Get Zooamata essential facts below. View Videos or join the Zooamata discussion. Add Zooamata to your PopFlock.com topic list for future reference or share this resource on social media.

Zooamata is a proposal for a clade of mammals uniting the Ferae (carnivores and pangolins) with the Perissodactyla (odd-toed ungulates). The name is constructed from Greek and Latin to mean "animal friends", a reference to the inclusion of cats, dogs, and horses.

Zoomata was proposed as one of the competing arrangements for the interordinal relationships of placental mammals within Laurasiatheria.[1] It received support in a phylogenetic study using retroposon insertion analysis, where it was found to be the sister taxon to Chiroptera within a novel clade named Pegasoferae.[2] The Zooamata and Cetartiodactyla (even-toed ungulates and whales) together form Scrotifera.

Subsequent molecular studies have generally failed to support the proposal.[3][4][5] In particular, two recent phylogenomic studies analysing alternative theories for mammalian interordinal relationships concluded that Zooamata and Pegasoferae are not natural groupings.[6][7] The competing proposal linking the Perissodactyla and Cetartiodactyla in a clade named Euungulata, as a sister to the Ferae, in Scrotifera received stronger support.


The following cladogram shows the phylogenetic relationships of laurasiatherian mammals following Nishihara et al. (2006).[2]












  1. ^ P. J. Waddell, N. Okada, and M. Hasegawa. 1999. Towards resolving the interordinal relationships of placental mammals. Systematic Biology 48(1):1-5.
  2. ^ a b Nishihara, H.; Hasegawa, M.; Okada, N. (2006). "Pegasoferae, an unexpected mammalian clade revealed by tracking ancient retroposon insertions". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 103 (26): 9929-9934. doi:10.1073/pnas.0603797103. PMC 1479866. PMID 16785431.
  3. ^ Matthee, Conrad A.; Eick, Geeta; Willows-Munro, Sandi; Montgelard, Claudine; Pardini, Amanda T.; Robinson, Terence J. (2007). "Indel evolution of mammalian introns and the utility of non-coding nuclear markers in eutherian phylogenetics". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 42 (3): 827-837. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2006.10.002. PMID 17101283.
  4. ^ Springer, M.S.; Burk-Herrick, A.; Meredith, R.; Eizirik, E.; Teeling, E.; O'Brien, S.J.; Murphy, W.J. (2007). "The adequacy of morphology for reconstructing the early history of placental mammals". Systematic Biology. 56 (4): 673-684. doi:10.1080/10635150701491149. PMID 17661234.
  5. ^ Kitazoe, Yasuhiro; Kishino, Hirohisa; Waddell, Peter J.; Nakajima, Noriaki; Okabayashi, Takahisa; Watabe, Teruaki; Okuhara, Yoshiyasu (2007). Hahn, Matthew (ed.). "Robust Time Estimation Reconciles Views of the Antiquity of Placental Mammals". PLoS ONE. 2 (4): e384. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0000384. PMC 1849890. PMID 17440620.
  6. ^ Zhou, Xuming; Xu, Shixia; Xu, Junxiao; Chen, Bingyao; Zhou, Kaiya; Yang, Guang (2011). "Phylogenomic Analysis Resolves the Interordinal Relationships and Rapid Diversification of the Laurasiatherian Mammals". Systematic Biology. 61 (1): 150-164. doi:10.1093/sysbio/syr089. PMC 3243735. PMID 21900649.
  7. ^ Tsagkogeorga, G; Parker, J; Stupka, E; Cotton, JA; Rossiter, SJ (2013). "Phylogenomic analyses elucidate the evolutionary relationships of bats (Chiroptera)". Current Biology. 23 (22): 2262-2267. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2013.09.014. PMID 24184098.

  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.



Music Scenes