|Phonemic representation||j, i, e|
|Position in alphabet||10|
|Alphabetic derivatives of the Phoenician|
|Cyrillic||?, ?, ?, ?|
Yodh (also spelled yud, yod, jod, or jodh) is the tenth letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician Y?d , Hebrew Y?d ?, Aramaic Yodh , Syriac Y ?, and Arabic Y ?. Its sound value is in all languages for which it is used; in many languages, it also serves as a long vowel, representing .
The term yod is often used to refer to the speech sound , a palatal approximant, even in discussions of languages not written in Semitic abjads, as in phonological phenomena such as English "yod-dropping".
|Various print fonts||Cursive
In both Biblical and modern Hebrew, Yud represents a palatal approximant . As a mater lectionis, it represents the vowel . At the end of words with a vowel or when marked with a sh'va nach, it represents the formation of a diphthong, such as /ei/, /ai/, or /oi/.
In gematria, Yud represents the number ten.
As a suffix, it indicates first person singular possessive; av (father) becomes avi (my father).
"Yod" in the Hebrew language signifies iodine. Iodine is also called yod in Arabic.
As Yud is the smallest letter, much kabbalistic and mystical significance is attached to it. According to the Gospel of Matthew, Jesus mentioned it during the Antithesis of the Law, when he says: "One jot or one tittle shall in no wise pass from the law, till all be fulfilled." Jot, or iota, refers to the letter Yud; it was often overlooked by scribes because of its size and position as a mater lectionis. In modern Hebrew, the phrase "tip of the Yud" refers to a small and insignificant thing, and someone who "worries about the tip of a Yud" is someone who is picky and meticulous about small details.
Loanwords from Hebrew or Aramaic in Yiddish are spelled as they are in their language of origin.
|Writing system||Arabic script|
|Language of origin||Arabic language|
The letter ? is named y?' (?). It is written in several ways depending on its position in the word:
It is pronounced in four ways:
As a vowel, y can serve as the "seat" of the hamza: ?
Y serves several functions in the Arabic language. Y as a prefix is the marker for a singular imperfective verb, as in ? yaktub "he writes" from the root ?-?-? K-T-B ("write, writing"). Y with a shadda is particularly used to turn a noun into an adjective, called a nisbah (?). For instance, Mi?r (Egypt) -> Mi?riyy (Egyptian). The transformation can be more abstract; for instance, maw (matter, object) -> mawiyy (objective). Still other uses of this function can be a bit further from the root: ? ishtir?k (cooperation) -> ? ishtir?kiyy (socialist). The common pronunciation of the final /-ijj/ is most often pronounced as [i] or [i:].
A form similar to but distinguished from y is the ?alif maqrah ( ?) "limited/restricted alif", with the form ?. It indicates a final long /a:/.
In Egypt, Sudan and sometimes the Maghreb, the final form is always ? (without dots), both in handwriting and in print, representing both final /-i:/ and /-a:/. ? representing final /-a:/ (DIN 31635 transliteration: ?) is less likely to occur in Modern Standard Arabic. In this case, it is commonly known as, especially in Egypt, ?alif layyinah ['?ælef læj'jenæ]. In Egypt, it is always short [-æ, -?] if used in Egyptian Arabic and most commonly short in Modern Standard Arabic, as well.
The alif maqrah ( , 'limited/restricted alif'), commonly known in Egypt as alif layyinah ( ?, 'flexible alif'), looks like a dotless y?' ? (final ) and may appear only at the end of a word. Although it looks different from a regular alif, it represents the same sound /a:/, often realized as a short vowel. When it is written, alif maqrah is indistinguishable from final Persian ye or Arabic y?' as it is written in Egypt, Sudan and sometimes elsewhere. The letter is transliterated as y in Kazakh. Alif maqsurah is transliterated as á in ALA-LC, ? in DIN 31635, à in ISO 233-2, and ? in ISO 233.
In Arabic, Alif maqsurah ? is not used initially or medially, and it is not joinable initially or medially in all fonts. However, the letter is used initially and medially in the Uyghur Arabic alphabet and the Arabic-based Kyrgyz alphabet: ( ).
In the Persian alphabet, the letter is generally called ye following Persian-language custom. In its final form, the letter does not have dots (?), much like the Arabic Alif maqrah or, more to the point, much like the custom in Egypt, Sudan and sometimes Maghreb. On account of this difference, Perso-Arabic ye is located at a different Unicode code point than both of the standard Arabic letters. In computers, the Persian version of the letter automatically appears with two dots initially and medially: ( ).
In Kashmiri, it uses a ring instead from ? of a dots below (? ).
In different calligraphic styles like the Hijazi script, Kufic, and Nasta?l?q script, a final y might have a particular shape with the descender turned to the right (), called al-y al-mard?dah/al-r?ji?ah ("returned, recurred y"), either with two dots or without them.
In Urdu this is called ba ye ("big ye"), but is an independent letter used for /?:, e:/ and differs from the basic ye (cho ye, "little ye"). For this reason the letter has its own code point in Unicode. Nevertheless, its initial and medial forms are not different from the other ye (practically ba ye is not used in these positions).
|Position in word:||Isolated||Final||Medial||Initial|
|Unicode name||HEBREW LETTER YOD||ARABIC LETTER YEH||PERSIAN LETTER YE||SYRIAC LETTER YUDH||SAMARITAN LETTER YUT|
|UTF-8||215 153||D7 99||217 138||D9 8A||219 140||DB 8C||220 157||DC 9D||224 160 137||E0 A0 89|
|Numeric character reference||י
|Unicode name||UGARITIC LETTER YOD||IMPERIAL ARAMAIC LETTER YODH||PHOENICIAN LETTER YOD|
|UTF-8||240 144 142 138||F0 90 8E 8A||240 144 161 137||F0 90 A1 89||240 144 164 137||F0 90 A4 89|
|UTF-16||55296 57226||D800 DF8A||55298 56393||D802 DC49||55298 56585||D802 DD09|
|Numeric character reference||𐎊