Zhengzhou
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Zhengzhou
Zhengzhou


Chengchow
Clockwise from top left: Erqi Memorial Tower, Emperors Yan and Huang, Dengfeng Observatory, Shaolin Monastery, Zhengzhou Exhibition Center; and Center: The Pagoda Forest at the Shaolin Temple
Nickname(s): 
business city, green city
Motto(s): 
Partnership, Openness, Innovation, and Harmony ()
Location of Zhengzhou City; jurisdiction in Henan
Location of Zhengzhou City; jurisdiction in Henan
Zhengzhou is located in Eastern China
Zhengzhou
Zhengzhou
Location in China
Zhengzhou is located in China
Zhengzhou
Zhengzhou
Zhengzhou (China)
Coordinates (Henan Provincial Hall of the People): 34°45?50?N 113°41?02?E / 34.764°N 113.684°E / 34.764; 113.684Coordinates: 34°45?50?N 113°41?02?E / 34.764°N 113.684°E / 34.764; 113.684
CountryPeople's Republic of China
ProvinceHenan
City seatZhongyuan
Subdivisions
Government
 o MayorXinWei Wang
Area
 o Prefecture-level city7,507 km2 (2,898 sq mi)
 o Urban
1,024 km2 (395 sq mi)
 o Metro
1,979 km2 (764 sq mi)
Population
(2018)
 o Prefecture-level city10,120,000
 o Density1,300/km2 (3,500/sq mi)
 o Urban
5,810,000
 o Urban density5,700/km2 (15,000/sq mi)
GDP (2018)
 o Total GDP 1,014 billion
Time zoneUTC+8 (China Standard)
Postal code
450000
Area code(s)371
ISO 3166 codeCN-HA-01
License plate prefixes?A
Websitewww.zhengzhou.gov.cn
Zhengzhou
Zhengzhou (Chinese characters).svg
"Zhèngzh?u" in Simplified (top) and Traditional (bottom) Chinese characters
Simplified Chinese
Traditional Chinese
Literal meaning"Zhèng Settlement"
Zhengdong New Area central business district

Zhengzhou is the capital and largest city of Henan Province in the central part of the People's Republic of China.[2] It is one of the National Central Cities in China,[3] the centre of Central Plains area and serves as the political, economic, technological, and educational center of the province, as well as a major transportation hub in China (highway, railway, aviation, communication).[4] The Zhengzhou metropolitan area (including Zhengzhou and Kaifeng) is the core area of the Central Plains Economic Zone.[5][6]

Zhengzhou is a National Civilized City, State-list Famous Historical and Culture City, one of the Eight Ancient Capital Cities and one of the birthplaces of Chinese Civilization,[7] and the birthplace of the Yellow Emperor. Historically, Zhengzhou was the capital of China for a thousand years (five times). Currently, there are two World Cultural Heritage Sites (including 15 places) in Zhengzhou. The Zhengzhou Commodity Exchange (ZCE) is China's first futures exchange, Zhengzhou Airport Economy Zone is China's first Airport Economy Zone.[8]

The city lies on the southern bank of the Yellow River, and is one of the Eight Great Ancient Capitals of China.[9] As a center of China's national transportation network, there are railways connecting Zhengzhou and Europe,[10] and a bustling international airport (Asia, Europe, Africa, America, Oceania).[11]

Zhengzhou has a population of 10,120,000 inhabitants,[12][13] and had a GDP of 1,014 billion(RMB) in 2018.[14][15] The city is one of the main built-up areas of Henan region.[16] Greater Zhengzhou was named as one of the 13 emerging mega-cities in China in a July 2012 report by the Economist Intelligence Unit,[17] and officially named as the eighth National Central City in 2017 by the central government in Beijing.[18]

In 2011, a Journeyman documentary showcased the developments of the Zhengdong New Area of Zhengzhou as a ghost city. However, by 2016, the district had over 1.42 million residents and became the financial hub of Henan Province.[19][20]

History

The Shang dynasty established Aodu () or Bodu () in Zhengzhou.[21] This prehistorical city had become abandoned as ruins long before the First Emperor of China in BC 260. Since 1950, archaeological finds in a walled city in Eastern Zhengzhou have provided evidence of Neolithic Shang dynasty settlements in the area.[22][23] Outside this city, remains of large public buildings and a complex of small settlements have been discovered. The site is generally identified with the Shang capital of Ao and is preserved in the Shang dynasty Ruins monument in Guanchen District. The Shang, who continually moved their capital due to frequent natural disasters, left Ao at around 13th century BC. The site, nevertheless, remained occupied; Zhou (post-1050 BC) tombs have also been discovered.[24] Legend suggests that in the Western Zhou period (1111-771 BC) the site became the fief of a family named Guan. From this derives the name borne by the county (xian) since the late 6th century BC--Guancheng (City of the Guan). The city first became the seat of a prefectural administration in AD 587, when it was named Guanzhou. In 605 it was first called Zhengzhou--a name by which it has been known virtually ever since.[25]

The name Zhengzhou came from the Sui dynasty (AD 582), even though it was located in Chenggao, another town. The government moved to the contemporary city during the Tang dynasty. It achieved its greatest importance under the Sui (AD 581-618), Tang (618-907), and early Song (960-1127) dynasties, when it was the terminus of the New Bian Canal, which joined the Yellow River to the northwest. There, at a place called Heyin, a vast granary complex was established to supply the capitals at Luoyang and Chang'an to the west and the frontier armies to the north. In the Song period, however, the transfer of the capital eastward to Kaifeng robbed Zhengzhou of much of its importance.[]

In 1903 the Beijing-Hankou Railway arrived at Zhengzhou, and in 1909 the first stage of the Longhai Railway gave it an east-west link to Kaifeng and Luoyang; it later was extended eastward to the coast at Lianyungang, Jiangsu, and westward to Xi'an (Chang'an), Shaanxi, as well as to western Shaanxi. Zhengzhou thus became a major rail junction and a regional center for cotton, grain, peanuts, and other agricultural produce.[] Early in 1923 a workers' strike began in Zhengzhou and spread along the rail line before it was suppressed; a 14-story double tower in the center of the city commemorates the strike. On June 10, 1938, Chiang Kai-shek's National Revolutionary Army opened up the dikes retaining the Yellow River at Huayuankou between Zhengzhou and Kaifeng, in an effort to stem the tide of invading Japanese; however, the ensuing 1938 Yellow River flood also killed hundreds of thousands of Chinese.[26]

Zhengzhou also has a locomotive and rolling-stock repair plant, a tractor-assembly plant, and a thermal generating station. The city's industrial growth has resulted in a large increase in the population, coming predominantly from industrial workers from the north. A water diversion project and pumping station, built in 1972, has provided irrigation for the surrounding countryside.[] The city has an agricultural university.

Geography

Located just north of the province's centre and south of the Yellow River, Zhengzhou borders Luoyang to the west, Jiaozuo to the northwest, Xinxiang to the northeast, Kaifeng to the east, Xuchang to the southeast, and Pingdingshan to the southwest. With the land within its administrative borders generally sloping down from west to east, Zhengzhou is situated at the transitional zone between the North China Plain to the east and the Song Mountains and Xionger Mountains to the west, which are part of the greater Qinling range. The city centre is situated to the south of the middle reach of the Yellow River, where its valley broadens into the great plain. Zhengzhou is at the crossing point of the north-south route skirting the Taihang Mountains and the mountains of western Henan. The prefecture spans 34° 16' ~ 34° 58 N latitude and 112° 42' ~ 114° 14' E longitude, covering a total area of 7,446.2 square kilometres (2,875.0 sq mi), including the metropolitan area, which covers 1,013.3 km2 (391.2 sq mi), and the city centre, which occupies 147.7 square kilometres (57.0 sq mi).

The section of the Yellow River flowing through the prefecture extends 150.4 km (93.5 mi). Mountains loom over the western counties of Gongyi and Dengfeng while the easternmost county of Zhongmu is a vast, fertile floodplain, with the counties in between being hilly transitions.

Climate

Zhengzhou experiences a monsoon-influenced, four-season humid subtropical climate (Köppen climate classification Cwa), with cool, dry winters and hot, humid summers. Spring and autumn are dry and somewhat abbreviated transition periods. The city has an annual mean temperature of 14.73 °C (58.5 °F), with the monthly 24-hour average temperature ranging from 0.5 °C (32.9 °F) in January to 27.1 °C (80.8 °F) in July. The frost-free period lasts on average 220 days. Extremes since 1951 have ranged from -17.9 °C (0 °F) on 2 January 1955, 27 December 1971 and 1 February 1990 to 43.0 °C (109 °F) on 19 July 1966.[27][28]

Rainfall is primarily produced by the monsoonal low during summer; in winter, when the vast Siberian High dominates due to radiative cooling from further north, the area receives little precipitation. During the summer season, the city is also often affected by tropical depressions, which bring additional amounts of rain. The annual precipitation is about 630 millimetres (25 in). With monthly percent possible sunshine ranging from 45 percent in February and March to 54 percent in May, the city receives 2,182 hours of sunshine per year, which is just under half the possible total.

Administration and demography

Zhengzhou is divided into 6 urban districts, 5 county-level cities and 1 county. These subdivisions are likely to undergo significant changes in the near future due to increasingly rapid urban expansion and urban planning.

The municipality is home to 8,626,505 inhabitants (2010 census) and 6,35 million in its built up area made of 6 urban and suburban districts, Xingyang and Xinzheng cities and now Zhongmu county largely being urbanized, making the city one of the main built-up areas of the province.[16]

Map
Name Simplified Chinese Hanyu Pinyin Population
(2010)
Area (km2)
City proper
Jinshui District J?nshu? Q? 1,588,611 242
Erqi District Èrq? Q? 712,597 159
Huiji District Hùijì Q? 269,561 206
Guancheng Hui District Gu?nchéng Huízú Q? 645,888 204
Zhongyuan District zh?ngyuán Q? 905,430 195
Suburban
Shangjie District Shàngji? Q? 131,540 64.7
Satellite cities
Xingyang xíngyáng Shì 613,761 908
Xinzheng X?nzhèng Shì 758,079 873
Dengfeng D?ngf?ng Shì 668,592 1220
Xinmi X?nmí Shì 797,200 1001
Gongyi G?ngyì Shì 807,857 1041
Rural
Zhongmu County Zh?ngmù Xiàn 727,389 1393

Main sights

Dongfeng canal in Zhengdong New Area
Commercial area around Zhengzhou East Railway Station west plaza, with the tallest twin towers being Zhengzhou Greenland Central Plaza

Zhengzhou was the capital of China during the Shang dynasty. Parts of the Shang-era capital city wall that were built 3,600 years ago still remain in Downtown Zhengzhou (see Zhengzhou Shang City).[25] Zhengzhou maintains abundant cultural heritages that reflect its glorious history as well as the culture of Henan Province. Zhengzhou Confucius Temple, initially built during the Eastern Han dynasty 1900 years ago, is one of the oldest Confucian Temples in China. Other important architectural heritage sites in the city center include Town God Temple and Erqi Memorial Tower.

The internationally known tourist attraction is the Shaolin Monastery, which is in Dengfeng, about 90 kilometres (56 miles) southwest of downtown Zhengzhou (1.5 hours by coach). The Shaolin Monastery is not only known as one of China's most important Buddhist shrines, but also as the ancient center of Chinese Kung-fu. Shaolin Monastery and its famed Pagoda Forest were inscribed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2010.[32]

The Henan Museum is one of China's most important museums. It has a collection of more than 130,000 pieces of cultural relics includes exhibitions from prehistoric times, including dinosaur fossils and prehistoric human remains, up through the modern eras.

Zhengzhou's most developed and modern area is the Zhengdong New Area, which is in the eastern part of the city. It is home to some of the tallest skyscrapers in Zhengzhou, including the 280 metres (918.6 ft) tall Zhengzhou Greenland Plaza ("Big Corn"), which is one of the most prominent landmarks in Zhengzhou, and the twin towers of Zhengzhou Greenland Central Plaza (285 metres (935.0 ft)), which are currently the tallest skyscrapers in the city. The tallest structure in Zhengzhou is the 388-meter height Zhongyuan Tower, located on Hanghai East Road in the south of Zhengdong New Area. It is used as a television tower, with a revolving restaurant and an observation deck. The tower is among the tallest towers in the world.

Zhengzhou Zoo () is located on Huayuan Road ().

The newly built Zhengzhou Botanic Garden is at the western edge of Zhengzhou city.

Main attractions of Zhengzhou include:

Shaolin Temple (birthplace of Chinese Kung Fu)
The statues of the Yan Emperor and the Yellow Emperor at Zhengzhou Yellow River Scenic Area
Kang Baiwan's Mansion (Historical site)

Economy

Zhengzhou, along with Xi'an, Chengdu, Chongqing and Wuhan, is one of the most important cities in inland China. It is the economic center of the province and the surrounding areas such as southeastern Shanxi and southwestern Shandong. Due to its strategic location in one of the most populous areas in the world (nearly 100 million people in Henan alone) and in China's railway, road and aviation transport networks, Zhengzhou is increasingly attracting domestic and international investment as well as migrants from other areas, transforming the city into one of the largest economic centers in China. In 2018, total GDP of Zhengzhou was ? 1020 billion,[33][34] ranked 17th in China.

Agriculture

By the end of 2006, Zhengzhou had a total population of over 7 million, of which 2.88 million lived in rural areas.[35] Its main products include apples, paulownia, tobacco, maize, cotton, and wheat. In addition, Zhengzhou also produces Yellow River carp, Zhengzhou watermelons, Xinzheng jujube, Xingyang dried persimmons, Guangwu Pomegranate and Zhongmu garlic, all of which are specialties that are rarely found outside the region.

Mining and manufacturing

Zhengzhou and the surrounding area have large reserves of coal and other minerals. Coal mining and electricity generation are traditionally important in the local economy.

Zhengzhou has been one of the major industrial cities in The People's Republic of China since 1949. The city's staple industry is textiles. Others manufactured items include tractors, locomotives, cigarettes, fertilizer, processed meats, agricultural machinery, and electrical equipment. Some high-tech companies in new material, electronics and biotechnology are also growing rapidly during the recently years, especially in the high-tech industrial park in the northwest of the city.[]

  • Yutong, China's largest bus producer.
  • Shaolin Bus, a well-known small-to-medium-sized bus producer.[36]
  • Zhengzhou Nissan, a subsidiary of Dongfeng Nissan, specializing in the manufacture of SUVs and pickup trucks. In 2010, Nissan opened its second plant in the city.[37]
  • Haima Automobile Zhengzhou, an automobile manufacturer specializing in manufacturing microvans and light passenger vehicles.
  • Zhengzhou Unique Industrial Equipment Co., Ltd., a large tractor and agricultural equipment manufacturer.
  • Foxconn Zhengzhou, located in Zhengzhou Airport Economy Zone, is the largest smartphone production site in the world and is also known as "iPhone City".[38]
  • Mural Painting from Han Dynasty
    Sanquan Food, a frozen food company. With over 20000 employees,Sanquan produced the first frozen dumplings and rice balls in China.
  • Synear Food Holdings Limited, along with Sanquan Food, is one of the largest producers of frozen food in China. The market share is over 20% in China[39]

Services

The service industries of Zhengzhou include retail, wholesale, hospitality, finance, exhibition, transport and delivery, tourism, and education. With a number of domestic and international institutions having regional offices in the city, Zhengzhou is becoming the financial center in central China. Zhengzhou Commodity Exchange (ZCE) is one of the only three future exchanges (inc. Shanghai Futures Exchange and Dalian Commodity Exchange) in China and is becoming an important global player specialised in agricultural future exchange. Equipped with newly built facilities such as Zhengzhou International Conference and Exhibition Center. Third party logistics (3PL) in Zhengzhou has also been experiencing industrial boom during the past few years. As a transit and tourist center of Henan Province and central China, Zhengzhou is the center of Henan cuisine.

Economic development zones

The Zhengdong New Area (Chinese: ?), literally Eastern Zhengzhou New Area, similar to Hangzhou Bay New Area in Ningbo and Hengqin New Area in Zhuhai, is one of dozens of major economic zones that are currently developing in various regions of China.[40] Established in 2003 by the provincial and municipal governments, it has become the financial center of Henan province and one of the most rapidly growing areas of China.

Kisho Kurokawa, a Japanese world-renowned planner and architect, was appointed to design the overall planning scheme for Zhengdong New Area.[41] He brought in advanced ideas including ecological city, co-existing city, metabolic city and ring city ideas. The scheme won the "Prominent Award for City Planning Design" at the first session of Annual Meeting of the World Architects Alliance in 2002.[42] Zhengdong New Area is mainly constituted by the CBD area, the Longhu commercial and residential area, the Longzihu college area, and the Zhengzhou East railway station commercial area.

Industrial zones

  • Zhengzhou New & Hi-Tech Industries Development Zone

Zhengzhou High & New Technology Industries Development Zone was established in 1988, and approved by the state Council of PRC to be a state development zone on Mar.6,1991. It was appraised to be advanced high tech zone of China respectively in 1993, 1998 and 2002. The Zone currently covers a total area of 18.6 square kilometres (7.2 square miles). An extension plan was approved by Zhengzhou Municipal Government, the various construction work started in 2004. Under the development strategy of "multiple parks in one zone", the Zone has been making great efforts to promote the development of software,information technologies, new materials, bio-pharmaceutical and photo-machinery-electronic industries.[43]

  • Zhengzhou Economic and Technological Development Zone

Zhengzhou Economic and Technological Development Zone was approved as state-level development zone on February 13, 2000. The zone has a developed area of 7 square kilometres (3 square miles) Industries encouraged include Electronics Assembly & Manufacturing, Telecommunications Equipment, Trading and Distribution, Biotechnology/Pharmaceuticals, Instruments & Industrial Equipment Production, Medical Equipment and Supplies, Shipping/Warehousing/Logistics and Heavy Industry.[44]

  • Zhengzhou Export Processing Area

Zhengzhou (Henan) Export Processing Zone was established on June 21, 2002 with approval by the state council. Its planned area is 2.7 square kilometres (1.0 square mile). Zone A is located in Zhengzhou National Economic & technological Development Area and began to operate on June 1, 2004. The area of land developed is 0.893 square kilometres (0.345 square miles) at present. Zone B is located in Zhengzhou Airport Area and is adjacent to Zhengzhou Xinzheng International Airport on the north and it covers a planned area of 5 square km with bonded logistics zone, bonded processing zone and supporting industry zone, etc.[45]

Transportation

Zhengzhou is located in the central part of China and is a main national transport hub.

Public transit

Metro

System Map of Zhengzhou Metro

Zhengzhou Metro is a rapid transit metro rail network serving urban and suburban districts of Great Zhengzhou metropolitan. The Zhengzhou Metro system started operation on 28 December 2013. It currently has 4 lines in operation, creating a 134.1 km (83.3 mi) long network. The first 2 lines (Line 1 and Line 2) were approved by the National Development and Reform Commission in Feb. 2009.[46] Construction of the two lines started in 2009 and 2010, and were finished in 2013 and 2015 respectively.[47] The Chengjiao Line (planned to be part of Line 9), which is now in through operations with Line 2, allows the system to serve the Zhengzhou Xinzheng International Airport. A total of 21 metro lines have been planned to connect all areas in Great Zhengzhou Metropolitan Area.[48]

Bus

Yutong E12DD double-decker buses of Zhengzhou Bus at depot

Zhengzhou has a bus system with over 5,700 bus vehicles, operated by Zhengzhou Bus Communication Corporation (ZZB).[49]

The operations of Zhengzhou Bus Rapid Transit commenced in 2009. The system consists of 5 main routes (B1, B2, B3, B5 and B6) with dedicated bus lanes and dozens of branch routes that serve most areas of the city.

Railways

Zhengzhou East railway station, the main high-speed railway station in the city

Zhengzhou is the junction of the Longhai Railway (Lianyungang, Jiangsu-Lanzhou, Gansu) and the Beijing-Guangzhou Railway as well as a major national railway hub.[50]

Zhengzhou is also on the Beijing-Guangzhou-Shenzhen-Hong Kong high-speed railway and the Xuzhou-Lanzhou High-Speed Railway. The high-speed rail network provides fast train services to most major cities in China, including Beijing (2.5 hours), Guangzhou (6 hours), Xi'an (2 hours), Wuhan (2 hours), Shanghai (4 hours), Nanjing (3 hours), Hangzhou (5 hours), and Hong Kong (6.5 hours). Proposed high-speed railways from Zhengzhou to Chongqing, Hefei, Jinan and Taiyuan are under construction.

Zhengzhou is the hub of intercity railways in Henan. Currently, three intercity railways from Zhengzhou: Zhengzhou-Kaifeng intercity railway, Zhengzhou-Jiaozuo intercity railway and Zhengzhou-Xinzheng Airport intercity railway are in operation.

Main railway stations in the city include Zhengzhou Railway Station, which was opened in 1904 and is one of the most important railway stations in China; Zhengzhou East Railway Station, which is dedicated for high-speed trains and is one of the largest in Asia; and Zhengzhou South railway station, a new high-speed railway hub under construction.

Zhengzhou North railway station [zh], over 6,000 metres (20,000 ft) long and over 800 metres (2,600 ft) wide, has been described as Asia's largest classification yard[51]

Roads and Expressways

Longhai Expressway, a major urban express road in Zhengzhou

The surrounding area of Zhengzhou, along with the Yangtze River Delta, Pearl River Delta and the Bohai Economic Rim, has the highest highway density nationwide. Zhengzhou is the center of Henan expressway network that provides 1-2 hours road trip to surrounding cities of Kaifeng, Xinxiang, Xuchang, Jiaozuo and Luoyang. Other major cities within the province can be reached in 3 hours. The expressway network and national highways also links Zhengzhou to all major cities in the country.

There are several limited access express roads in the city center to relieve traffic problems. However, heavy congestion is still common in rush hours.

Expressways

National highways

Urban express roads

Air

Zhengzhou is primarily served by Zhengzhou Xinzheng International Airport (IATA: CGO, ICAO: ZHCC), which is 37 km (23 mi) southeast of the city center.

The airport is a focus city of China Southern Airlines, Lucky Air, West Air and Shenzhen Airlines. It used to be the headquarter for Henan Airlines. In 2017, it was the busiest airport in central China in both passenger and cargo traffic.[52] It is also one of the eight air hubs nominated by the Civil Aviation Administration of China.

Other airports in Zhengzhou include Shangjie Airport (IATA: HSJ) which is for general aviation, and Matougang Airbase which is for military use.

Colleges and universities

Zhengzhou University

Public

Military

Private

Notable people

Portrait of Zichan

Politics

The current mayor is Wu Tianjun from February 2006.

Statue of Mao Zedong in Zhengzhou

List of the CPC Party Chiefs of Zhengzhou:

  1. Gu Jingsheng (): October 1948-December 1948
  2. Wu Defeng (): December 1948-June 1949
  3. Zhao Wucheng (): June 1949 - April 1953
  4. Song Zhihe (): April 1953-August 1956
  5. Wang Lizhi (): August 1956-January 1968
  6. Wang Hui (): March 1971-January 1974
  7. Zhang Junqing (): January 1974-December 1977
  8. Yu Yichuan (): December 1977-December 1979
  9. Li Baoguang (): December 1979-May 1983
  10. Jiang Jinfei (): May 1983-September 1984
  11. Yao Minxue (): September 1984-August 1987
  12. Cao Lei (): August 1987-July 1990
  13. Song Guochen (): July 1990-May 1992
  14. Zhang Deguang (): May 1992-December 1995
  15. Wang Youjie (): December 1995-June 2001
  16. Li Ke (): June 2001-

Sister cities

Zhengzhou is twinned with:

Country City Since
 Japan Flag of Saitama, Saitama.svg Saitama City October 12, 1981[54]
 United States Richmond, Virginia September 14, 1994[55]
 Romania ROU CJ Cluj-Napoca CoA.png Cluj-Napoca April 9, 1995[56]
 South Korea Jinju July 25, 2000[57]
 Namibia Wappen Mariental - Namibia.jpg Mariental August 27, 2001[58]
 Jordan Irbid January 31, 2002[59]
 Russia Coat of Arms of Samara (Samara oblast).png Samara April 11, 2002[60]
 Brasil Brasão de Joinville.svg Joinville November 17, 2003[61]
 Germany DEU Schwerin COA.svg Schwerin April 12, 2006[62]
 Bulgaria Emblem of Shumen.svg Shumen April 27, 2007[63]
 Belarus Coat of Arms of Mahilo?.svg Mogilev June 12, 2014[64]

See also

Notes

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  13. ^ ": _?_". www.gov.cn. Retrieved .
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  15. ^ "Archived copy" 16(?)2017?GDP GDP ?1200-. news.dahe.cn. Archived from the original on 2018-02-24. Retrieved .CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
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  17. ^ "Supersized cities: China's 13 megalopolises". Archived from the original on 2012-07-21. Retrieved .
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  26. ^ Epstein, Israel (2005). History Should Not Be Forgotten. China Intercontinental Press. p. 70. ISBN 978-7-5085-0694-4.
  27. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on March 18, 2013. Retrieved 2013.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  28. ^ (2002). ?. ?. ISBN 978-7-5348-1822-6.
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