Yunus Emre
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Yunus Emre
Yunus Emre
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Yunus Emre Gedenkstätte in Ortschaft Haci Bektas bei Nevsehir TR.jpg
Statue of Yunus Emre in Hac?bekta?, Turkey
Personal
Born1238
Died1328
Yunusemre (formerly Saru), Ottoman Beylik, now Turkey
ReligionIslam
EthnicityTurkish
EraAnatolian beyliks
Known forSufism, Diwan in Old Anatolian Turkish
Muslim leader
Period in office13th and 14th century

Yunus Emre (Turkish pronunciation: [ju'nus em'?e]) also known as Dervi? Yunus (Yunus the Dervish) (1238-1328) was a Turkish folk poet and Sufi mystic who greatly influenced Turkish culture.[3] His name, Yunus, is the equivalent to the English name Jonah. He wrote in Old Anatolian Turkish, an early stage of Turkish. The UNESCO General Conference unanimously passed a resolution declaring 1991, the 750th anniversary of the poet's birth, International Yunus Emre Year.[4] Yunus Emre was influenced by the founder of Alevism, Hac? Bekta? Veli, and is an important figure amongst Alevis.

Biography

Yunus Emre has exercised immense influence on Turkish literature from his own day until the present, because Yunus Emre is, after Ahmed Yesevi and Sultan Walad, one of the first known poets to have composed works in the spoken Turkish of his own age and region rather than in Persian or Arabic. His diction remains very close to the popular speech of the people in Central and Western Anatolia. This is also the language of a number of anonymous folk-poets, folk-songs, fairy tales, riddles (tekerlemeler), and proverbs. Yunus Emre was a Sunni Muslim.[5]

Like the Oghuz Book of Dede Korkut, an older and anonymous Central Asian epic, the Turkish folklore that inspired Yunus Emre in his occasional use of tekerlemeler as a poetic device had been handed down orally to him and his contemporaries. This strictly oral tradition continued for a long while.[6] Following the Mongolian invasion of Anatolia facilitated by the Sultanate of Rûm's defeat at the 1243 Battle of Köse Da?, Islamic mystic literature thrived in Anatolia, and Yunus Emre became one of its most distinguished poets. Poems of Sultan Yunus Emre -- despite being fairly simple on the surface -- evidence his skill in describing quite abstruse mystical concepts in a clear way. He remains a popular figure in a number of countries, stretching from Azerbaijan to the Balkans, with seven different and widely dispersed localities disputing the privilege of having his tomb within their boundaries. Yunus Emre's most important book is Risaletu'n Nushiyye.[7]

His poems, written in the tradition of Anatolian folk poetry, mainly concern divine love as well as human destiny:

Yunus'dur benim ad?m
Gün geçtikçe artar odum
?ki cihanda maksûdum
Bana seni gerek seni.[8]

Yunus is my name,
Each passing day fans and rouses my flame,
What I desire in both worlds is the same:
You're the one I need, you're the one I crave.[9]

and

Araya araya bulsam izini
?zinin tozuna sürsem yüzümü
Hak nasip eylese, görsem yüzünü
Ya Muhammed can?m arzular seni

Bir mübarek sefer olsa da gitsem
Kâbe yollar?nda kumlara batsam
Mâh cemalin bir kez dü?te seyretsem
Ya Muhammed can?m pek sever seni

Ali ile Hasan-Hüseyin anda
Sevgisi gönülde, muhabbet canda
Yar?n mah?er günü hak divan?nda
Ya Muhammed can?m pek sever seni

"Yunus" senin medhin eder dillerde
Dillerde, dillerde, hem gönüllerde
Aray? aray? gurbet illerde
Ya Muhammed can?m arzular seni

(Poem about Muhammad, Ali, Hassan and Hussein.)

In popular culture

Gallery

See also

References

  1. ^ Güzel, O?uz & Karatay 2002, p. 672.
  2. ^ Ambros 2002, p. 349.
  3. ^ "Encyclopædia Britannica (2007)". Britannica.com. Retrieved 2015.
  4. ^ Halman, Talat (2007). Rapture and Revolution. Syracusa University Press, Crescent Hill Publications. p. 316.
  5. ^ Islam: A Worldwide Encyclopedia, ABC-CLIO, 2017, p. 1670, ISBN 9781610692175
  6. ^ Edouard Roditi. "Western and Eastern Themes in the Poetry of Yunus Emre", Journal of Comparative Poetics, No. 5, The Mystical Dimension in Literature (Spring, 1985), p. 27
  7. ^ "Yunus Emre'nin Eserleri". Enkucuk.com (in Turkish). 21 January 2018. Retrieved 2020.
  8. ^ Cevdet Kudret. Yunus Emre. Ankarank?lâp Kitabevi, 2003. ISBN 975-10-2006-9, p. 58
  9. ^ Grace Martin Smith. The Poetry of Y?nus Emre, A Turkish Sufi Poet. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1993. ISBN 0-520-09781-5, p. 124
  10. ^ "Central Bank of the Republic of Turkey". Archived from the original on 15 June 2009. Retrieved 2014.
  11. ^ "E 9 - Two Hundred Turkish Lira I. Series". Retrieved 2014.

Sources

  • Ambros, Edith G. (2002). "Yunus Emre". In Bearman, P. J.; Bianquis, TH.; Bosworth, C. E.; Van Donzel, E.; Heinrichs, W. P. (eds.). The Encyclopaedia of Islam. 11: W-Z. Brill. pp. 349-350.
  • Güzel, Hasan Celâl; O?uz, Cem; Karatay, Osman, eds. (2002). The Turks: Middle ages. Volume 2. Yeni Türkiye.
  • YÛNUS EMRE(in Turkish) -- An article published in the 43rd Volume of TDV ?slâm Ansiklopedisi, pp.600--606, in Istanbul (2013)

External links


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