Yukio Mishima
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Yukio Mishima

Yukio Mishima
Yukio Mishima cropped.jpg
Mishima in 1956
Born
Kimitake Hiraoka

(1925-01-14)January 14, 1925
DiedNovember 25, 1970(1970-11-25) (aged 45)
Ichigaya, Tokyo, Japan
Cause of deathSuicide by seppuku
Resting placeTama Cemetery
Alma materUniversity of Tokyo
Occupation
  • Novelist
  • playwright
  • poet
  • short-story writer
  • essayist
  • critic
Japanese name
Kanji
Hiragana
Katakana
Japanese name
Kanji
Hiragana? ?
Katakana? ?
Signature
Yukio Mishima signature.png

Kimitake Hiraoka ( , Hiraoka Kimitake, January 14, 1925 – November 25, 1970), known also under the pen name Yukio Mishima[a] ( , Mishima Yukio), was a Japanese author, poet, playwright, actor, model, film director, nationalist, and founder of the Tatenokai. Mishima is considered one of the most important Japanese authors of the 20th century. He was considered for the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1968, but the award went to his countryman Yasunari Kawabata.[5] His works include the novels Confessions of a Mask and The Temple of the Golden Pavilion, and the autobiographical essay Sun and Steel. Mishima's work is characterized by its luxurious vocabulary and decadent metaphors, its fusion of traditional Japanese and modern Western literary styles, and its obsessive assertions of the unity of beauty, eroticism and death.[6]

Mishima's personal life was controversial, which makes him still a contested figure today.[7][8][9][10] Ideologically a right wing nationalist, Mishima formed the Tatenokai, an unarmed civilian militia, for the avowed purpose of restoring power to the Japanese Emperor. On November 25, 1970, Mishima and four members of his militia entered a military base in central Tokyo, took the commandant hostage, and attempted to inspire the Japan Self-Defense Forces to overturn Japan's 1947 Constitution. When this was unsuccessful, Mishima committed seppuku.

Life and work

Early life

Mishima in his childhood (c. April 1931)

Mishima was born in the Yotsuya district of Tokyo (now part of Shinjuku). His father was Azusa Hiraoka, a government official, and his mother, Shizue, was the daughter of the 5th principal of the Kaisei Academy. Shizue's father, Kenz? Hashi, was a scholar of Chinese classics, and the Hashi family had served the Maeda clan for generations in Kaga Domain. Mishima's paternal grandparents were Sadatar? Hiraoka and Natsuko (family register name: Natsu) Hiraoka. He had a younger sister, Mitsuko, who died of typhus in 1945 at the age of 17, and a younger brother, Chiyuki.[11][page needed]

Mishima's early childhood was dominated by the presence of his grandmother, Natsuko, who took the boy, separating him from his immediate family for several years.[12] Natsuko was the granddaughter of Matsudaira Yoritaka, the daimy? of Shishido in Hitachi Province, and had been raised in the household of Prince Arisugawa Taruhito; she maintained considerable aristocratic pretensions even after marrying Mishima's grandfather, a bureaucrat who had made his fortune in the newly opened colonial frontier in the north and who eventually became Governor-General of Karafuto Prefecture on Sakhalin Island. Through his grandmother, Mishima was a direct descendant of Tokugawa Ieyasu.[13] Natsuko was prone to violence and morbid outbursts, which are occasionally alluded to in Mishima's works.[14] It is to Natsu that some biographers have traced Mishima's fascination with death.[15] Natsuko did not allow Mishima to venture into the sunlight, to engage in any kind of sport or to play with other boys; he spent much of his time alone or with female cousins and their dolls.[14]

Mishima returned to his immediate family when he was 12. His father, a man with a taste for military discipline, employed parenting tactics such as holding the young boy up to the side of a speeding train. He also raided Mishima's room for evidence of an "effeminate" interest in literature and often ripped apart the boy's manuscripts.

Schooling and early works

At the age of six, Mishima enrolled in the elite Gakush?in, the Peers' School in Tokyo.[16] At twelve, Mishima began to write his first stories. He voraciously read the works of numerous classic Japanese authors as well as Raymond Radiguet, Oscar Wilde, Rainer Maria Rilke and other European authors, both in translation and in the original. He studied German, French, and English. After six years at school, he became the youngest member of the editorial board of its literary society. Mishima was attracted to the works of the Japanese author Michiz? Tachihara (1914-39), which in turn created an appreciation for the classical Japanese poetry form of waka. Mishima's first published works included waka poetry before he turned his attention to prose.

He was invited to write a short story for the Gakush?in literary magazine and submitted Hanazakari no Mori (, "Forest in Full Bloom"), a story in which the narrator describes the feeling that his ancestors somehow still live within him. Mishima's teachers were so impressed that they recommended the story to the prestigious literary magazine Bungei-Bunka. The story makes use of the metaphors and aphorisms that later became his trademarks and was published in book form in 1944 in a limited edition (4,000 copies) because of the wartime shortage of paper. To protect him from a possible backlash from his schoolmates, his teachers coined the pen-name "Yukio Mishima".

Mishima's story Tabako (, "The Cigarette"), published in 1946, describes some of the scorn and bullying he faced at school when he later confessed to members of the school's rugby union club that he belonged to the literary society. This trauma also provided material for the later story Shi o Kaku Sh?nen (, "The Boy Who Wrote Poetry") in 1954.

Mishima received a draft notice for the Imperial Japanese Army during World War II. At the time of his medical check up, he had a cold, and the young army doctor heard rales from the lung which was misdiagnosed as tuberculosis; Mishima was declared unfit for service.[17]

Although his authoritarian father had forbidden him to write any further stories, Mishima continued to write every night in secret, supported and protected by his mother, who was always the first to read a new story. Attending lectures during the day and writing at night, Mishima graduated from the University of Tokyo in 1947. He obtained a position as an official in the government's Finance Ministry and was set up for a promising career. However, Mishima had exhausted himself so much that his father agreed to his resigning from the position during the first year of employment to devote himself to writing.[]

Post-war literature

Mishima wrote novels, popular serial novellas, short stories and literary essays, as well as highly acclaimed plays for the Kabuki theater and modern versions of traditional Noh drama. Kemono no Tawamure (?, "The Frolic of the Beasts") is considered a parody of the classical Noh play Motomezuka, written in the fourteenth century by the playwright Kiyotsugu Kan'ami. Mishima began the short story Misaki nite no Monogatari (, "A Story at the Cape") in 1945, and continued to work on it through the end of World War II. In January 1946, he visited famed writer Yasunari Kawabata in Kamakura, taking with him the manuscripts for Ch?sei (, "The Middle Ages") and Tabako, and asking for Kawabata's advice and assistance. In June 1946, following Kawabata's recommendations, Tabako was published in the new literary magazine Ningen (, "Humanity").

Also in 1946, Mishima began his first novel, T?zoku (, "Thieves"), a story about two young members of the aristocracy drawn towards suicide. It was published in 1948, placing Mishima in the ranks of the Second Generation of Postwar Writers. He followed with Confessions of a Mask, a semi-autobiographical account of a young homosexual who must hide behind a mask to fit into society. The novel was extremely successful and made Mishima a celebrity at the age of 24. Around 1949, Mishima published a series of essays in Kindai Bungaku on Yasunari Kawabata, for whom he had always had a deep appreciation.

His writing gained him international celebrity and a sizable following in Europe and the United States, as many of his most famous works were translated into English. Mishima traveled extensively; in 1952 he visited Greece, which had fascinated him since childhood. Elements from his visit appear in Shiosai (, "Sound of the Waves"), which was published in 1954, and drew inspiration from the Greek legend of Daphnis and Chloe.

Mishima made use of contemporary events in many of his works. The Temple of the Golden Pavilion published in 1956 is a fictionalization of the burning of the famous temple in Kyoto. Utage no ato ("After the Banquet"), published in 1960, so closely followed the events surrounding politician Hachir? Arita's campaign to become governor of Tokyo that Mishima was sued for invasion of privacy.[18] In 1962, Mishima's most avant-garde work, Utsukushii hoshi ("Beautiful Star"), which at times comes close to science fiction, was published to mixed critical response.

Mishima was considered for the Nobel Prize for Literature three times[19] and was a favorite of many foreign publications.[20] However, in 1968 his early mentor Kawabata won the Nobel Prize and Mishima realized that the chances of it being given to another Japanese author in the near future were slim.[21] In a work published in 1970, Mishima wrote that the writers he paid most attention to in modern western literature were Georges Bataille, Pierre Klossowski, and Witold Gombrowicz.[22]

Acting and modelling

Mishima was also an actor, and had a starring role in Yasuzo Masumura's 1960 film, Afraid to Die. He also had roles in films including Yukoku (directed by himself, 1966), Black Lizard (directed by Kinji Fukasaku, 1968) and Hitokiri (directed by Hideo Gosha, 1969). He also sang the theme song for Afraid to Die (lyrics by himself; music by Shichir? Fukazawa).

Mishima was featured as a photo model in Ba-ra-kei: Ordeal by Roses by Eikoh Hosoe, as well as in Young Samurai: Bodybuilders of Japan and Otoko: Photo Studies of the Young Japanese Male by Tamotsu Yat?. American author Donald Richie gave a short lively account of Mishima, dressed in a loincloth and armed with a sword, posing in the snow for one of Tamotsu Yato's photoshoots.[23]

Private life

Yukio Mishima (lower) with Shintaro Ishihara in 1956

In 1955, Mishima took up weight training and his workout regimen of three sessions per week was not disrupted for the final 15 years of his life. In his 1968 essay Sun and Steel,[24] Mishima deplored the emphasis given by intellectuals to the mind over the body. Mishima later also became very skilled at kendo, traditional Japanese swordsmanship.

After briefly considering a marital alliance with Michiko Sh?da (who later married Crown Prince Akihito and became Empress Emerita Michiko),[25] Mishima married Yoko Sugiyama on June 11, 1958. The couple had two children: a daughter named Noriko (born June 2, 1959) and a son named Iichiro (born May 2, 1962).

While working on Forbidden Colors, Mishima visited gay bars in Japan.[26] Mishima's sexual orientation was an issue that bothered his widow, and she always denied his homosexuality after his death.[27] In 1998, the writer Jiro Fukushima published an account of his relationship with Mishima in 1951, including fifteen letters between himself and the famed novelist. Mishima's children successfully sued Fukushima for violation of his privacy and copyright.[28]

In 1967, Mishima enlisted in the Ground Self-Defense Force (GSDF) and underwent basic training. A year later, he formed the Tatenokai ("shield society"), a private militia composed primarily of young students who studied martial principles and physical discipline, and swore to protect the Emperor of Japan. Mishima trained them himself. However, under Mishima's ideology, the emperor was not necessarily the reigning Emperor, but rather the abstract essence of Japan. In Eirei no Koe ("Voices of the Heroic Dead"), Mishima denounced Emperor Hirohito for renouncing his claim of divinity after World War II, arguing that millions of Japanese had died in the war for their "living god" Emperor, and that the Showa Emperor's renouncing his divinity meant that all those deaths were in vain.

In the final ten years of his life, Mishima wrote several full-length plays, acted in several films, and co-directed an adaptation of one of his stories, Patriotism, the Rite of Love and Death. He also continued work on his final tetralogy, The Sea of Fertility (H?j? no Umi), which appeared in monthly serialized format from September 1965.

Mishima espoused a very individual brand of nationalism towards the end of his life. He was hated by leftists, in particular for his outspoken commitment to bushido, the code of the samurai, and by mainstream nationalists for his contention, in Bunka B?eiron (, "A Defense of Culture"), that Hirohito should have abdicated and taken responsibility for the loss of life in the war.

Coup attempt and ritual suicide

Mishima delivering his speech in the failed coup attempt just prior to performing seppuku (November 25, 1970)

On November 25, 1970, Mishima and four members of the Tatenokai, under pretext, visited the commandant of the Ichigaya Camp, the Tokyo headquarters of the Eastern Command of the Japan Self-Defense Forces.[27] Inside, they barricaded the office and tied the commandant to his chair. With a prepared manifesto and a banner listing their demands, Mishima stepped onto the balcony to address the soldiers gathered below. His speech was intended to inspire a coup d'état to restore the power of the emperor. He succeeded only in irritating the soldiers, and was mocked and jeered. He finished his planned speech after a few minutes, returned to the commandant's office and performed seppuku. The assisting kaishakunin duty at the end of this ritual (to decapitate Mishima) had been assigned to Tatenokai member Masakatsu Morita, who was unable to properly perform the task. After three failed attempts at severing Mishima's head, he allowed another Tatenokai member, Hiroyasu Koga, to behead Mishima. Morita then knelt and stabbed himself in the abdomen and Koga again performed the kaishakunin duty. This coup is called "Mishima jiken" (?, "Mishima Incident") in Japan.

Another traditional element of the suicide ritual was the composition of so-called death poems before their entry into the headquarters.[29] Mishima planned his suicide meticulously for at least a year and no one outside the group of hand-picked Tatenokai members had any indication of what he was planning. His biographer, translator John Nathan, suggests that the coup attempt was only a pretext for the ritual suicide of which Mishima had long dreamed.[30] Mishima made sure his affairs were in order and left money for the legal defense of the three surviving Tatenokai members.

Legacy

Much speculation has surrounded Mishima's suicide. At the time of his death he had just completed the final book in his Sea of Fertility tetralogy.[27] He was recognized as one of the most important post-war stylists of the Japanese language. Mishima wrote 34 novels, about 50 plays, about 25 books of short stories, and at least 35 books of essays, one libretto, as well as one film.

Grave of Yukio Mishima in Tama Cemetery. inscription:"grave of Hiraoka family"

Mishima's grave is located at the Tama Cemetery in Fuch?, Tokyo. The Mishima Prize was established in 1988 to honor his life and works. On July 3, 1999, "Mishima Yukio Bungaku-kan" (, "Mishima Yukio Literary Museum") was opened in Yamanakako.

A 1985 biographical film by Paul Schrader titled Mishima: A Life in Four Chapters depicts his life and work; however, it has never been given a theatrical presentation in Japan. A 2012 film titled 11:25 The Day He Chose His Own Fate also looks at Mishima's last day.

In 2014, Mishima was one of the inaugural honorees in the Rainbow Honor Walk, a walk of fame in San Francisco's Castro neighborhood noting LGBTQ people who have "made significant contributions in their fields."[31][32][33]

Awards

Major works

Literature

Japanese title English title Year English translation, year ISBN

()
Kamen no Kokuhaku
Confessions of a Mask 1949 Meredith Weatherby, 1958,

Peter Owen Publishers, reissue due December 2017.

0-8112-0118-X
?
Ai no Kawaki
Thirst for Love 1950 Alfred H. Marks, 1969 4-10-105003-1

Kinjiki
Forbidden Colors 1951-1953 Alfred H. Marks, 1968-1974 0-375-70516-3

Shiosai
The Sound of Waves 1954 Meredith Weatherby, 1956 0-679-75268-4

Kinkaku-ji
The Temple of the Golden Pavilion 1956 Ivan Morris, 1959 0-679-75270-6
?
Ky?ko no Ie
Kyoko's House 1959  
?
Utage no Ato
After the Banquet 1960 Donald Keene, 1963 0-399-50486-9

Kuro Tokage
(play)
The Black Lizard 1961 Mark Oshima, 2007 1-929280-43-2
?
Kemono no Tawamure
(novel)
The Frolic of the Beasts 1961 Andrew Clare, 2018 978-0525434153
Star (novella) Star 1961 Sam Bett, 2019 978-0811228428

Gogo no Eik?
The Sailor Who Fell from Grace with the Sea 1963 John Nathan, 1965 0-679-75015-0

Nikutai no Gakk?
The School of Flesh 1963  
?
Kinu to Meisatsu
Silk and Insight 1964 Hiroaki Sato, 1998 0-7656-0299-7
?
Mikumano M?de
(short story)
Acts of Worship 1965 John Bester, 1995 0-87011-824-2

Sado K?shaku Fujin
(play)
Madame de Sade 1965 Donald Keene, 1967 0-394-17304-X
()
Y?koku
(short story)
Patriotism 1961 Geoffrey W. Sargent, 1966 0-8112-1312-9
?
Manatsu no Shi
(short story)
Death in Midsummer and other stories 1953 Edward G. Seidensticker, Ivan Morris,
Donald Keene, Geoffrey W. Sargent, 1966
0-8112-0117-1

Rokumeikan
(play)
Rokumeikan 1956 Hiroaki Sato, 2002 0-231-12633-6
?
Hagakure Ny?mon
Way of the Samurai 1967 Kathryn Sparling, 1977 0-465-09089-3

Suzaku-ke no Metsub?
(play)
The Decline and Fall of The Suzaku 1967 Hiroaki Sato, 2002 0-231-12633-6

Waga Tomo Hittor?
(play)
My Friend Hitler and Other Plays 1968 Hiroaki Sato, 2002 0-231-12633-6

Inochi Urimasu
Life for Sale 1968 Stephen Dodd, 2019 978-0241333143 (Penguin Classic UK)

Rai? no Terasu
(play)
The Terrace of The Leper King 1969 Hiroaki Sato, 2002 0-231-12633-6
?
(?)
Taiy? to Tetsu
Sun and Steel 1968 John Bester 4-7700-2903-9
?
(?)
H?j? no Umi
The Sea of Fertility tetralogy: 1965-1970   0-677-14960-3
I.
Haru no Yuki
1. Spring Snow 1969 Michael Gallagher, 1972 0-394-44239-3
II.
Honba
2. Runaway Horses 1969 Michael Gallagher, 1973 0-394-46618-7
III.
Akatsuki no Tera
3. The Temple of Dawn 1970 E. Dale Saunders and Cecilia S. Seigle, 1973 0-394-46614-4
IV. ?
Tennin Gosui
4. The Decay of the Angel 1971 Edward Seidensticker, 1974 0-394-46613-6

Plays for classical Japanese theatre

In addition to contemporary-style plays such as Madame de Sade, Mishima wrote for two of the three genres of classical Japanese theatre: Noh and Kabuki (as a proud Tokyoite, he would not even attend the Bunraku puppet theatre, always associated with Osaka and the provinces).[36]

Though Mishima took themes, titles and characters from the Noh canon, his twists and modern settings, such as hospitals and ballrooms, startled audiences accustomed to the long-settled originals.

Donald Keene translated Five Modern Noh Plays (Tuttle, 1981; ISBN 0-8048-1380-9). Most others remain untranslated and so lack an "official" English title; in such cases it is therefore preferable to use the r?maji title.

Year Japanese title English title Genre
1950
Kantan
The Magic Pillow Noh
1951
Aya no Tsuzumi
The Damask Drum Noh
1952
Sotoba Komachi
Komachi at the Gravepost Noh
1954
Aoi no Ue
The Lady Aoi Noh
1954
()
Iwashi Uri Koi Hikiami
The Sardine Seller's Net of Love Kabuki
1955 ?
Fuy? no Tsuyu ?uchi Jikki
The Blush on the White Hibiscus Blossom: Lady Fuyo and the True Account of the ?uchi Clan Kabuki
1955
Hanjo
Noh
1957
D?j?ji
D?j?ji Temple Noh
1959
Yuya
Noh
1960
Yoroboshi
The Blind Young Man Noh
1969
Chinsetsu Yumiharizuki
A Wonder Tale: The Moonbow
or Half Moon (like a Bow and arrow setting up): The Adventures of Tametomo
Kabuki

Films

Year Title United States release title(s) Character Director
1951 ?
Jumpaku no Yoru
Unreleased in the U.S. an extra (dance party scene) Hideo ?ba
1959 ?
Fud?toku Ky?ikuk?za
Unreleased in the U.S. himself Katsumi Nishikawa
1960
Karakkaze Yar?
Afraid to Die Takeo Asahina Yasuzo Masumura
1966
Y?koku
The Rite of Love and Death
Patriotism
Shinji Takeyama Yukio Mishima,
Domoto Masaki (sub)
1968
Kurotokage
Black Lizard Human Statue Kinji Fukasaku
1969
Hitokiri
Tenchu! Shimbei Tanaka Hideo Gosha

Works about Mishima

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Pronunciation: , ,[1][2][3][4]Japanese: [mi?ima].

References

  1. ^ "Mishima". Collins English Dictionary. HarperCollins. Retrieved 2019.
  2. ^ "Mishima, Yukio". Lexico Dictionaries. Retrieved 2020. (US) and "Mishima, Yukio". Oxford Dictionaries. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 2019.
  3. ^ "Mishima". The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (5th ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. 2014. Retrieved 2019.
  4. ^ "Mishima". Merriam-Webster Dictionary. Retrieved 2019.
  5. ^ Mccarthy, Paul (May 5, 2013). "Revealing the many masks of Mishima". The Japan Times. Retrieved 2020.
  6. ^ Rankin, Andrew (2018). Mishima, Aesthetic Terrorist: An Intellectual Portrait. University of Hawaii Press. p. 119.
  7. ^ Belsky, Beryl. "Yukio Mishima: The Turbulent Life Of A Conflicted Martyr". Culture Trip.
  8. ^ "Yukio Mishima - 'The Lost Samurai'". Japan Today.
  9. ^ Flanagan, Damian (November 21, 2015). "Yukio Mishima's enduring, unexpected influence". The Japan Times.
  10. ^ "Everyone in Japan Has Heard of Him". archive.nytimes.com.
  11. ^ Inose, Naoki; Sato, Hiroaki (2012). Persona : A Biography of Yukio Mishima. Berkeley CA: Stone Bridge Press. ISBN 978-1-61172-524-7. OCLC 826479168.
  12. ^ Liukkonen, Petri. "Yukio Mishima". Books and Writers (kirjasto.sci.fi). Finland: Kuusankoski Public Library. Archived from the original on October 10, 2004.
  13. ^ "?(?) - Reichsarchiv ~~". reichsarchiv.jp.
  14. ^ a b "Mishima, Yukio (1925-1970)". Archived from the original on February 21, 2015.
  15. ^ "Yukio Mishima (January 14, 1925 - November 25, 1970". Archived from the original on November 21, 2008.
  16. ^
  17. ^ Mishima, Yukio (1957). [My Puberty] (in Japanese). My?j?, Shueisha.
  18. ^ Cooper-Chen, Anne; Kodama, Miiko (1997). Mass communication in Japan. Wiley-Blackwell. p. 187. ISBN 978-0-8138-2710-0. Retrieved 2010.
  19. ^ "Nomination Database: Yukio Mishima". Nobel prize. Retrieved 2016.
  20. ^ Flanagan, Damian. "Mishima, Murakami and the elusive Nobel Prize". Japan Times. Retrieved 2016.
  21. ^ McCarthy, Paul. "Revealing the many masks of Mishima". Japan Times. Retrieved 2016.
  22. ^ Mishima, Yukio; 2=Bataille, Georges (1995). My Mother/Madame Edwarda/The Dead Man. London: Marion Boyars. pp. 4, 11. ISBN 0-7145-3004-2.
  23. ^ Richie, Donald (2005). The Japan journals : 1947-2004. Berkeley, Calif.: Stone Bridge. pp. 148-149. ISBN 978-0-89346-984-9. OCLC 773692477.
  24. ^ "Inside The Soviet KGB's Secret War On Western Books". RadioFreeEurope RadioLiberty. April 21, 2019. Retrieved 2019.
  25. ^ Sheridan, Michael (March 27, 2005). "Briton let author commit hara kiri". The Sunday Times. ISSN 0956-1382. Retrieved 2020.
  26. ^ Scott-Stokes, Henry (2000) [1974]. The Life and Death of Yukio Mishima (1st Cooper Square Press ed.). New York: Cooper Square Press. p. 130. ISBN 0-8154-1074-3. OCLC 44313407.
  27. ^ a b c Kakutani, Michiko (September 15, 1985). "Mishima: Film Examines an Affair with Death". The New York Times. Retrieved 2020.
  28. ^ Sato, Hiroaki (December 29, 2008). "Suppressing more than free speech". The View from New York. Retrieved 2014.
  29. ^ Keene, Donald (1988). The Pleasures of Japanese Literature. New York: Columbia University Press. p. 62. ISBN 0-231-06736-4. OCLC 18068964.
  30. ^ Nathan, John. Mishima: A biography, Little Brown and Company: Boston/Toronto, 1974.
  31. ^ Shelter, Scott (March 14, 2016). "The Rainbow Honor Walk: San Francisco's LGBT Walk of Fame". Quirky Travel Guy. Retrieved 2019.
  32. ^ "Castro's Rainbow Honor Walk Dedicated Today: SFist". SFist - San Francisco News, Restaurants, Events, & Sports. September 2, 2014. Archived from the original on August 10, 2019. Retrieved 2019.
  33. ^ Carnivele, Gary (July 2, 2016). "Second LGBT Honorees Selected for San Francisco's Rainbow Honor Walk". We The People. Retrieved 2019.
  34. ^ "" [Yomiuri Prize for Literature]. Yomiuri Shimbun (in Japanese). Retrieved 2018.
  35. ^ "Candidates for the 1963 Nobel Prize in Literature". Nobel Prize. 2013. Retrieved 2014.
  36. ^ Keene, Donald (2008). Chronicles of My Life: An American in the Heart of Japan. New York: Columbia University Press. p. 104. ISBN 978-0-231-14440-7. OCLC 173299185.
  37. ^ "web-magazine GYAN GYAN". matsuzack.jougennotuki.com.
  38. ^ Yamashita, Kunihiko (1991). [Ryuichi Sakamoto Complete Works] (in Japanese). Ohta Shuppan.

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