Zhongshan
Get Zhongshan essential facts below. View Videos or join the Zhongshan discussion. Add Zhongshan to your PopFlock.com topic list for future reference or share this resource on social media.
Zhongshan
Zhongshan


Chungshan
From top down, left to right: Sunwen West Road; Former residence of Dr. Sun Yat-sen; Dongqu Subdistrict; Shiqi River (); Chen ancestral shrine in Chadong Village ()
From top down, left to right: Sunwen West Road; Former residence of Dr. Sun Yat-sen; Dongqu Subdistrict; Shiqi River (); Chen ancestral shrine in Chadong Village ()
Location of Zhongshan in Guangdong
Location of Zhongshan in Guangdong
Zhongshan is located in Guangdong
Zhongshan
Zhongshan
Location in Guangdong
Zhongshan is located in China
Zhongshan
Zhongshan
Zhongshan (China)
Coordinates (Zhongshan municipal government): 22°31?01?N 113°23?33?E / 22.5170°N 113.3925°E / 22.5170; 113.3925Coordinates: 22°31?01?N 113°23?33?E / 22.5170°N 113.3925°E / 22.5170; 113.3925
CountryPeople's Republic of China
ProvinceGuangdong
County-level divisionsNone
Township-level divisions5 districts
18 towns
1 development zone
Municipal seatDongqu Subdistrict
Government
 o CPC Committee SecretaryXue Xiaofeng ()
 o MayorChen Liangxian ()
Area
 o Total1,783.67 km2 (688.68 sq mi)
Elevation
11 m (36 ft)
Population
(2012)
 o Total3,142,300
 o Density1,800/km2 (4,600/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+8 (China Standard Time)
Postal code
528400
Area code(s)0760
ISO 3166 codeCN-GD-20
License plate prefixes?T
GDP¥218.85 billion (2011)
GDP per capita¥92,154 (2011)
City flowerChrysanthemum
Websitewww.ZhongShan.gov.cn (Chinese)
Zhongshan
ZhongShanChinese1.png
"Zhongshan City", as written in Chinese
Chinese
JyutpingZung1 saan1
Cantonese YaleJ?ngs?an
Hanyu PinyinZh?ngsh?n ([́án])
PostalChungshan
Literal meaningCentral mountain
(Named after Sun Yat-sen)
Xiangshan
(former name)
Chinese
JyutpingHoeng1 saan1
Cantonese YaleH?ungs?an
Hanyu PinyinXi?ngsh?n
PostalHeungshan
Literal meaningFragrant Mountain

Zhongshan ([́? ?án]; Chinese: ) is a prefecture-level city in the south of the Pearl River Delta in Guangdong province, China, with a population of over 3 million (2012). The city-core subdistricts used to be called Shiqi or Shekki (Chinese: ).

Zhongshan is one of a very few cities in China named after a person. It is named after Dr. Sun Yat-sen (1866-1925), who is known in Mandarin as Sun Zhongshan. Sun, the founding father of the Republic of China who is also regarded positively by the People's Republic, was born in Cuiheng village in Nanlang Township of what was then Xiangshan County. In 1925, the year after his death, Xiangshan was renamed Zhongshan in his honor.

Sunwen Lu (Road) West at dusk.

Names

Until 1925, Zhongshan was generally known as Xiangshan or Heung-san (Siangshan) (Chinese: ; lit.: 'Fragrant Mountain'), in reference to the many flowers that grew in the mountains nearby.[1] The city was renamed in honor of Dr. Sun Yat-sen, who had adopted the name Zhongshan. Sun is considered by both the People's Republic of China and the Republic of China to be the "Father of Modern China", and was from Cuiheng village - now part of Nanlang Town in Zhongshan.

History

Thousands of years ago, much of the Zhongshan area lay within the Pearl River estuary, with only scattered islands above the surface. Gradually from south to north, the area filled in with alluvial silt and became dry land. The northern parts of today's Zhongshan did not fill in until the time of the Ming Dynasty.

The Zhongshan area was part of an extended Dongguan County during the Tang Dynasty (618-907 AD), and was a significant sea salt producer. In 1082, during the Northern Song Dynasty, a fortified settlement called Xiangshan was founded in the area, marking the first official use of the name by which it would be known throughout most of its modern history. The prosperous settlement was then upgraded to a county in 1152. After the collapse of the Southern Song Dynasty, many descendants of Song court officials, including members of the imperial family, settled in Xiangshan. Under the Qing Dynasty, embankments were built to prevent flooding in the new alluvial lands, and the area of cultivation was extended.

Much of the First Opium War took place in and around Xiangshan. In 1839, the official Lin Zexu arrived in Xiangshan and ordered the expulsion of Sir Charles Elliot and other British traders from the area. Qing Dynasty soldiers resisted British attacks on the area in 1840, but were ultimately overwhelmed.

After the Opium Wars opened the region to foreign influence, a number of Xiangshan residents, including Sun Zhongshan (Yatsen), left to study overseas and were among the creators of modern China. Xiangshan was one of the first counties in China liberated as part of the Xinhai Revolution. After Sun Zhongshan's death in 1925, the commander-in-chief of the armed forces of the Republic of China decided to memorialize Sun by renaming his county of birth from Xiangshan to Zhongshan.

Nationalist and Communist units launched guerrilla attacks on Japanese forces beginning in 1942. On August 15, 1945, Japanese forces declared an unconditional surrender, and Zhongshan was liberated.

Zhongshan was the scene of fighting during the Chinese Civil War and was held for much of the war by Nationalists. On October 30, 1949, however, the People's Liberation Army defeated Nationalist forces in Zhongshan, and the county came under the control of the People's Republic of China.

In 1983, Zhongshan was elevated in administrative status from a county to a county-level city under the administration of Foshan. In 1988 Zhonshan became a prefecture-level city.

Geography

Zhongshan is located along the west side of the mouth of the Pearl River, directly opposite Shenzhen and Hong Kong. It lies south of Guangzhou and Foshan and north of Zhuhai and Macau. The northern part of Zhongshan, including most of the urbanized area, lies on the alluvial plains of the Pearl River Delta, while the southern part of the city's territory reaches into a range of coastal hills.

The most notable of these are the Wugui Hills (Chinese: ; pinyin: W?gu? Sh?n; Jyutping: Ng5gwai3 Saan1). The city's current geography is typical of southern China: numerous steep mountains and hills with alluvial plains in between down to the coastline. The main summit of the Wugui Hills is the highest point in the city, at 531 metres (1,742 ft) above sea level.

Like nearly all of southern China, Zhongshan's climate is warm and humid most of the year, with an average temperature of 22 °C (72 °F) and 175 centimetres (69 in) of rainfall each year. Southern China experiences fairly frequent typhoons and thunderstorms, and most rain falls between April and September.

Zhongshan's location in the Pearl River Delta.

Cityscape

Fufeng pagoda in Zhongshan Park.

Zhongshan is a city of numerous leafy parks, wide boulevards, and monuments. Notable sights include:

  • Sunwen Road West (or Sunwen Xilu) in Zhongshan Old Town, a pedestrian mall lined with dozens of restored buildings from the colonial period in treaty port style. Several of these buildings were built in the 1920s.
  • The seven-story Fufeng Pagoda, built in 1608 and visible from all over the city, is on a hill in Zhongshan Park, which abuts the western end of Sunwen Road West immediately to its north. A Sun Yat-sen memorial pavilion stands near the pagoda.
  • Sunwen Memorial Park, at the southern end of Xingzhong Road, is the site of the largest bronze sculpture of Sun Yat-sen in the world.

Zhongshan, like many cities in China, has a rapidly changing cityscape with many new buildings under construction. Currently, the tallest completed buildings in the city are the two Zhongshan International Finance Center Towers. Tower 1 and Tower 2 both reach a height of 220 meters (722 feet) and are 55 stories tall. These will be eclipsed by the Perfect Eagle Golden Square tower, which will reach 238 meters (781 feet), with an expected completion date in 2018. The International Trade Center in Guzhen Town, expected to be completed in 2019, will reach a height of 305 meters (1,001 feet) with 65 floors.[2]

Administration

Zhongshan is a prefecture-level city of the Guangdong province. An uncommon administrative feature is that it has no county-level division, but the municipal government does group the 24 township-level divisions into five district areas. The city government directly administers six Subdistricts and 18 towns:

Map
Name Simplified Chinese Hanyu Pinyin Population
Area
(km2)
Density
(/km2)
Division code[3] Residential communities Administrative villages
Zhongxin District ? Zh?ngx?n Piànq? 877,666 456.7 1,921.75 -- 5 subdistricts, 3 towns
Shiqi Subdistrict ? Shíqí Ji?dào 206,362 26.0 7,937.00 442000001 19
Dongqu Subdistrict ? D?ngq? Ji?dào 153,477 72.0 2,131.62 442000002 10
Xiqu Subdistrict ? Xiq? Ji?dào 97,864 26.7 3,665.31 442000004 9
Nanqu Subdistrict ? Nánq? Ji?dào 64,548 48.0 1,344.75 442000005 10
Wuguishan Subdistrict W?guìsh?n Ji?dào 48,019 113.0 424.94 442000006 1 4
Shaxi town Sh?x? Zhèn 119,372 55.0 2,170.40 442000106 1 15
Gangkou town G?ngk?u Zhèn 113,748 70.5 1,613.44 442000108 7 2
Dachong town Dày?ng Zhèn 74,276 45.5 1,632.43 442000116 6 2
Dongbu District ? D?ngbù Piànq? 337,974 296.0 1,141.80 -- 1 subdistrict, 1 town, 1 new area
Zhongshangang Subdistrict Zh?ngsh?ng?ng Ji?dào 229,997 90.0 2,555.52 442000003 7
Nanlang town Nánl?ng Zhèn 107,977 206.0 524.16 442000113 2 13
Cuiheng New Area ? Cuíh?ng X?nq? --
Xibei District ? X?b?i Piànq? 996,097 397.7 2,504.64 -- 7 towns
Xiaolan town Xi?ol?n Zhèn 315,626 75.4 4,186.02 442000100 15
Dongfeng town D?ngfèng Zhèn 123,562 54.8 2,254.78 442000103 4 10
Dongsheng town D?ngsh?ng zhèn 118,052 76.7 1,539.13 442000104 8 6
Guzhen town G?zhèn Zhèn 147,440 47.8 3,084.51 442000105 1 12
Henglan town Hénglán Zhèn 103,135 76.0 1,357.03 442000110 1 10
Nantou town Nántóu Zhèn 130,712 30.0 4,357.06 442000111 6
Fusha town Fùsh? Zhèn 57,570 37.0 1,555.94 442000112 1 8
Dongbei District ? D?ngb?i Piànq? 375,204 281.3 1,333.82 -- 3 towns
Huangpu town Huángp? Zhèn 145,017 83.6 1,734.65 442000101 4 12
Minzhong town Mínzhòng Zhèn 108,417 125.4 864.56 442000102 3 16
Sanjiao town S?nji?o Zhèn 121,770 72.3 1,684.23 442000109 1 7
Nanbu District ? Nánbù Piànq? 533,944 370.6 1,440.75 -- 4 towns
Tanzhou Town T?nzh?u Zhèn 219,943 136.0 1,617.22 442000107 7 7
Sanxiang town S?nxi?ng Zhèn 200,197 93.6 2,138.85 442000114 3 12
Banfu town B?nfú Zhèn 82,412 82.0 1,005.02 442000115 1 10
Shenwan town Shénw?n Zhèn 31,392 59.0 532.06 442000117 1 5
Administrative divisions of Zhongshan
Division code[3] English name Chinese Pinyin Area in km2 Population 2010[4] Seat Postal code Divisions[5]
Subdistricts Towns Residential communities Administrative villages
442000 Zhongshan City Zh?ngsh?n Shì 1,783.67 3,121,275 City-administered District 528400 6 18 128 151
442000 City-administered District Shìxiáq? 1,783.67 3,121,275 Dongqu Subdistrict 528400 6 18 128 151

Language

Although the main ethnic group in Zhongshan is Han Chinese, there is no one dominant language or dialect spoken making Zhongshan one of the most diverse cities in China. Dialects spoken in the city ranging from the more common Yue, Hakka, and Min dialects to the more local Shiqi, Shatian, Longdu, Nanlang, Sanxiang, Guzhen, Sanjiao, and Zhangjiabian dialects as well as Wuiguishan, the only Hakka dialect in the city. The most common language, however, is Cantonese.

Yue

Min

Hakka

Economy

Primary industries

Primary productions are agricultural, such as rice, lychee, banana, and sugar cane. Added to this, horticulture in Xiaolan Town is famous throughout southern China for its blooming chrysanthemum and chickens.

Manufacturing industries

Zhongshan, Dongguan, Nanhai, and Shunde are dubbed the 'Four Little Tigers' in Guangdong. The proximity of Zhongshan to Hong Kong and Macau is an advantage to its economic development, especially in manufacturing.

In the 1980s, Zhongshan had a relatively developed state-owned enterprise (SOE) sector that was used to stimulate Township and Village Enterprises (TVE) development in the countryside. Currently, the SOE sector is much weaker, and the economy is dominated by foreign investment and TVEs, and by specialized 'manufacturing towns'. Each of these towns specializes in making a particular product. Most of the towns are so successful that they earn a reputation as leading manufacturers in their pillar industries. Indeed, "One Industry in One Town" has become a unique economic feature in Zhongshan.

Pillar industries in specialized manufacturing towns in Zhongshan include:

The government of Zhongshan encourages "Research and Design" in the region by setting up national level research centres and specialized industrial regions. For example, the Zhongshan National Torch High-Tech Industrial Development Zone () was established in 1990 in the east of the city by the Ministry of Science and Technology and the governments of Guangdong province and Zhongshan. Zhongshan Port, which ranks among the top 10 ports nationwide in container-handling capacity, is in the zone.[6] Since 2001, it has included the Zhongshan Electronic Base of China () for its reputation in the electronic acoustics industry. Following possible development in Nansha, the city considers its eastern part, of which 400 square kilometres (154 square miles) of land is available, a focus of future development.

Currently, the city is trying to re-organize its fragmented industrialization. Meanwhile, the light and labour-intensive industry characteristic of the local economy faces the problem of a shortage of land in Zhongshan.

Tourism, recreation and leisure

  • Two natural hot spring resorts are located in Sanxiang Town, such as the national own firm Zhongshan Hot Springs Resort, which is ranked top 10[] hot spring resorts in China because there is a rare hot spring reservoir in the Pearl River Delta.

The World Lamp King Museum, a lamp museum in the form of a giant lamp scheduled to open in 2015,[7] will be a major tourist attraction.[]

  • Former Residence of Sun Yat-sen Memorial Museum: The former residence of Sun Zhongshan is at the center of the Memorial Museum, located in the village of Cuiheng.
  • Xiaolan: Many houses in the town of Xiaolan have garden pavilions dedicated to the cultivation of chrysanthemums. Roofs and balconies, streets and lanes feature countless varieties of chrysanthemum plantings.

Zhongshan is home to a number of forest parks which are designed to protect the natural features of the land and offer visitors a chance to get closer to nature. Zhongshan Tianxin Forest Park () was opened in 2015 as part of the city's "green lung" initiative.[8]

Education

Colleges and universities

Statue of Sun Yat-sen in Sunwen Memorial Park.
  • Guangdong Pharmaceutical University (Zhongshan Campus)
  • University of Electronic Science and Technology
  • Guangdong Polytechnic Institute (Zhongshan Campus)
  • Zhongshan Polytechnic
  • Zhongshan Torch Polytechnic

High schools and institutions

  • Zhongshan Overseas Chinese Middle School (Chinese: ?) opened in 1954, is one of the first top-grade schools of Guangdong Province () and the first national demonstrative ordinary high schools (?).[9]
  • Sun Yat-sen Memorial Secondary School (; Zh?ngsh?n Jìniàn Zh?ngxúe) was established in memory of Sun Yat-sen in 1934, and was built under the supervision of Soong Ching-ling, the widow of Sun Yat-sen.[10]
  • Zhongshan No. 1 Middle School[11] (?; Zh?ngsh?nshì Dìy? Zh?ngxúe) opened in 1908.
  • Guangdong Zhongshan Experimental Middle School
  • Zhongshan Guishan Middle School
  • Guangdong Bowen International School
  • Sanxin Bilingual School
  • China-Hong Kong English School

Transportation

Public Buses

Zhongshan Public Transport Group Co., Ltd. operates many bus routes throughout the city. Stop announcements are voiced in Mandarin and Cantonese on all buses. On BRT system buses, announcements are also voiced in English. By purchasing a Zhongshan Tong card from authorized retailers, riders can receive a discount of 50% on all bus rides. Elderly citizens are allowed to ride for free.

Ferry Transport

Chu Kong Passenger Transport (CKS) connects Zhongshan with Hong Kong with multiple daily scheduled high-speed ferry services to both Hong Kong-Macau Ferry Terminal on Hong Kong Island and Hong Kong China Ferry Terminal in Kowloon. The trip by ferry takes about 1.5 hours.

Train

Guangzhou-Zhuhai Intercity Railway serves the city of Zhongshan at seven stations.

The often discussed Zhongshan metro rail system has a plan for the first two lines to be operational in December 2020.[]

Aviation

There is a bus service from Zhongshan to Shenzhen Bao'an International Airport in Shenzhen.[12]

Additionally Zhongshan is served by Hong Kong International Airport; ticketed passengers can take ferries from the Zhongshan Ferry Terminal to the HKIA Skypier.[13] There are also coach bus services connecting Zhongshan with HKIA.[14]

Major projects

Twin towns - sister cities

Zhongshan has seven sister cities:

Climate

References

  1. ^ Tai Ping Huan Yu Ji ?, juan 157, 3019.
  2. ^ "Zhongshan - The Skyscraper Center". www.skyscrapercenter.com. Retrieved .
  3. ^ a b ? (in Chinese). Ministry of Civil Affairs.
  4. ^ 2010?, ?, ? [China 2010 census, township, street information] (in Chinese). China. . ?, China. . (1. ed.). Beijing: China Statistics Press. 2012. ISBN 978-7-5037-6660-2.CS1 maint: others (link)
  5. ^ Ministry of Civil Affairs (August 2014). 2014? (in Chinese). China Statistics Press. ISBN 978-7-5037-7130-9.
  6. ^ "Zhongshan Torch Hi-tech Industrial Development Zone". rightsite.asia. 2014. Retrieved 2014.
  7. ^ http://www.zsnews.cn/News/2012/04/26/1989666.shtml
  8. ^ ?""?_·. www.zsnews.cn (in Chinese). Retrieved .
  9. ^ "Zhongshan Overseas Chinese Middle School". Retrieved 2016.
  10. ^ . Retrieved 2016.
  11. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on July 31, 2008. Retrieved 2008.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  12. ^ "Guangdong Traffic." Shenzhen Bao'an International Airport. Retrieved on May 9, 2018.
  13. ^ "Ferry Transfer." Hong Kong International Airport. Retrieved on May 8, 2018.
  14. ^ "Mainland Coaches." Hong Kong International Airport. Retrieved on May 8, 2018.
  15. ^ a b c d e f g ?.
  16. ^ "Sister & Friendship Cities". burnaby.ca. 2014. Retrieved 2014.
  17. ^ "International Relations, Official Web Site for The City and County of Honolulu". 2014. Archived from the original on 12 August 2011. Retrieved 2014.

External links


  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

Zhongshan
 



 



 
Music Scenes