussia; 286

Regiomontanus, 84; Ephemerides, 63

Religion, peace of, 123, 127, 129, 136, 165, 171, 181, 183; relation to history, 8-12

Religious Orders, suppression of, 142

Renaissance--

Effect on men's minds, 5; results of the, 63; revival of Greek, 71, 74-5; Latin restoration, the, 72-4; reproach of irreligion, 73-4, 76-7; events determining triumph of, 75-6; ecclesiastical control weakened by, 76-8; revival of Christian antiquity, 78; Papacy and Hellenism, alliance between, 78-80; politics of the, 80-81; worship of beauty, 81; wars of Charles V. a check on the, 82-3; begins in Germany, 83; invention of printing, 83; Universities and the New Learning, 83; anti-Catholic spirit in Germany, 83-4, Hebrew studied in Germany, 84

Renan, cited, 18

Renée, d. of Lewis XII, 138

Republicans, the, suppressed by Maurice of Nassau, 174

Restitution, Edict of, 187

Restoration, the, 207; religious policy of the, 209-10

Reuchlin, 83, 109--

Learning of, 84; trial and acquittal, 85; judgment reversed by Rome, 86; death, 105

Revocation of Edict of Nantes, 115

Revolution of 1688, nature and results, 231-2

Revolution, the American. See American War of Independence

Revolution, the Puritan. See Puritan Revolution

Rhode Island, charter, 217, 311

Rhode Island, 199

Riccio, assassination of, 146, 147 150, 198

Richelieu, Cardinal--

Charter, 175-7; siege of Rochelle, 177; attitude towards the Protestants, 177-8; policy of, 179-80; Gustavus of Sweden and, 188; feud with the Habsburgs, 193

Richmond, proposed marriage to Mary Tudor, 138

Rienzi, political work of, 71-2

Rio, Del, Jesuit, 116

Robertson, 150

Robinocracy, the, 274

Robinson, John, cited, 200, 206

Rochelle, siege of, 177

Rodney, success at Dominica, 314

Rogers, Erasmus. See Erasmus

Roget, 18

Romagna, the, 43, 44

Romanoffs, the. Church policy, 277-8

Rome--

Cæsar Borgia's designs on, 43; temporal power established, 44; policy towards Naples, 47; sack of, by Charles V., 49, 83; Bulls regulating sphere of Portuguese and Spanish influence, 64; Papacy removed from, 71; alliance between Hellenism and Papacy, 78-80; rise of, under Julius II., 82; reformation of the Calendar, 84, 121; Holy Office established, 112, 119; the Inquisition, 112-13; witchcraft trials, 116; Index of prohibited books, 119-21; centre of Counter-Reformation, 121; England's break with, 141; and Henry IV., 170; quarrel with Venice, 173-4

Roon, 289

Ropes, Military Histories, 18

Rospigliose, family of, 226

Rossbach, battle of, 297

Rouen, refuses to register Edict of Nantes, 172

Roundheads under the Restoration, 209

Rousseau, 133

Rovere, Della, See Julius II., Pope

Royalists, the, 199

Ruben's House, Cologne, 177

Rubianus, Crotus, 86

Rufus, Mutianus, 83; death, 105

Rupert, Prince, 185

Russell, Lord, executed, 215; cited, 216

Russia--

Social state before Peter the Great, 277-9; reformation of the aristocracy, 282-3; the reformed government under Peter the Great, 284; continental policy, 1756-7, 294

Ruyter, De, 229

Rye House Plot, 218

Ryswick, Peace of, 250


Sacheverell, Dr., 263

Sacred College, the, 108, 110

Sadolet, Cardinal, 72--

Paul III. and, 109; and the Reformation, 110; appeal to the Genevese, 132

St. Angelo, Pope Clement prisoner at, 139

St. Bartholomew--

Massacre of, 122, 159-60; question of premeditation, 161; attitude of Rome, 161-2; number killed, 162

St. Germain, Peace of, 161; treaty of, 161

St. John. See Bolingbroke, Lord

St. Mark's Library, Venice, 75

St. Paul's Cross, books prohibited at, 120

St. Peter's, Rome, 82, 91

St. Petersburg, founding of, 281-2

St. Prassede, privileged altars, 91

St. Sebastian, crypt of, 91

St. Simon, 221

Salamanca, 247

Salic Law, settlement of Brabant, 237

Salutato, Coluccio, 73

San Domingo, 63

San Gallo, 82

Sanctarelli, 178

Sand, George, 267

Sant Iago, Cardinal of, 110

Santa Prudentia, privileged altars, 91

Santa, Cardinal Croce, 161

Santangel of Aragon, 62

Sarasa, proclaims infallibility of conscience, 116

Saratoga, surrender of General Burgoyne, 312-13

Sarpi. See Paul, Father

Sarsfield and Duke of Berwick, 229

Savonarola, 38; opposition to Alexander VI., 85

Savoy, Duke of, 252, 255

Saxony--

Wallenstein's attack, 190-91; subsequent negotiations, 191-2; Lutheran peace at Prague, 193; conquered by Frederic II., 296; given up by him, 300

Saxony, Elector of--

Defence of Luther, 97, 102; assists Austria, 243

Saxony, the Marshal of, battle of Fontenoy, 267

Scala, Santa, privileged altars, 91

Scanderbeg, renegade, 35

Scanderoon, trade of, 55

Scandinavia, Lutheran churches, 129

Scarparia studies Greek, 75

Scharnhorst, 289

Schmalkalden, League of, 107

Schomberg, Duke of, 230

Schomberg, the younger, 230

Schwarzenberg, German minister, 181

Schwegler, 16

Schwerin, General, Frederic II. and, 291; killed at Prague, 296

Scotland, state of, at Mary Stuart's return, 146

Scott, Sir Walter, Quentin Durward cited, 19

Scotus, 98

Sebastian, King of Portugal, 59

Sects, in France, 111; growth of, 136, 197, 200-201

Sedgemoor, landing of Monmouth, 220

Sedley, Catherine, 220

Seeley, Sir John, cited, 1-2

Selim, conquests of, 36

Seneca, works of, 73, 78

Senef, battle of, 240

Septennial Act, the, 270-71

Sepulveda on rights of savages, 67

Sermoneta, Duke of, 169

Serrano, letter to Magellan, 65

Servetus, trial and execution, 134-5

Servia, Turkish invasion, 35

Seven Years' War, the, 292 et seq.--

State of Europe after, 302-4; results, 305

Seydlitz, General, 296, 298

Seymour, 219

Sforza, Francesco, 38

Sforza, Lodovico, Regent of Milan, 38; Charles VIII. and, 40-41

Shaftesbury, Earl of--

Treaty of Dover, 211; Declaration of Indulgence, 212; dismissed from office, 212; plans to exclude James, 213-15

Shakespeare, 196

Shakespeare's Cliff, 222

Sheriffmuir, battle of, 269

Sicily, Charles VIII. styled King of, 39

Sickingen, 99

Sidney, Algernon, 169, 224; executed, 215

Sieyès, 14

Silesia, religious toleration in, 182; captured by Frederic, 291

Sixtus IV., Pope--

Attitude towards Renaissance, 80; revision of the Latin Vulgate, 121

Sixtus V., Pope--

On marriage of Henry VIII., 137; encourages Philip II. regarding Armada, 153; and Massacre of St. Bartholomew, 162

Slavata, Bohemian minister, 183

Slave trade--

Negroes sold by Henry of Portugal, 53; exported to West Indies, 67; asiento obtained by Lewis XIV., 255; under Bolingbroke, 274

Smith, Adam, 306

Smith, Mr. Goldwin, cited, 27-8

Sobieski, King of Poland, 248, 279

Socinians, the, 171, 182; established in Poland, 123

Socinus, 10, 136

Socrates, 3

Solyman the Magnificent, conquests, 36

Somerset, Calvin's correspondence with, 146

Sophia the Electress, 185, 265-6

Sophocles, 76

Sorbin and the Massacre of St. Bartholomew, 162

Sorcery, practice of, 111

South Sea Bubble, 271, 272

Spain--

Expansion of, 37; ascendency of, 49-50; fall of Granada, 61-2; Jews expelled, 62; treaty of Tordesillas with Portugal, 64; Philippines acquired, 66; West Indian problem, 66-7; Index Expurgatorius in, 120-21; Treaty of Vervins, 170; decline as a land power, 178; Peace of the Pyrenees, 233; partition schemes, 249; the Succession War, 236-9, 249-63; first Partition Treaty, 250; second, 252

Spalatin, Saxon minister, warns Luther, 99

Spanish Succession, War of the--

Events leading up to, 249-57; field force, 257; events, 258-61; results, 262-3; Marlborough. See that title

Spee, Jesuit, witchcraft trials, 116

Spinola, 49

Spires, Bishop of, trial of Reuchlin, 85

Spires, Diet of, 106

Sregedin, Treaty of, 35

Stadion, Bishop of Augsburg, 106

Stael, Mme. de, cited, 27

Stafford, Viscount--

Evidence against, 213; trial and execution, 215

Stair, Earl of, 270; cited, 228

Stamp Act, the, 309

Stanhope, Earl--

Ministry, 271; retention of Gibraltar, 273

Steenkerk, battle of, 230

Stepney, the envoy, 266

Steuchus of Gubbio, 88

Stoics, 73, 105

Strafford, Lord--

Influence on Charles I., 201; death, 202

Stralsund, siege of, 187

Strasburg, Calvin in, 131, 132; design of Lewis XIV., 242; occupied by the French, 242, 244

Strelitz, mutiny of the, 281

Stuarts, policy of the, 196-9

Stubbs, Bishop, prefaces of, 16

Styria, Counter-Reformation in, 182

Suarez, 178

Succession, Act of, 256

Sully, Memoirs, 175

Sunderland, Lord, 26--

Adviser to James II., 222, 224; forms Ministry, 271

Sweden. (See also Gustavus)--

Negotiations with Wallenstein, 191-2; Triple Alliance with England and Holland, 238; prosperity of, 279

Swift and Wood's Halfpence, 273

Switzerland--

Social state in 1490, 37; the Swiss Guard, 39; Lutheranism in, 130-31

Sylvius, Æneas. See Pius II., Pope

Synod of Dort, 174


Talavera, Archbishop of Granada, 62

Tallard, Marshal, 253

Tartary, Spanish projects for religion 61-2

Taxation of the Colonies, principle of, 307-11

Tellier, Le, 234

Tempestuous, Cape. See Good Hope, Cape of

Temple, Sir William, cited, 26; Triple Alliance, 238

Terence, 74

Ternate, 58, 65

Test Act, 212; the second, 214; abolished by James II., 221

Tetzel, the Dominican, and the Indulgences, 92, 94, 96

Theatines, the, 114

Thiers, 12, 15

Thirty Years' War, 115, 124, 127, 136, 174, 179; results, 193-4

Thirty-nine Articles, the, 201-2

Thomas, St., 74, 86; and the Indulgences, 92; doctrines of, 116, 117

Thorndike, religious policy, 223

Throckmorton, 151

Thuanus, History of, 164

Thucydides, 75; translations of, 79, 84

Thun, Count, 215

Thuringian Forest, the, 101

Thum, Count, heads Bohemian conspiracy, 183

Tillemont, 14

Tillotson, 216

Tilly--

Account of, 185-6; successes of, 185-6; capture of Leipzig, 188; defeat at Breitenfeld, 188; siege of Magdeburg, 188; death, 189

Toledo, Council of, 112

Torcy--

Will of Charles II., 253; at the Hague, 260-61; intrigue with the Tories, 261-2

Tordesillas, treaty of, 64

Torgau, battle of, 299

Tories--

Origin of term Tory, 22-3, 208; the Court Party of Charles, 215-6; and the Revolution, 231; and War of Spanish Succession, 261; crushing of the, 270

Torrington, Admiral, 229-30

Toscanelli of Florence, 54, 61; chart of, 60

Toulouse, Council of, 112; persecutions at, 162

Tourville, defeats Eugene, 229

Toussaint and Massacre of St. Bartholomew, 162

Townshend, goes out of office, 271; taxation of the Colonies, 310

Tractarianism, 265

Treaty--

Sregedin, 35; Barcelona, 40, 141; Partition of Naples, 41-2; Madrid, 48; Tordesillas, 64; St. Germain, 161; Vervins, 170; Dover, 210-15; Pyrenees, 235; Nimeguen, 241-2; Partition, the first, 250; the second, 252; Hague, 255-6; Utrecht, 262-3

Treitschke, 12

Trent, Council of--

Papal control, 114; attitude towards Protestantism, 118-19; intrigue and corruption, 119; Index of prohibited books, 119-20; close of, 122; Charles V.'s action, 126

Tridentine Index, the, 120

Triennial Act, the, 270

Triple Alliance--

English change of front, 210; dissolved, 239

Trouville, exploits of, 248

Tucker, Dean, 306

Tudors, policy of the, 196

Tunstall, 141; correspondence with Wolsey, 98

Turberville and the Titus Oates plot, 213

Turenne, Marshal--

Protestantism of, 178; treaty of Dover, 211; and Mazarin, 233; advice to Lewis XIV., 236; overruns Flanders, 237-8; death of, 240

Turgot, 303

Turin, battle of, 258, 260

Turkey--

Invasion of Europe, 34-7; Vienna attacked, 243; relations with Russia, 278-9, 301

Tyrconnel, Earl of, 223; plans for separation of Ireland, 229


Union, the--

Formed by the Calvinists, 184; supports the Elector Palatine, 184-5; dissolved, 185

Universities, the German, and the Renaissance, 83; consulted regarding Henry's divorce, 141

Urban VIII., Pope (Barberini), 178, and the Inquisition, 113

Ussher, Archbishop, 78, 202, 209

Utraquists, the, 182

Utrecht, peace of, 290; persecutions in, 113; Treaty of, 262-3


Valdes, manifesto, 48

Valencia, Cardinal of. See Borgia, Cæsar

Valentinois, Duke of. See Borgia, Cæsar

Valla, Lorenzo--

Writings of, 77; employed by Nicholas V., 79; tract on the Donation, 102

Vane, Sir H., 204, 205, 311

Varna, 35

Vasconcelles, afterwards Archbishop of Lisbon, 65

Vassy, Huguenot defeat, 147; massacre of, 157

Vatican, archives, opening of the, 7; library, 29

Vauban, 239; victories of, 240; cited, 248

Vaud, canton of, 131

Vaudémont, Prince de, envoy to Rome, 225

Venice--

Alliance with Lewis XII., 40; relations with Rome, 43, 45-6, 173-4; expansive policy, 44-5; Eastern trade of, 55, 56; St. Mark's Library, 75; Holy Office, 113; political expansion, 172

Vervins, treaty of, 170

Vespucci, 65

Vienna--

Turkish invasion, 36, 243; Congress of, 302

Vigo, French fleet destroyed, 260

Villars--

Defeat at Malplaquet, 260; victory at Denain, 262

Vincent of Beauvais, 75

Vinci, Leonardo da, notes and diaries of, 84

Vindiciae contra Tyrannos, 164

Virgil, statue removed from marketplace, 73

Virginia, founding of, 199; independence declared, 312

Visconti, the, 38, 40, 119

Voltaire, 25; cited, 234; Frederic II. and, 291

Vulgate, the Latin, revision of, 121


Walcheren, annexation of, 211

Waldenses, suppression, 246

Wallachia, Turkish invasion, 35

Wallenstein--

Commissioned by Ferdinand, 186; made Duke of Mecklenburg, 187; rupture with Ferdinand, 187-8; recalled, 189-90; struggle with Gustavus, 190-91; subsequent power, 191, second break with Ferdinand, 192; death, 193

Wallis, voyages, 66

Walpole, cited, 266; policy, 271-74, 290; fall of, 274

Warburg, battle of, 295-6

Warham and Catharine's divorce, 139

Warrants, general, question of, 308

Wartburg, the. 102

Washington--

Expeditions against Duquesne, 293; threatens resignation, 312

Waters, Lucy, 218

Weimar, Duke of, 191--

Takes Ratisbon, 192; Wallenstein and, 192, 193

Wellesley, General, 23

Western Assize, the, 220

Westminster, Convention at, 294

Weston becomes Roman Catholic, 202

Westphalia, Peace of, 193

Whigs. (See also Party, government by)--

Predominance of the, 154, 271; rise of the, 206-18; tenets of the, 216-18; the first, 218; and the Revolution, 231; and Succession War, 261; recognise independence of American colonies, 313

White Mountain, the, 185

William, Emperor of Prussia, 199

William of Orange. (See also William III.)--

and the Exclusion Bill, 214; designs on life of, 222; the invitation to England, 224-5; gains support of Rome, 225-7; plot against De Witt, 238-9; captain-general, 239, 241; defeat at Senef, 240; marriage, 240

William III.--

Dispensing power, 223; attitude of Rome after Innocent's death, 227; Massacre of Glencoe, 228-9; and the Revocation, 245-6; first Partition Treaty, 250; distrust of English ministers, 251; second Partition Treaty, 252; treaty of the Hague, 255-6; death of, 256-7; character, 257

William the Silent, 145

William the Stadtholder, assassination of, 145

Wimpheling, death of, 105

Windebanke, becomes Roman Catholic, 202

Witchcraft trials, 116

Witt, John de--

Death of, 228, 239; government of the Netherlands, 237; attack on England, 238; William of Orange and, 238-9

Wittelsbach, House of, 292

Wittenberg, posting of the Thesis, 136

Wolsey, Cardinal--

Correspondence with Tunstall, 98; French schemes, 137-9; relations with Rome, 138; and the English divorce, 139; aims at the Papacy, 142

Wood's Halfpence, 272-3

Worms, Decree of, 48; Diet of, 98-101, 136

Wratislaw, the ambassador, 251

Writs of Assistance, 307

Würtemburg, Duke of, 118

Würzburg, 189

Wyclif, 100

Wyndham, Sir William, arrest of, 269


Xavier, St. Francis, work in India, 59

Ximenes, Cardinal, 67, 87


Yorktown, surrender of Lord Cornwallis, 313

Yucatan, 63


Zamorìn, the, poisoned, 59

Zasius, 105

Ziska, leadership of, 184-5

Zuñiga denounces Erasmus, 88

Zurich, 104

Zwingli, death, 95; teachings of, 104, 130; Luther's quarrel with, 105


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