Yeonguijeong
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Yeonguijeong
Yeonguijeong
3.jpg
Portrait of Ha Yeon who served as Yeonguijeong during the King Sejong's reign.
Korean name
Hangul
/ / / /
Hanja
??? / ??/ ??/ ??/ ??
Revised Romanizationyeong-uijeong[1]/ sangsang/ sugyu/ wonbo
McCune-Reischauery?ng'?ij?ng / sangsang/ sukyu / wonbo

Yeonguijeong (Korean pronunciation: [j ?i t]) was a title created in 1400, during the Joseon Kingdom and the Korean Empire times (1392-1910) and given to the Chief State Councillor[1][2] as the highest government position of "Uijeongbu" (State Council). Existing for over 500 years, the function was handed over in 1895 during the Gabo Reform to the newly formed position of Prime Minister of Korea.[3][4] Only one official at a time was appointed to the position and though was generally called Yeongsang, was also referred to as Sangsang, Sugyu or Wonbo. Although, the title of Yeonguijeong was defined as the highest post in charge of every state affairs by law, its practical functions changed drastically depending on the particular King and whether that King's power was strong or weak.[4]

The establishment

The Korean Joseon inherited the state structure of its predecessor, the Goryeo (918-1392), but soon began to reorganize the government. In 1400, the second year after King Jeongjong ascended to the throne, he renamed the Privy Council or Dopyeonguisasa,[5] the highest assigned post in charge of the state affairs of Goryeo, to "Uijeongbu" and let the post be called "yeonguijeong busa" (). As both functions of Uijeongbu got stronger, and its system was further revised, Yeonguijeong busa was renamed to Yeonguijeong in a firm establishment of the office.[4]

In 1466, the position was officially put in statutory form as Gyeongguk daejeon (Complete Code of Law)[6] was compiled.[7] The Yeongjuijeong title was generally conferred on a senior minister who had previously served as Jwauijeong (Left State Councilor [8]), a post immediately below that of Yeonguijeong, but higher than that of Uuijeong (Right State Councillor[9]). The three posts were collectively referred to as "Samjeongseung" [10] or "Samuijeong" (Three High Councillors).[4]

List of the Chief State Councillors of Joseon Dynasty

Reign King Hangul Date Chief State Councillor # Hangul KO source
1 1392-1398 Taejo 1 1392/07/17 Jeong Dojeon x kp
2 1398-1400 Jeongjong
3 1400-1418 Taejong 1 1401/07/13-1402.4.18 Yi Seo x kp
2 1402/10/04 Seong Seok-rin x kp
3 1403/07/16 Jo Jun x kp
4 1405/07/03 Seong Seok-rin 2 kp
5 1406/12/04 Yi Seo 2 kp
6 1407/07/04 Uian Daegun (Yi Wa) ? () x kp
7 1408/01/03 Uian Daegun (Yi Wa) ? ... kp
8 1408/05/27-1412/08/21 Ha Ryun x kp
9 1409/08/10 Yi Seo 3 kp
10 1408/10/11 Ha Ryun 2 kp
11 1412/08/21 Seong Seok-rin 3 kp
12 1414/04/17 Ha Ryun 3 kp
13 1415/10/28 Seong Seok-rin 4 kp
14 1416/05/25 Nam Jae x kp
15 1416/11/02 Yu Jung-hyun x kp
16 1418/06/05 Han Sanggyung x kp
4 1418-1450 Sejong 1 1418/09/03 Sim On x kp
2 1418/12/07 Yu Jung-hyun 2 x kp
3 1424/09/07 Yi Jig x kp
4 1431/09/07 Hwang Hui x kp
5 1449/10/05-1451/07/13 Ha Yeon kp
5 1450-1452 Munjong 1 1451/10/27 Hwangbo In x kp
6 1452-1455 Danjong 1 1453/10/11 Suyangdaegun (K-Sejo) ? () x kp
7 1455-1468 Sejo 1 1455/06/11 Jeong In-ji x kp
2 1458/12/07 Jeong Changson x kp
3 1459/11/05 Gang Maenggyung x kp
4 1461/04/29 Jeong Changson 2 kp
5 1461/05/20 Shin Suk-ju x kp
6 1466/04/18 Gu Chigwan kp
7 1466/10/19 Han Myung-hoi x kp
8 1467/04/06 Hwang Su-sin kp
9 1467/05/20 Sim Hoe x kp
10 1467/12/12 Jo Seok-mun kp
11 1468/07/17 Guseonggun () x kp
8 1468-1469 Yejong 1 1468/12/20 Bak Wonhyung kp
2 1469/01/23 Han Myung-hoi 2 x kp
3 1469/08/22 Hong Yun-seong x kp
9 1469-1494 Seongjong 1 1470/04/06 Yun Jaun kp
2 1471/10/23 Shin Suk-ju 2 x kp
3 1475/07/01 Jeong Changson 3 x kp
4 1485/03/28 Yun Pilsang x kp
5 1493/11/06 Yi Geugbae kp
10 1494-1506 Yeonsangun 1 1495/03/20 No Sasin x kp
2 1495/10/04 Shin Sung-seon kp
3 1500/04/11 Han Chi-hyung kp
4 1503/01/04 Seong Jun x kp
5 1504/04/04 Yu Sun kp
11 1506-1544 Jungjong 1 1506/09/2 Park Won-jong x kp
2 1510/03/06 Kim Sudong kp
3 1512/10/07 Yu Sun-jung x kp
4 1513/04/02 Seong Hui-ahn x kp
5 1513/10/27 Song Il kp
6 1514/10/01 Yu Sun 2 kp
7 1516/04/09 Jeong Gwangpil kp
8 1520/02/14 Kim Jeon x kp
9 1523/04/18 Nam Gon x kp
10 1527/10/21 Jeong Gwangpil 2 kp
11 Nam Gon 2 x kp
12 1527/03/10 Jang Sun-son kp
13 1534/11/20 Han Hyo-won kp
14 1535/03/26 Kim Geun-sa kp
15 1537/11/02 Yun Eunbo kp
12 1544-1545 Injong 1 1545/01/13 Hong Eon-pil x kp
2 1545/01/06 Yun In-gyung kp
13 1545-1567 Myeongjong 1 1548/05/17 Hong Eon-pil 2 x kp
2 1549/05/21 Yi Gi x kp
3 1551/08/23 Sim Yeon-won x kp
4 1558/05/29 San Gjin kp
5 1563/01/17 Yun Won-hyung x kp
6 1565/08/15 Yi Jungyung x kp
14 1567-1608 Seonjo 1 1573/03/22 Gwon Cheol kp
2 1574/04/11 Hong Seom kp
3 1576/08/18 Gwon Cheol 2 kp
4 1580/05/25 Bak Sun x kp
5 1588/05/11 No Sunsin x kp
6 Choi Hung-won kp
7 Yi Won-ik x kp
8 Ryu Seong-ryong x kp
9 Yun Doo-su x kp
10 Yi San-hae x kp
11 Yi Hang-bok x kp
12 Yun Sung-hun kp
13 Yu Yung-gyung kp
15 1608-1623 Gwanghaegun 1 1608 Yi Won-ik 2 x kp
2 Yi Deok-hyung x kp
3 Gi Ja-heon x kp
4 Chung In-hong x kp
5 Bak Sung-jong x kp
16 1623-1649 Injo 1 1623 Yi Won-ik 3 x kp
2 Sin Hum x kp
3 Oh Yun-gyum kp
4 Yun Bang x kp
5 Kim Ryu x kp
6 Yi Hong-ju kp
7 Choi Myung-kil x kp
8 Yi Seong-gu kp
9 Hong Seo-bong kp
10 Sim Yeol kp
11 Kim Ja-jeom x kp
17 1649-1659 Hyojong 1 Kim Ja-jeom 2 x kp
2 Yi Gyung-seok x kp
3 Kim Yuk x kp
4 Yi Si-baek x kp
5 Sim Ji-won x kp
6 Jeong Tae-hwa kp
18 1659-1674 Hyeonjong 1 Jeong Taehwa 2 kp
2 Hong Myungha kp
3 Kim Su-hung x kp
4 Heo Jeok x kp
19 1674-1720 Sukjong 1 Heo Jeok 2 x kp
2 Kim Seok-ju x kp
3 Kim Su-hang x kp
4 Gwon Dae-un kp
5 Nam Gu-man x kp
6 1696-1699 Yu Sangun kp,ws
7 1700-1701 Seo Mun-jung kp,ws
8 1701 Choi Seok-jung x kp,ws
9 1702 Seo Mun-jung 2 kp,ws
10 1702-1703 Choi Seok-jung 2 x kp,ws
11 1703-1705 Sin Wan kp,ws
12 1705-1710 Choi Seok-jung 3 x kp,ws
13 1710 Yi Yeo x kp,ws
14 1711-1712 Seo Jong-tae kp,ws
15 1712-1713 Yi Yu x kp,ws
16 1714-1716 Seo Jong-tae 2 kp,ws
17 1717-1720 Kim Chang-jip 2 x kp,ws
20 1720-1724 Gyeongjong 1 1720-1721 Kim Chang-jip 2 x kp,ws
2 1721-1723 Jo Tae-gu kp,ws
3 1723-1724 Choi Gyu-seo kp,ws
21 1724-1776 Yeongjo 1 1724-2729 Yi Gwang-jwa kp,ws
2 1729-1732 Hong Chi-jung kp,ws
3 1732-1735 Shim Su-yun kp,ws
4 1735-1737 Yi Ui-hyun ws
5 1737-1740 Yi Gwang-jwa 2 kp,ws
6 1740-1754 Kim Jae-ro x ws
7 1754-1758 Yi Chun-bo kp,ws
8 1758-1759 Yu Cheok-ki x ws
9 1759 Yi Chun-bo 2 kp,ws
10 1759-1760 Kim Sang-ro kp,ws
11 1761-1762 Hong Bonghan kp,ws
12 1762-1763 Sim Man ? ? kp,ws
13 1763-1766 Hong Bong-han 2 kp,ws
14 1766-1767 Seo Ji-su ws
15 1767-1768 Kim Chi-in kp,ws
16 1768 Seo Ji-su 2 ws
17 1768 Kim Chi-in 2 kp,ws
18 1768-1770 Hong Bong-han 3 kp,ws
19 1770-1772 Kim Chi-in 3 kp,ws
20 1772 Kim Sang-bok kp,ws
21 1772 Sin Hoe kp,ws
22 1772 Kim Sang-bok 2 kp,ws
23 1772 Han Ik-mo kp,ws
24 1772 Kim Sang-bok 3 kp,ws
25 1772-1773 Sin Hoe 2 kp,ws
26 1773 Han Ik-mo 2 kp,ws
27 1773-1774 Kim Sang-bok 4 kp,ws
28 1774 Han Ik-mo 3 kp,ws
29 1774-1775 Sin Hoe 3 kp,ws
30 1775 Han Ik-mo 4 kp,ws
31 1775-1776 Kim Sang-chul kp,ws
? 1731 Kim Hung-gyung () x kp
? Sin Im x kp
? Jeong Ho Err kp
22 1776-1800 Jeongjo 1 1776-1779 Kim Yang-taek ws
2 1779-1780 Seo Myung-sun kp,ws
3 1780-1781 Kim Yang-taek 2 ws
4 1781-1783 Seo Myung-sun 2 kp,ws
5 1783-1784 Jeong Jong-yeom kp,ws
6 1784-1785 Seo Myung-sun 3 kp,ws
7 1785-1786 Jeong Jong-yeom kp,ws
8 1786-1789 Kim Chi-in 2 kp,ws
9 1789 Kim Ik kp,ws
10 1789-1790 Yi Jae-hyeop kp,ws
11 1790 Kim Ik 2 kp,ws
12 1790-1793 Choi Hyo-won ws
13 1793 Chae Je-gong x kp,ws
14 1793-1798 Hong Nak-sung x kp,ws
15 1799-1800 Yi Byung-mo kp,ws
? Kim Jong-su x kp
23 1800-1834 Sunjo 1 1800-1802 Shim Hwan-ji x kp,ws
2 1802-1803 Yi Si-su ws
3 1803-1805 Yi Byung-mo kp,ws
4 1805-1806 Seo Mae-su ws
5 1806 Yi Byung-mo 2 kp,ws
6 1806-1812 vacant ws
7 1812-1816 Kim Jae-chan x ws
8 1816-1819 vacant ws
9 1819-1821 Seo Yong-bo ws
10 1821 Han Yong-gwi ws
11 1821-1823 Kim Jae-chan 2 x ws
12 1823-1833 Nam Gong-chul kp,ws
13 1833-1834 Yi Sang-hwang kp,ws
24 1834-1849 Heonjong 1 1834-1835 Shim Sang-gyu kp,ws
2 1835-1837 vacant ws
3 1837-1838 Yi Sang-hwang 2 kp,ws
4 1838-1841 vacant ws
5 1841-1844 Jo In-young x kp,ws
6 1845-1848 Gwon Don-in kp,ws
7 1848-1849 Jeong Won-yong x kp,ws
25 1849-1863 Cheoljong 1 1849-1850 Jeong Won-yong x kp,ws
2 1850 Jo In-young 2 x kp,ws
3 1851-1852 Gwon Don-in 2 kp,ws
4 1853 Kim Hunggun x ws
5 1853-1859 Kim Jwa-gun x kp,ws
6 1859-1861 Jeong Won-yong 2 x kp,ws
7 1861-1862 Kim Jwa-gun 2 x kp,ws
8 1862-1863 Jeong Won-yong 3 x kp,ws
26 1863-1897 Gojong 1 1863-1864 Kim Jwa-gun 2 x kp,ws
2 1864-1866 Jo Du-sun ws
3 1866-1867 Yi Kyung-jae ws
4 1867-1868 Kim Byung-hak x kp,ws
5 1868 Jeong Won-yong 4 x kp,ws
6 1868-1872 Kim Byung-hak 2 x kp,ws
7 1872-1873 Hong Sun-mok x kp,ws
8 1873-1875 Yi Yu-won kp,ws
9 1875-1882 Yi Choi-ung / x kp,ws
1878 Min Gyu-ho x kp
10 1882 Seo Bang-bo ws
11 1882-1884 Hong Sun-mok 2 x kp,ws
12 1884 Kim Byung-guk ws
13 1884-1894 Shim Sun-taek ws
14 1894 Kim Byung-si x ws
15 1894-1895 Kim Hong-jip x kp,ws
16 1895 Bak Jung-yang ws
17 1895-1896/02/11 Kim Hong-jip 2 x kp,ws
18 1896 Kim Byung-si 2 x ws
19 1896-1898 Yun Yong-sun ws

This table started as a translation of the ko: (Yeonguijeong) page published by the Korean popflock.com resource .[a] The corresponding items are tagged "kp" in the "source" column. Not a single reference was provided in this page. For the 1st-14th reigns, an Gregorian installation date was given (the best possibility). In case of multiple occurrences e.g. Seong Seokrin during Taejong reign, this is acknowledged by a tag in the "#" column. For the 14th-26th reigns, only the names were given, so that chronological order is not enforced. For example, Chae Jegong was cited once for the Jeongjo reign, while the biographical article ko: (Chae Jegong) was listing 1776, 1790, 1793.

Additional material coming from the WorldStatesmen page[11] is tagged as "ws" in the source column. Here too, no references are given. When a cross-checking with the Korean page of a given statesman has been possible, hangul transcription and life dates have been borrowed.

In any case, the column KO is checked each time the corresponding biography exists on the Korean Wikipedia.

Changes of Yeonguijeong's roles

Until April 1436, the 18th year of Sejong the Great's reign, Jwauijeong and Uuijeong concurrently served as Panijosa (?) and Panbyeongjosa (?) respectively, so that they governed personnel affairs of yangban (the literary and military nobility).

Yeonguijeong continued to exist as an honorary post, and so only managed to contemplate and adjust diplomatic documents or re-examine the cases of condemned people.

However, when Hwang Hui was appointed as "Yeonguijeong busa" in that same year, the king modified the government system to strengthen the power of Samjeongseung from the Yukjo (Six Ministries) centered system. With the reform, Sejong noted that a situation in which three highest senior advisors could not participate in the state affairs contravened the original intention to have them as the high state councillors.[4]

During the reform, Yukjo conferred with Uijeongbu regarding the responsibilities of each minister. Uijeongbu discussed legitimacy of the issues, and then reported to the king. After receiving an approval from the king, Uijeongbu returned to Yujo to enact the assigned affairs. As a result, Yeonguijeong came to participate more actively in the representative work as the head of Uijeongbu. However, other ministerial duities, such as the rights of Ijo (; Ministry of Personnel[12]) and Byeongjo (, Ministry of Military Affairs[13]) to implement personnel management, Byeongjo's mobilization of soldiers, Hyeongjo (, Ministry of Punishments[14])'s right to handle all criminals other than condemned people, were still directly operated by the related ministers.[4]

When Prince Suyang usurped the place of his nephew, King Danjong, the function of Yeonguijeong was relegated to its previous powerless position. This was because when the King Sejo was still a prince, his actions were greatly restricted by his political rivals, Yeonguijeong, Hwangbo In () and Jwauijeong, Kim Jongseo (). So during the reigns of King Seongjong and Jungjong, there were several proposals to restore the former powers of Uijeongbu, but those suggestions were not implemented.[4]

Major affairs of the state were discussed when Bibyeonsa was established in 1558 (during the 10th year of King Myeongjong's reign). The three High Councillors attended meetings only as "Dojejo" (Supreme Commissioner[15][16]). So the power of Yeonguijeong tended to be increased or decreased, depending on the political atmosphere of the times, such as the degree of the king's power, the relationship between Uijeongbu and Yukjo, the establishment of Bibyeonsa (; Border Defense Command[17]), the later administration of Kyujanggak (the Royal Library), the conflicts between political parties, and the advancement of "in-law government" (?, Sedo jeongchi[18]), among others. Regardless, the title "Yeonguijeong" continued as the apex in the bureaucratic system throughout the entire Joseon period.[4]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ accessdate: 2011-07-14

References

  1. ^ a b "( ), yeong-uijeong" (in Korean and English). The Academy of Korean Studies. Retrieved .
  2. ^ Choi (2006), The Origin of the Roman Catholic Church in Korea p. 375
  3. ^ (in Korean and English). Daum Korean-English Dictionary.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h () (in Korean). Empas /EncyKorea. Retrieved .
  5. ^ " (), Dopyeonguisasa" (in Korean and English). The Academy of Korean Studies. Retrieved .
  6. ^ "?(?), Gyeonggukdaejeon" (in Korean and English). The Academy of Korean Studies. Retrieved .
  7. ^ John B. Duncan (2000). The Origins of the Chos?n Dynasty. University of Washington Press. p. 229. ISBN 0-295-97985-2.
  8. ^ Choi (2006), The Origin of the Roman Catholic Church in Korea p. 372
  9. ^ "(), uuijeong" (in Korean and English). The Academy of Korean Studies. Retrieved .
  10. ^ "(), Jeongseung" (in Korean and English). The Academy of Korean Studies. Retrieved .
  11. ^ "WorldStaesmen". Retrieved .
  12. ^ "(), Ijo" (in Korean and English). The Academy of Korean Studies. Retrieved .
  13. ^ "(), Byeong-jo" (in Korean and English). The Academy of Korean Studies. Retrieved .
  14. ^ "(), Hyeongjo" (in Korean and English). The Academy of Korean Studies. Retrieved .
  15. ^ James B. Palais (1996). Confucian Statecraft and Korean Institutions: Yu Hy?ngw?n and the Late Chos?n Dynasty. University of Washington Press. p. 1271. ISBN 0-295-97455-9.
  16. ^ () (in Korean). Empas/EncyKorea.
  17. ^ "(), Bibyeonsa" (in Korean and English). The Academy of Korean Studies.
  18. ^ "?(?), sedo jeongchi" (in Korean and English). The Academy of Korean Studies.

External links


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Yeonguijeong
 



 



 
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