Yi People
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Yi People

Yi people


Alternative names:
Nuosu and dozens of others
Yi-Minority.JPG
Total population
9 million (2010)
Regions with significant populations
China (Yunnan, Sichuan, Guizhou, Guangxi): 9 million (2010)
Vietnam: 4,827 (2019)[1]
Thailand and Laos: 2,203 (2015)
Languages
Yi (majority); Southwestern Mandarin (minority)
Religion
Majority - Bimoism (native Yi variety of Shamanism); minority - Taoism, Tibetan Buddhism
Related ethnic groups
Bamar, Naxi, Qiang, Tibetan, Tujia
Black Nuosu Yi of Daliangshan
Black Nuosu Yi of Daliangshan
Yi woman in traditional dress
Yi woman in traditional dress with a child
Yi man in traditional dress
Yi woman in traditional dress
Yi man in traditional dress

The Yi or Nuosuo people (historically known as Lolo),[note 1] are an ethnic group in China, Vietnam and Thailand. Numbering nine million people, they are the seventh largest of the 55 ethnic minority groups officially recognized by the People's Republic of China. They live primarily in rural areas of Sichuan, Yunnan, Guizhou and Guangxi, usually in mountainous regions. Liangshan Yi Autonomous Prefecture is home to the largest population of Yi people within mainland China, with two million Yi people in the region. For other countries, as of 1999, there were 3,300 Mantsi-speaking "Lô Lô" people living in the Hà Giang, Cao B?ng and Lào Cai provinces in Northern Vietnam.

The Yi speak various Loloish languages, closely related to Burmese. The prestige variety is Nuosu, which is written in the Yi script.

Location

Of the more than 9 million Yi people, over 4.5 million live in Yunnan Province, 2.5 million live in southern Sichuan Province and 1 million live in the northwest corner of Guizhou Province. Nearly all the Yi live in mountainous areas,[] often carving out their existence on the sides of steep mountain slopes far from the cities of China.

The altitudinal differences of the Yi areas directly affect the climate and precipitation of these areas. These striking differences are the basis of the old saying that "The weather is different a few miles away" in the Yi area. Yi populations in different areas are very different from one another, making their living in completely different ways.[2]


Subgroups

Although different groups of Yi refer to themselves in different ways (including Nisu, Sani, Axi, Lolo, Acheh) and sometimes speak mutually unintelligible languages, they have been grouped into a single ethnicity by the Chinese and the various local appellations can be classified into three groups:

  • Ni (?). The appellations of Nuosu,[3]Nasu, Nesu, Nisu and other similar names are considered derivatives of the original autonym "?" (Nip) appended with the suffix -su, indicating "people". The name "Sani" is also a variety of this group. Further, it is widely believed that the Chinese names ? and ? (both pinyin: ) were derived from Ni.
  • Lolo. The appellations of Lolo, Lolopu, etc. are related to the Yi people's worship of the tiger, as "lo" in their dialects means "tiger". "Lo" is also the basis for the Chinese exonym Luóluó , or . The original character ?, with the "dog radical" ?and a gu? ? phonetic, was a graphic pejorative,[4] comparable to the Chinese name gu?ran , "a long-tailed ape". Languages reforms in the PRC replaced the ? character in Luóluó twice. First by Luó ?, with the "human radical" ?and the same phonetic, but that was a graphic variant for lu? ?, "naked" and later by Luó ?, "net for catching birds". Paul K. Benedict noted, "a leading Chinese linguist, has remarked that the name 'Lolo' is offensive only when written with the 'dog' radical.[5]
  • Other. This group includes various other appellations of different groups of Yi. Some of them may be of other ethnic groups but are recognised as Yi by the Chinese. The "Pu" may be relevant to an ancient ethnic group Pu (?). In the legends of the Northern Yi, the Yi people conquered Pu and its territory in the northeastern part of the modern Liangshan.

(Groups listed below are sorted by their broad linguistic classification and the general geographic area where they live. Within each section, larger groups are listed first.)

Classification Approximate total population Groups
Southern 1,082,120 Nisu, Southern Nasu, Muji, A Che, Southern Gaisu, Pula,
Boka, Lesu, Chesu, Laowu, Alu, Azong, Xiuba
Southeastern 729,760 Poluo, Sani, Axi, Azhe, Southeastern Lolo, Jiasou, Puwa,
Aluo, Awu, Digao, Meng, Xiqi, Ati, Daizhan, Asahei, Laba,
Zuoke, Ani, Minglang, Long
Central 565,080 Lolopo, Dayao Lipo, Central Niesu, Enipu, Lopi, Popei
Eastern 1,456,270 Eastern Nasu, Panxian Nasu, Wusa Nasu, Shuixi Nosu,
Wuding Lipo, Mangbu Nosu, Eastern Gepo, Naisu, Wumeng,
Naluo, Samei, Sanie, Luowu, Guopu, Gese, Xiaohei Neisu,
Dahei Neisu, Depo, Laka, Lagou, Aling, Tushu, Gouzou,
Wopu, Eastern Samadu
Western 1,162,040 Mishaba Laluo, Western Lolo, Xiangtang, Xinping Lalu,
Yangliu Lalu, Tusu, Gaiji, Jiantou Laluo, Xijima, Limi, Mili,
Lawu, Qiangyi, Western Samadu, Western Gepo,
Xuzhang Lalu, Eka, Western Gaisu, Suan, Pengzi
Northern 2,534,120 Shengba Nosu, Yinuo Nosu, Xiaoliangshan Nosu, Butuo Nosu,
Suodi, Tianba Nosu, Bai Yi, Naruo, Naru, Talu, Mixisu, Liwu,
Northern Awu, Tagu, Liude, Naza, Ta'er
Unclassified 55,490 Michi (Miqie), Jinghong Nasu, Apu, Muzi, Tanglang, Micha,
Ayizi, Guaigun

History

A Yi woman in traditional dress

According to Yi legend, all life originated in water and water was created by snowmelt, which as it dripped down, created a creature called the Ni. The Ni gave birth to all life. Ni is another name for the Yi people. It is sometimes translated as black because black is a revered color in Yi culture.[6] Yi tradition tells us that their common ancestor was named Apu Dumu ? or ? (Axpu Ddutmu or Axpu Jjutmu). Apu Dumu had three wives, each of whom had two sons. The six sons migrated to the area that is now Zhaotong and spread out in the four directions, creating the Wu, Zha, Nuo, Heng, Bu, and Mo clans.[7] The Yi practiced a lineage system where younger brothers were treated as slaves by their elders, which resulted in a culture of migration where younger brothers constantly left their villages to create their own domains.[6]

Guizhou kingdoms

The Heng clan divided into two branches. One branch, known as the Wumeng settled along the western slope of the Wumeng Mountain range, extending their control as far west as modern day Zhaotong. The other branch, known as the Chele, moved along the eastern slope of the Wumeng Mountain range and settled to the north of the Chishui River. By the Tang dynasty (618-907), the Chele occupied the area from Xuyong in Sichuan to Bijie in Guizhou. The Bu clan fragmented into four branches. The Bole branch settled in Anshun, the Wusa branch settled in Weining, the Azouchi branch settled in Zhanyi, and the Gukuge branch settled in northeast Yunnan. The Mo clan, descended from Mujiji (), split into three branches. One branch known as the Awangren, led by Wualou, settled in southwest Guizhou and formed the Ziqi Kingdom. Wuake led the second branch, the Ayuxi, to settle near Ma'an Mountain south of Huize. Wuana led the third branch to settle in Hezhang. In the 3rd century AD, Wuana's branch split into the Mangbu branch in Zhenxiong, led by Tuomangbu, and Luodian () in Luogen, led by Tuoazhe. By 300, Luodian covered over much of the Shuixi region. Its ruler, Mowang (), moved the capital to Mugebaizhage (modern Dafang), where he renamed his realm the Mu'ege kingdom, otherwise known as the Chiefdom of Shuixi.[7]

Nasu Yi kingdoms by the Tang dynasty
Kingdom Ruling clan Modern area
Badedian Mangbu Zhenxiong
Luodian/Luoshi Bole Anshun
Mu'ege Luo Dafang
Ziqi/Yushi Awangren Southwest Guizhou

After the Han dynasty, the Shu of the Three Kingdoms conducted several wars against the ancestors of Yi under the lead of Zhuge Liang. They defeated the king of Yi, (Mot Hop, ) and expanded their conquered territory in Yi area. After that, the Jin Dynasty succeed Shu as the suzerainty of Yi area but with weak control.

Yunnan kingdoms

Some historians believe that the majority of the kingdom of Nanzhao were of the Bai people,[8] but that the elite spoke a variant of Nuosu (also called Yi), a Tibeto-Burman language closely related to Burmese.[9] The Cuanman people came to power in Yunnan during Zhuge Liang's Southern Campaign in 225. By the fourth century they had gained control of the region, but they rebelled against the Sui dynasty in 593 and were destroyed by a retaliatory expedition in 602. The Cuan split into two groups known as the Black and White Mywa.[10] The White Mywa (Baiman) tribes, who are considered the predecessors of the Bai people, settled on the fertile land of western Yunnan around the alpine fault lake Erhai. The Black Mywa (Wuman), considered to be predecessors of the Yi people, settled in the mountainous regions of eastern Yunnan. These tribes were called Mengshe (), Mengxi (), Langqiong (), Tengtan (), Shilang (), and Yuexi (). Each tribe was known as a zhao.[11] In academia, the ethnic composition of the Nanzhao kingdom's population has been debated for a century. Chinese scholars tend to favour the theory that the rulers came from the aforementioned Bai or Yi groups, while some non-Chinese scholars subscribed to the theory that the Tai ethnic group was a major component, that later moved south into modern-day Thailand and Laos.[12]

In 649, the chieftain of the Mengshe tribe, Xinuluo (), founded the Great Meng () and took the title of Qijia Wang (; "Outstanding King"). He acknowledged Tang suzerainty.[13] In 652, Xinuluo absorbed the White Mywa realm of Zhang Lejinqiu, who ruled Erhai Lake and Cang Mountain. This event occurred peacefully as Zhang made way for Xinuluo of his own accord. The agreement was consecrated under an iron pillar in Dali. Thereafter the Black and White Mywa acted as warriors and ministers respectively.[11]

In 704 the Tibetan Empire made the White Mywa tribes into vassals or tributaries.[10]

In the year 737 AD, with the support of the Tang dynasty, the great grandson of Xinuluo, Piluoge (), united the six zhaos in succession, establishing a new kingdom called Nanzhao (Mandarin, "Southern Zhao"). The capital was established in 738 at Taihe, (the site of modern-day Taihe village, a few miles south of Dali). Located in the heart of the Erhai valley, the site was ideal: it could be easily defended against attack and it was in the midst of rich farmland.[14] Under the reign of Piluoge, the White Mywa were removed from eastern Yunnan and resettled in the west. The Black and White Mywa were separated to create a more solidified caste system of ministers and warriors.[11]

Nanzhao existed for 165 years until A.D. 902. After 35 years of tangled warfare, Duan Siping () of the Bai birth founded the Kingdom of Dali, succeeding the territory of Nanzhao. Most Yi of that time were under the ruling of Dali. Dali's sovereign reign lasted for 316 years until it was conquered by Kublai Khan. During the era of Dali, Yi people lived in the territory of Dali but had little communication with the royalty of Dali.

Kublai Khan included Dali in his domain, grouping it with Tibet. The Yuan emperors remained firmly in control of the Yi people and the area they inhabited as part of Kublai Khan's Yunnan Xingsheng (?) at current Yunnan, Guizhou and part of Sichuan. In order to enhance its sovereign over the area, the Yuan dynasty set up a dominion for Yi, Luoluo Xuanweisi (), the name of which means local appeasement government for Lolos. Although technically under the rule of the Yuan emperor, the Yi still had autonomy during the Yuan dynasty. The gulf between aristocrats and the common people increased during this time.

Ming and Qing dynasties

Beginning with the Ming dynasty, the Chinese empire expedited its cultural assimilation policy in Southwestern China, spreading the policy of gaitu guiliu (?; 'replacing tusi') [local chieftains] with ?normal? officials").[15] The governing power of many Yi feudal lords had previously been expropriated by the successors of officials assigned by the central government. With the progress of gaitu guiliu, the Yi area was dismembered into many communities both large and small, and it was difficult for the communities to communicate with each other as there were often Han-ruled areas between them.

The Kangxi Emperor of the Qing dynasty defeated Wu Sangui and took over the land of Yunnan and established a provincial government there. When Ortai became the Viceroy of Yunnan and Guizhou during the era of Yongzheng Emperor, the policy of gaitu guiliu and cultural assimilation against Yi were strengthened. Under these policies, Yi who lived near Kunming were forced to abandon their convention of traditional cremation and adopt burial, a policy which triggered rebellions among the Yi. The Qing dynasty suppressed these rebellions.

After the Second Opium War (1856-1860), many Christian missionaries from France and Great Britain visited the area in which the Yi lived. Although some missionaries believed that Yi of some areas such as Liangshan were not under the ruling of Qing dynasty and should be independent, most aristocrats insisted that Yi was a part of China despite their resentment against Qing rule.

Modern era

1891 map showing a "Lolo" enclave in modern Liangshan, Sichuan

Long Yun, a Yi, was the military governor of Yunnan, during the Republic of China rule on mainland China.

The Fourth Front Army of the CCP encountered the Yi people during the Long March and many Yi joined the communist forces.[16]

After the establishment of the PRC, several Yi autonomous administrative districts of prefecture or county level were set up in Sichuan, Yunnan and Guizhou. With the development of automotive traffic and telecommunications, the communications among different Yi areas have been increasing sharply.

Yi polities throughout history

Language

The Chinese government recognizes six mutually unintelligible Yi languages, from various branches of the Loloish family:[18]

Northern Yi is the largest with some two million speakers and is the basis of the literary language. It is an analytic language.[19] There are also ethnically Yi languages of Vietnam which use the Yi script, such as Mantsi.

Many Yi in Yunnan, Guizhou and Guangxi know Standard Chinese and code-switching between Yi and Chinese is common.

Script

A religious document in ancient Yi script
Signpost in modern Yi

The Yi script was originally logosyllabic like Chinese and dates to at least the 13th century. There were perhaps 10,000 characters, many of which were regional, since the script had never been standardized across the Yi peoples. A number of works of history, literature and medicine, as well as genealogies of the ruling families, written in the Old Yi script are still in use and there are Old Yi stone tablets and steles in the area.

Under the Communist government, the script was standardized as a syllabary. Syllabic Yi is widely used in books, newspapers and street signs.

Culture

Armor of Yi people, Qing dynasty

Slavery

Traditional Yi society was divided into four castes, the aristocratic nuohuo Black Yi, the commoner qunuo White Yi, the ajia, and the xiaxi. The Black Yi made up around 7 per cent of the population while the White Yi made up 50 per cent of the population. The two castes did not intermarry and the Black Yi were always considered of higher status than the White Yi, even if the White Yi was wealthier or owned more slaves. The White and Black Yi also lived in separate villages. The Black Yi did not farm, which was traditionally done by White Yi and slaves. Black Yi were responsible only for administration and military activities. The White Yi were not technically slaves but lived as indentured servants to the Black Yi. The Ajia made up 33 per cent of the population. They were owned by both the Black and White Yi and worked as indentured laborers lower than the White Yi. The Xiaxi were the lowest caste. They were slaves who lived with their owners' livestock and had no rights. They could be beaten, sold, and killed for sport. Membership of all four castes was through patrilineal descent.[20][21][22][23][24][25] The prevalence of the slave culture was so great that sometimes children were named after how many slaves they owned. For example: Lurbbu (many slaves), Lurda (strong slaves), Lurshy (commander of slaves), Lurnji (origin of slaves), Lurpo (slave lord), Lurha, (hundred slaves), Jjinu (lots of slaves).[26]

Folklore

The most famous hero in Yi mythology is Zhyge Alu. He was the son of a dragon and an eagle who possessed supernatural strength, anti-magic, and anti-ghost powers. He rode a nine-winged flying horse called "long heavenly wings." He also had the help of a magical peacock and ptyhon. The magical peacock was called Shuotnie Voplie and could deafen the ears of those who heard its cry, but if invited into one's house, would consume evil and expel leprosy. The python, called Bbahxa Ayuosse, was defeated by Zhyge Alu, who wrestled with it in the ocean after transforming into a dragon. It was said to be able to detect leprosy, cure tuberculosis, and eradicate epidemics. Like the Chinese mythological archer, Hou Yi, Zhyge Alu shoots down the suns to save the people. In the Yi religion Bimoism, Zhyge Alu aids the bimo priests in curing leprosy and fighting ghosts.[27]

Jiegujienuo was a ghost that caused dizziness, slowness in action, dementia and anxiety. The ghost was blamed for ailments and exorcism rituals were conducted to combat the ghost. The bimo erected small sticks considered to be sacred, the kiemobbur, at the ritual site in preparation.[27]

Music

The Yi play a number of traditional musical instruments, including large plucked and bowed string instruments,[28] as well as wind instruments called bawu () and mabu (). The Yi also play the hulu sheng, though unlike other minority groups in Yunnan, the Yi do not play the hulu sheng for courtship or love songs (aiqing). The kouxian, a small four-pronged instrument similar to the Jew's harp, is another commonly found instrument among the Liangshan Yi. Kouxian songs are most often improvised and are supposed to reflect the mood of the player or the surrounding environment. Kouxian songs can also occasionally function in the aiqing form. Yi dance is perhaps the most commonly recognized form of musical performance, as it is often performed during publicly sponsored holidays and/or festival events.

Literature

Artist Colette Fu, great granddaughter of Long Yun has spent time from 1996 till present photographing the Yi community in Yunnan Province. Her series of pop-up books, titled We are Tiger Dragon People, includes images of many Yi groups.[29][30]

Religion

Bimoism

Bimoism is the ethnic religion of the Yi. Shaman-priests of this faith are known as bimo, which means 'master of scriptures'. Bimo officiate at births, funerals, weddings and holidays. They are often seen along the street consulting ancient scripts. The Yi worship deified ancestors similarly to the Chinese traditional religion practitioners, besides gods of local nature: fire, hills, trees, rocks, water, earth, sky, wind and forests.

Ritual performances play a major role in daily life through healing, exorcism, asking for rain, cursing enemies, blessing, divination and analysis of one's relationship with the gods. They believe dragons protect villages against bad spirits, and demons cause diseases. However, the Yi dragon is neither similar to dragon in Western culture nor the same as that in Han culture. After someone dies they sacrifice a pig or sheep at the doorway to maintain relationship with the deceased spirit. The Yi believe that bad spirits cause illness, poor harvests and other misfortunes and inhabit all material things. The Yi also believe in multiple souls. At death, one soul remains to watch the grave while the other is eventually reincarnated into some living form.

The Nosu form of Bimoism (the religion of the Nosu or Nuosu subgroup of the Yi) distinguishes two sorts of shamans: the bimo and the suni, respectively hereditary and ordained priests. One can become bimo by patrilineal descent after a time of apprenticeship or formally acknowledging an old bimo as the teacher, a suni must be elected. Bimo are the most revered, to the point that the Nosu religion is also called "bimo religion". Bimo can read Yi scripts while suni cannot. Both can perform rituals, but only bimo can perform rituals linked to death. For most cases, suni only perform some exorcism to cure diseases. Generally, suni can only be from humble civil birth while bimo can be of both aristocratic and humble families.

In recent decades the Bimoist faith has undergone a revival, with large temples built in the early-2010s.[31][32][33]

Other religions

In Yunnan, some of the Yi have adopted Buddhism as a result of exchanges with other predominantly Buddhist ethnic groups present in Yunnan, such as the Dai and the Tibetans. The most important god of Yi Buddhism is Mah?k?la, a wrathful deity found in Vajrayana and Tibetan Buddhism. In the 20th century, some Yi people in China converted to Christianity, after the arrival of Gladstone Porteous in 1904 and, later, medical missionaries such as Alfred James Broomhall, Janet Broomhall, Ruth Dix and Joan Wales of the China Inland Mission. According to missionary organization OMF International, the exact number of Yi Christians is not known. In 1991 it was reported that there were as many as 1,500,000 Yi Christians in Yunnan Province, especially in Luquan County where there are more than 20 churches.[34]

Medicine

The Yi are known for the extent of their inter-generational transmission of traditional medicine through oral tradition and written records. Their traditional medicine system has been academically inventoried.[35] Since the prefecture the Yi medicinal data was collected from also contains the cave containing human-infectable SARS clades and it is known that people living in the vicinity SARS caves show serological signs of past infection,[36][37] it has been suggested that the Yi were repeatably exposed to coronavirus over their history, passively learned to medicinally fend off coronavirus infection centuries ago, and committed the results into their inter-generational record of medicinal indications.[38]

Distribution

Yi autonomous prefectures and counties in China
Yi population by counties
County-level distribution of the Yi 2000 census in China.

(Only includes counties or county-equivalents containing >1% of county population.)

County/city Yi % Yi population Total population
Sichuan province 2.58 2,122,389 82,348,296
Panzhihua city 10.11 110,326 1,091,657
Dong district 1.25 3,945 315,707
Xi district 1.84 3,148 170,862
Renhe district 19.06 38,907 204,170
Miyi county 13.21 27,381 207,300
Yanbian county 19.08 36,945 193,618
Leshan city 3.53 117,355 3,324,139
Jinkouhe district 10.15 5,373 52,916
Ebian Yi autonomous county 30.65 43,269 141,166
Mabian Yi autonomous county 39.15 66,723 170,425
Pingshan county 2.00 5,004 250,620
Yaan city 2.04 31,013 1,522,845
Hanyuan county 4.51 15,686 347,471
Shimian county 11.17 13,769 123,261
Garze Tibetan autonomous prefecture 2.56 22,946 897,239
Luding county 4.40 3,424 77,855
Jiulong county 37.01 18,806 50,816
Liangshan Yi autonomous prefecture 44.43 1,813,683 4,081,697
Xichang city 16.48 101,369 615,212
Muli Tibetan autonomous county 27.71 34,489 124,462
Yanyuan county 47.67 149,568 313,765
Dechang county 23.18 43,810 188,980
Huili county 17.33 75,064 433,185
Huidong county 6.91 24,279 351,310
Ningnan county 21.85 37,134 169,962
Puge county 76.55 106,521 139,156
Butuo county 95.44 132,285 138,604
Jinyang county 78.42 109,813 140,028
Zhaojue county 96.75 200,951 207,712
Xide county 85.74 118,048 137,676
Mianning county 33.39 108,289 324,332
Yuexi county 72.54 172,505 237,800
Ganluo county 68.66 120,445 175,426
Meigu county 97.81 172,356 176,214
Leibo county 51.36 106,757 207,873
Guizhou province 2.39 843,554 35,247,695
Baiyun district 1.04 1,961 187,695
Qingzhen city 1.65 7,761 471,305
Liupanshui city 9.56 262,308 2,744,085
Zhongshan district 5.64 25,549 453,293
Liuzhi special district 11.32 61,319 541,762
Shuicheng county 11.70 79,339 678,228
Pan county 8.97 96,101 1,070,802
Qianxi'nan Bouyei Miao autonomous prefecture 2.05 58,766 2,864,920
Xingyi city 2.02 14,521 719,605
Xingren county 2.44 10,372 425,091
Puan county 2.66 6,905 259,881
Qinglong county 6.76 17,436 258,031
Anlong county 2.28 9,094 399,384
Bijie prefecture 7.41 468,800 6,327,471
Bijie city 4.26 48,094 1,128,230
Dafang county 10.84 92,295 851,729
Qianxi county 8.67 60,420 697,075
Jinsha county 4.17 20,696 496,063
Zhijin county 3.81 31,420 825,350
Nayong county 5.72 37,840 661,772
Weining Yi Hui Miao autonomous county 9.06 95,629 1,056,009
Hezhang county 13.48 82,406 611,243
Yunnan province 11.11 4,705,658 42,360,089
Kunming city 6.65 384,531 5,781,294
Wuhua district 2.56 10,580 413,420
Panlong district 1.59 5,468 344,754
Guandu district 3.38 47,311 1,398,305
Xishan district 5.07 30,617 603,363
Dongchuan district 3.26 8,984 275,564
Chenggong county 1.22 2,202 180,685
Jinning county 7.64 20,443 267,739
Fumin county 7.44 10,422 140,046
Yiliang county 6.06 24,051 396,677
Shilin Yi autonomous county 32.49 72,779 223,978
Luquan Yi Miao autonomous county 22.45 96,388 429,355
Xundian Hui Yi autonomous county 8.91 42,934 481,721
Anning city 3.34 9,872 295,173
Qujing city 3.85 210,351 5,466,089
Qilin district 2.16 14,041 648,956
Malong county 3.41 6,326 185,766
Shizong county 6.21 21,718 349,770
Luoping county 6.44 33,159 515,211
Fuyuan county 7.16 47,076 657,474
Huize county 2.00 16,910 844,485
Zhanyi county 2.16 8,406 389,838
Xuanwei city 4.46 57,708 1,292,825
Yuxi city 19.32 400,412 2,073,005
Hongta district 9.02 36,905 409,044
Jiangchuan county 5.48 14,087 257,078
Chengjiang county 1.82 2,726 149,748
Tonghai county 5.82 16,017 275,063
Huaning county 21.29 41,844 196,519
Yimen county 26.75 45,362 169,581
Eshan Yi autonomous county 52.36 79,289 151,426
Xinping Yi Dai autonomous county 46.20 122,259 264,615
Yuanjiang Hani Yi Dai autonomous county 20.97 41,923 199,931
Zhaotong prefecture 3.23 148,521 4,592,388
Zhaotong city 2.58 18,758 727,959
Ludian county 2.51 8,686 345,740
Qiaojia county 2.86 13,183 461,034
Daguan county 1.98 4,667 235,802
Yongshan county 4.72 17,130 362,943
Zhenxiong county 5.78 63,463 1,097,093
Yiliang county 4.24 20,269 477,811
Chuxiong Yi autonomous prefecture 26.31 668,937 2,542,530
Chuxiong city 19.05 95,959 503,682
Shuangbai county 43.10 66,110 153,403
Mouding county 22.03 43,032 195,322
Nanhua county 36.07 82,223 227,970
Yaoan county 25.38 50,526 199,071
Dayao county 29.52 82,620 279,838
Yongren county 49.44 51,223 103,606
Yuanmou county 24.25 49,179 202,779
Wuding county 30.18 79,254 262,601
Lufeng county 16.61 68,811 414,258
Honghe Hani Yi autonomous prefecture 23.57 973,732 4,130,463
Gejiu city 20.27 91,902 453,311
Kaiyuan city 33.09 96,647 292,039
Mengzi county 29.38 99,917 340,051
Pingbian Miao autonomous county 18.51 27,596 149,088
Jianshui county 29.02 149,071 513,712
Shiping county 53.67 148,987 277,580
Mile county 30.92 153,235 495,642
Luxi county 7.99 29,202 365,585
Yuanyang county 24.01 87,137 362,950
Honghe county 14.23 38,086 267,627
Jinping Miao Yao Dai autonomous county 11.97 37,837 316,171
Lüchun county 4.92 9,894 201,256
Hekou Yao autonomous county 4.42 4,221 95,451
Wenshan Zhuang Miao autonomous prefecture 10.62 347,194 3,268,553
Wenshan county 17.28 74,255 429,639
Yanshan county 21.11 92,356 437,508
Xichou county 3.95 9,332 236,120
Malipo county 2.25 6,036 267,986
Maguan county 9.16 32,056 350,002
Qiubei county 18.05 78,327 434,009
Guangnan county 5.84 42,675 730,376
Funing county 3.17 12,157 382,913
Pu'er city 16.58 411,120 2,480,346
Simao district 15.12 34,904 230,834
Ning'er Hani Yi autonomous county 19.45 36,589 188,106
Mojiang Hani autonomous county 9.23 32,812 355,364
Jingdong Yi autonomous county 39.92 140,556 352,089
Jinggu Dai Yi autonomous county 20.59 59,476 288,794
Zhenyuan Yi Hani Lahu autonomous county 27.28 56,119 205,709
Jiangcheng Hani Yi autonomous county 13.47 13,503 100,243
Menglian Dai Lahu Va autonomous county 2.40 4,999 208,593
Lancang Lahu autonomous county 6.74 31,255 464,016
Ximeng Va autonomous county 1.05 907 86,598
Xishuangbanna Dai autonomous prefecture 5.61 55,772 993,397
Jinghong city 5.56 24,673 443,672
Menghai county 2.28 7,175 314,068
Mengla county 10.15 23,924 235,657
Dali Bai autonomous prefecture 12.94 426,634 3,296,552
Dali city 2.95 15,385 521,169
Yangbi Yi autonomous county 46.09 48,565 105,380
Xiangyun county 7.26 31,733 437,371
Binchuan county 6.27 20,332 324,412
Midu county 8.35 24,791 296,860
Nanjian Yi autonomous county 47.24 99,159 209,887
Weishan Yi Hui autonomous county 34.07 100,879 296,124
Yongping county 26.56 47,391 178,438
Yunlong county 5.45 10,739 196,978
Eryuan county 3.00 9,443 315,003
Jianchuan county 2.88 4,771 165,900
Heqing county 5.40 13,446 249,030
Baoshan prefecture 3.23 75,877 2,348,315
Baoshan city 4.61 39,025 846,865
Shidian county 3.62 11,360 314,187
Longling county 1.83 4,758 260,097
Changning county 6.04 20,123 333,241
Lijiang prefecture 18.68 210,431 1,126,646
Lijiang Naxi autonomous county 2.42 8,871 366,705
Yongsheng county 12.43 46,703 375,769
Huaping county 8.26 12,808 154,968
Ninglang Yi autonomous county 61.97 142,049 229,204
Nujiang Lisu autonomous prefecture 1.99 9,805 491,824
Lushui county 2.28 3,915 171,974
Lanping Bai Pumi autonomous county 2.91 5,727 196,977
Diqing Tibetan autonomous prefecture 3.29 11,616 353,518
Zhongdian county 6.50 9,586 147,416
Weixi Lisu autonomous county 1.38 2,016 146,017
Lincang prefecture 15.77 367,880 2,332,570
Lincang county 5.43 15,478 285,163
Fengqing county 27.61 117,883 426,943
Yun county 37.96 158,099 416,507
Yongde county 8.68 29,521 339,918
Zhenkang county 17.19 31,334 182,258
Shuangjiang Lahu Va Blang Dai autonomous county 1.57 2,605 165,982
Gengma Dai Va autonomous county 3.57 11,193 313,220
Longlin autonomous county (Guangxi) 1.03 3,563 347,462

Notable people

  • Zhang Liyin (1989-), singer
  • Jike Junyi (1988-), singer
  • Long Yun (1884-1962), governor and warlord of Yunnan Province
  • Lu Han (1895-1974), general and governor of Yunnan Province

Gallery

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Nuosu: , [ns?]; Hanzi transcription: ; Nuòs?, Chinese: ; pinyin: Yízú; lit.: 'Yi ethnicity', Chinese: ; pinyin: Lu?lu?; Vietnamese: Lô Lô; Thai: -, Lo-Lo

References

Citations

  1. ^ "Report on Results of the 2019 Census". General Statistics Office of Vietnam. Retrieved 2020.
  2. ^ "Ethnic Groups - china.org.cn". China.org.cn. Retrieved 2014.
  3. ^ Some scholars, however, argue that the Nuosu-series appellations are from the word "black" instead (?, Nuo).
  4. ^ Ramsey, Robert S. (1987). The Languages of China, p. 160. Princeton University Press.
  5. ^ Benedict, Paul K. (1987). "Autonyms: ought or ought not." Linguistics of the Tibeto-Burman Area 10: 188. Italics in original.
  6. ^ a b https://publishing.cdlib.org/ucpressebooks/view?docId=kt896nd0h7&chunk.id=pt01&toc.depth=1&toc.id=pt01&brand=ucpress/
  7. ^ a b Cosmo 2003, p. 248-249.
  8. ^ Joe Cummings, Robert Storey (1991). China, Volume 10 (3, illustrated ed.). the University of California: Lonely Planet Publications. p. 705. ISBN 0-86442-123-0. Retrieved 2011.
  9. ^ C. X. George Wei (2002). Exploring nationalisms of China: themes and conflicts. Indiana University: Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 195. ISBN 0-313-31512-4. Retrieved 2011.
  10. ^ a b Beckwith 1987, p. 65.
  11. ^ a b c https://medium.com/@diantnam/the-faded-buddhist-country-a-brief-history-of-ancient-yunnan-constitution-f2bd5c9f52c7
  12. ^ Zhou, Zhenhe; You, Rujie (8 September 2017). Chinese Dialects and Culture. American Academic Press. p. 187. ISBN 9781631818844.
  13. ^ http://www.chinaknowledge.de/History/Altera/nanzhao.html
  14. ^ Blackmore 1960.
  15. ^ Ulrich Theobald, ChinaKnowledge.de: An Encyclopedia on Chinese History, Literature and Art, s.v. "gaitu guiliu", http://www.chinaknowledge.de/History/Terms/gaituguiliu.html
  16. ^ Edgar, Snow. "Red Star Over China," 225. Harmondsworth, Middlesex, England: Penguin Books, 1972.
  17. ^ Herman, John E. (2020). Amid the Clouds and Mist: China's Colonization of Guizhou, 1200-1700. Brill. p. 34. ISBN 978-1-68417-463-8.
  18. ^ Andrew West, The Yi People and Language
  19. ^ ; (2006). "". -(). doi:10.3969/j.issn.1004-3926.2006.08.014.
  20. ^ Martin Schoenhals Intimate Exclusion: Race and Caste Turned Inside Out 2003- Page 26 "A non-slave-owning Black Yi, or a poor one, was nonetheless always higher in caste status than any White Yi, even a wealthy one or one owning slaves, and the Black Yi manifested this superiority by refusing to marry White Yi even if the latter ..."
  21. ^ Barbara A. West Encyclopedia of the Peoples of Asia and Oceania 2009 - Page 910 "Yi society prior to the revolution in 1949 was divided into four ranked classes or castes: Nuohuo, or Black Yi; Qunuo, or White Yi; Ajia; and Xiaxi. The Nuohuo, or Black Yi, was the highest and smallest caste at just about 7 percent of the ..."
  22. ^ Yongming Zhou Anti-Drug Crusades in Twentieth-Century - China: Nationalism, ... - 1999 - Page 150 "The black Yi (about 7 percent of the population) made up the aristocratic ruling class, and the white Yi held subordinate status. Within the white Yi, however, there were three subgroups: Qunuo, Anjia, and Jiaxi. Qunuo (about 50 percent of the ...")
  23. ^ S. Robert Ramsey The Languages of China 1987- Page 253 "The Black Yi looked down on farming, and all cultivation was traditionally done by White Yi and slaves. The Black Yi were responsible only for administration and military protection. Even so, however, they usually took great care to tend to their ..."
  24. ^ Stevan Harrell Perspectives on the Yi of Southwest China 2001 - Page 174 "One village is for Black Yi, who speak Black Yi language. One village is for White Yi, who speak White Yi language. One place is for Red Yi, who speak Red Yi language. One village is for Gan Yi, who speak Gan Yi language. One village is for ..."
  25. ^ Daniel H. Bays Christianity in China: From the Eighteenth Century to the Present 1999- Page 144 "In the local hierarchy of ethnic groups, they ranked near the bottom, below the Chinese, the Yi aristocracy (Black Yi) and free men (White Yi), and the Hui, closer to the Yi slave caste."
  26. ^ https://publishing.cdlib.org/ucpressebooks/view?docId=kt896nd0h7&chunk.id=ch05&toc.depth=1&toc.id=ch05&brand=ucpress/
  27. ^ a b https://www.burkemuseum.org/static/mountainpatterns/religion/spirit.html#zhyge
  28. ^ "?-,?,?-?". yizuren.com. Retrieved 2014.
  29. ^ Fu, Colette (2013). Yi costume festival. Colette Fu. OCLC 881525220.
  30. ^ Fu, Colette; Wasserman, Krystyna (2016). Wanderer/Wonderer: Pop-Ups by Colette Fu : October 14, 2016-February 26, 2017. National Museum of Women in the Arts. OCLC 962923876.
  31. ^ .
  32. ^ ,.
  33. ^ 2012.
  34. ^ "OMF International". Retrieved 2008.
  35. ^ Long et al. "Medicinal plants used by the Yi ethnic group: a case study in central Yunnan".
  36. ^ Wang, N. et al. "Serological Evidence of Bat SARS-Related Coronavirus Infection in Humans, China"
  37. ^ Li, HY et al. "Human-animal interactions and bat coronavirus spillover potential among rural residents in Southern China"
  38. ^ Sheridan, R. "The forgotten legacy of Traditional Medicine in the age of coronavirus"

Sources

  • Cheng Xiamin. A Survey of the Demographic Problems of the Yi Nationality in the Greater and Lesser Liang Mountains. Social Sciences in China. 3: Autumn 1984, 207-231.
  • Clements, Ronald. Point Me to the Skies: the amazing story of Joan Wales. (Monarch Publications, 2007), ISBN 978-0-8254-6157-6.
  • Dessaint, Alain Y. Minorities of Southwest China: An Introduction to the Yi (Lolo) and Related Peoples. (New Haven: HRAF Press, 1980).
  • Du Ruofu and Vip, Vincent F. Ethnic Groups in China. (Beijing: Science Press, 1993).
  • Goullart, Peter. Princes of the Black Bone. (John Murray, London, 1959).
  • Grimes, Barbara F. Ethnologue. (Dallas: Wycliffe Bible Translators, 1988).
  • Cultural Encounters on China's Ethnic Frontiers. The History of the History of the Yi. Edited by Stevan Harrell. (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1995).
  • Perspectives on the Yi of Southwest China. Edited by Stevan Harrell. (Berkeley / Los Angeles / London: University of California Press, 2001), ISBN 0-520-21988-0.
  • China's Minority Nationalities. Edited by Ma Yin. (Beijing: Foreign Language Press, 1994).
  • Zhang Weiwen and Zeng Qingnan. In Search of China's Minorities. (Beijing: New World Press).
  • Ritual for Expelling Ghosts: A religious Classic of the Yi nationality in Liangshan Prefecture, Sichuan (The Taipei Ricci Institute, Nov. 1998), ISBN 957-9185-60-3.

Further reading

  • Beckwith, Christopher I. (1987). The Tibetan Empire in Central Asia: A History of the Struggle for Great Power among Tibetans, Turks, Arabs, and Chinese during the Early Middle Ages. Princeton University Press.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Benoît Vermander. L'enclos à moutons: un village nuosu du sud-ouest de la Chine. Paris: Les Indes savantes (2007).
  • Blackmore, M. (1960). "The Rise of Nan-Chao in Yunnan". Journal of Southeast Asian History. 1 (2): 47-61. doi:10.1017/S0217781100000132.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  • Cosmo, Nicola di (2003), Political Frontiers, Ethnic Boundaries, and Human Geographies in Chinese History
  • Ollone, Henri d', vicomte (1912) In Forbidden China: the d'Ollone mission, 1906-1909, China--Tibet--Mongolia; translated from the French of the second edition by Bernard Miall. Chapters II-V & VII. London: T. Fisher Unwin.
  • Pollard, S. (1921) In Unknown China: Record of the Observations, Adventures and Experiences of a Pioneer Missionary During a Prolonged Sojourn Amongst the Wild and Unknown Nosu Tribe of Western China London: Seeley Service and Co. Limited.

External links


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