Zero Copula
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Zero Copula

Zero copula is a linguistic phenomenon whereby the subject is joined to the predicate without overt marking of this relationship (like the copula "to be" in English). One can distinguish languages that simply do not have a copula and languages that have a copula that is optional in some contexts.

Many languages exhibit this in some contexts, including Assamese, Bengali, Kannada, Malay/Indonesian, Turkish, Japanese, Ukrainian, Russian, Hungarian, Hebrew, Arabic, Berber,[1]Ganda, Hawaiian, Sinhala, and American Sign Language.

Dropping the copula is also found, to a lesser extent, in English and many other languages, used most frequently in rhetoric, casual speech, and headlinese, the writing style used in newspaper headlines. Sometimes, these omissions cause unintended syntactic ambiguity.

In English

Standard English exhibits a few limited forms of the zero copula. One is found in comparative correlatives like "the higher, the better" and "the more the merrier". However, no known natural language lacks this structure, and it is not clear how a comparative is joined with its correlate in this kind of copula.[2] Zero copula also appears in casual questions and statements like "you from out of town?" and "enough already!" where the verb (and more) may be omitted due to syncope. It can also be found, in a slightly different and more regular form, in the headlines of English newspapers, where short words and articles are generally omitted to conserve space. For example, a headline would more likely say "Parliament at a standstill" than "Parliament is at a standstill". Because headlines are generally simple, in "A is B" statements, an explicit copula is rarely necessary.

The zero copula is far more common in some varieties of Caribbean creoles and African American Vernacular English,[3] where phrases like "where you at?", and "who she?" can occur.[4] As in Russian and Arabic, the copula can only be omitted in the present tense; the copula can only be omitted in African American Vernacular English where it can be contracted in Standard American English.

In other languages

Omission frequently depends on the tense and use of the copula.

Assamese

In Assamese zero copula is usually used in the present tense with a prepositional phrase or the adverb 'here' or 'there'. For example, in the sentence, (Aami iayat, "We are here"), the copula ? (Aaso) is omitted.

Russian

In Russian the copula ? (byt') is normally omitted in the present tense, but not in the past and future tenses:

Present (omitted):

  • ? (Ona doma, "She at home"), literally "She is now at home, in the house"

Past (used):

  • ? ? (Ona byla doma, "She was at home")

The third person plural ? (sut', "are") is still used in some standard phrases, but since it is a homonym of the noun "essence", most native speakers do not notice it to be a verb:

  • ? ? ? (Oni sut' odno i to zhe, "they are one and the same").

The verb ? (byt') is the infinitive of "to be". The third person singular, ? (yest') means "is" (and it is a homophone of the infinitive "to eat"). As a copula, it can be inflected into the past (, byl), future (, budet), and conditional ( , byl by) forms. A present tense (?, yest') exists; however, it is almost never used as a copula, but rather omitted altogether or replaced by the verb (yavlyat'sa, "to be in essence"). Thus one can say:

  • ? ? (Ona byla krasavitsej, "she was a beautiful woman")--predicate noun in instrumental case.
  • (Ona krasavitsa, "she is a beautiful woman")--predicate noun in the nominative case.
  • ? (Ona yavlyayetsya krasavitsej, "she is a beautiful woman")--predicate noun also in instrumental.

But not usually:

  • ? (Ona yest' krasavitsa, "she is a beautiful woman"), which would be very formal and would suggest something more than a copula, something more existential than the normal English use of "is". As a result, this construction is quite rare.

But in some cases the verb ? in the present tense (form ?) is employed: ? , ? (Be who you are).

The present tense of the copula in Russian was in common use well into the 19th century (as attested in the works of Fyodor Dostoyevsky) but is now used only for archaic effect (analogous to "thou art" in English).

Turkic languages

There is a contrast between the regular verb "to be" (olmak) and the copulative/auxiliary verb "to be" (imek) in Turkish.

The auxiliary verb imek shows its existence only through suffixes to predicates that can be nouns, adjectives or arguably conjugated verb stems, arguably being the only irregular verb in Turkish. In the third person, zero copula is the rule, as in Hungarian or Russian. For example:

Deniz mavi. "[The] sea [is] blue." (the auxiliary verb i-mek is implied only);
Ben maviyim. "I am blue." (the auxiliary verb i-mek appears in (y)im.)

The essential copula is possible in the third person singular:[]

Deniz mavidir. "[The] sea is (always, characteristically) blue."

In Tatar, dir expresses doubt rather than a characteristic. The origin of dir is the verb durmak, with a similar meaning to the Latin stare.

Japanese

In Japanese, the copula is not used with predicative adjectives, such as gohan wa atsui(desu) ((), [the] food [is] hot). It is sometimes omitted with predicative nouns and adjectival nouns in non-past tense, such as keitai-denwa wa benri (?[?](), mobile phones [are] convenient), but is necessary for marking past tense or negation, as in ii keiken datta(ii keiken deshita) (?(?), [it] was [a] good experience). It is also sometimes omitted in wh-questions, such as nani kore? (Kore wa nan desuka?) (?(), what [is] this?).

M?ori

In M?ori, the zero copula can be used in predicative expressions and with continuous verbs (many of which take a copulative verb in many Indo-European languages) -- He nui te whare, literally "a big the house", "the house (is) big"; I te t?pu te pukapuka, literally "at (past locative particle) the table the book", "the book (was) on the table"; N? Ingarangi ia, literally "from England (s)he", "(s)he (is) from England"; Kei te kai au, literally "at the (act of) eating I", "I (am) eating"

Arabic

In Arabic, a Semitic language, the use of the zero copula again depends on the context. In the present tense affirmative, when the subject is definite and the predicate is indefinite, the subject is simply juxtaposed with its predicate. When both the subject and the predicate are definite, a pronoun (agreeing with the subject) may be inserted between the two. For example:

  • ? ‎ (Mu?ammad muhandis), "Muhammad is an engineer" (lit. "Muhammad an-engineer")
  • ? ?‎ (Mu?ammad huwa l-muhandis), "Muhammad is the engineer' (lit. "Muhammad he the-engineer")

The extra pronoun is highly recommended in order for one not to confuse the predicate for a qualifying adjective:

  • ? ?‎ (Mu?ammad al-muhandis), "Muhammad the engineer'

(This is just a noun phrase with no copula. See al- for more on the use of definite and indefinite nouns in Arabic and how it affects the copula.)

In the past tense, however, or in the present tense negative, the verbs k?na and laysa are used, which take the accusative case:

  • ? ?‎ (K?na Mu?ammad muhandisan), "Muhammad was an engineer' (k?na = "(he) was") (literally "be it Muhammad an-engineer")
  • ? ?‎ (Mu?ammad laysa muhandisan), "Muhammad is not an engineer' (lit. "Muhammad is not an-engineer")

When the copula is expressed with a verb, no pronoun need be inserted, regardless of the definiteness of the predicate:

  • ? ‎ (Mu?ammad laysa bi-l-muhandis), "Muhammad is not the engineer' (lit. "Muhammad is not of the-engineer")

Hebrew, another Semitic language, uses zero copula in a very similar way.

Ganda

The Ganda verb "to be", -li, is used in only two cases: when the predicate is a prepositional phrase and when the subject is a pronoun and the predicate is an adjective:

  • Ali mulungi, "She is beautiful' (ali, "(he/she) is")
  • Kintu ali mu mmotoka, "Kintu is in the car" (literally "Kintu he-is in-car")

Otherwise, the zero copula is used:

  • Omuwala mulungi, "The girl is beautiful" (literally "the-girl beautiful")

Here the word mulungi, "beautiful" is missing its initial vowel pre-prefix o-. If included, it would make the adjective qualify the noun omuwala attributively:

  • Omuwala omulungi, "The beautiful girl' or "a beautiful girl".

American Sign Language

American Sign Language does not have a copula. For example, "my hair is wet" is signed my hair wet, and "my name is Pete" may be signed [I NAME]topic P-E-T-E.

Irish

The copula is is used in Irish but may be omitted in the present tense. For example, Is fear mór é ("He is a big man") can be expressed as simply Fear mór é. The common phrase Pé scéal é (meaning "anyhow", lit. "Whatever story it [is]") also omits the copula.

Welsh

The fact that Welsh often requires the use of a predicative particle to denote non-definite predicates means that the copula can be omitted in certain phrases. For example, the phrase Ac yntau'n ddyn byr... ("Since he is/was/etc. a short man...") literally translates as "And he [particle] a short man...". The zero copula is especially common in Welsh poetry of the gogynfardd style.

Amerindian languages

Nahuatl, as well as some other Amerindian languages, has no copula. Instead of using a copula, it is possible to conjugate nouns or adjectives like verbs.

Grammarians and other comparative linguists, however, do not consider this to constitute a zero copula but rather an affixal copula. Affixal copulae are not unique to Amerindian languages but can be found, for instance, in Korean and in the Eskimo languages.

Many indigenous languages of South America do, however, have true zero copulae in which no overt free or bound morpheme is present when one noun is equated with another. In fact, zero-copula is likely to occur in third-person contexts in Southern Quechua (notice wasiqa hatunmi 'the house is big' vs. wasiqa hatunmi kan 'the house is big', where kan, the Quechua copula, is not really needed, as suggested by the first sentence).

See also

References

  1. ^ Chaker, Salem (1995). Linguistique berbère: études de syntaxe et de diachronie. Peeters Publishers. p. 13. ISBN 2-87723-152-6.
  2. ^ "Grammar Deconstructed: Constructions and the Curious Case of the Comparative Correlative" http://hdl.handle.net/1903/14114
  3. ^ Nordquist, Richard (Grammar & Composition Expert). "zero copula". About.com (an IAC company). Retrieved 2015. Definition: The absence of an explicit auxiliary verb (usually a form of the verb be) in certain constructions where it is customarily found in standard English. Also called copula deletion. In their book Spoken Soul: The Story of Black English (Wiley, 2000), John R. Rickford and Russell J. Rickford note that the zero copula is one of the most "distinctive and identity-affirming" characteristics of African-American Vernacular English (AAVE).
  4. ^ "be." The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition. (see Dictionary.com's definition under the "Our Living Language" note.)

Literature

  • Wolfram, Walter (1969) A Sociolinguistic Description of Detroit Negro Speech. Washington, DC: Center for Applied Linguistics p. 165-179

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