Yang Zhuang Language
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Yang Zhuang Language
Yang Zhuang
Dejing
Káang Thó
Native toChina
RegionSouthwestern Guangxi
Native speakers
770,000 in China (2004)[1]
Language codes
zyg
Glottologyang1286
Yang-Zhuang.png
Geographic distribution of Yang Zhuang.

Yang Zhuang is a Tai language spoken in southwestern Guangxi, China, in Napo, Jingxi and Debao counties.

Li Jinfang (1999) suggests that the Yang Zhuang originally spoke the Buyang language, and later assimilated with other Tai-speaking peoples (See Buyang people#History).

Distribution

Zhuang dialects given in the county almanacs of Jingxi County, Debao County, and Napo County are listed below. This region is also known as the "Dejing" area. All names and statistics are from the local county almanacs (), as quoted in Jackson et al (2012). Note that these divisions are often ethnic rather than geographic. Thus, some "Yang" peoples may actually speak non-Yang Zhuang dialects, and vice versa. Jackson (2011) shows that most Yang dialects do indeed form a distinctive subgroup against Fu (also shown to be a distinctive subgroup) and Nong.

Variants with multiple names include:

  • Yang ? in Jingxi / Nongshun in Napo
  • Fu ? in Jingxi / Lang ? in Debao / Nongfu in Napo
  • Zuozhou in Jingxi / Zhazhou in Napo

Jingxi County

Below are the various Zhuang dialects of Jingxi County. The townships with which the most speakers of the dialect live in are also given. Only "Yang ?" corresponds to Yang Zhuang.

  • Yang ?:[2] 371,892 speakers; all townships
  • Zong ?: 75,957 speakers; Ande , Nanpo , Sanhe , Guole
  • Long'an (Nong'an ): 26,102 speakers; Quyang , Sanhe , Bameng , Dadao , Longlin
  • Zuozhou :[3] 27,011 speakers; Xinxu , Dadao , Longlin , Ronglao , Ludong
  • Rui/Yei ?: 11,304 speakers; Kuixiu , Bameng
  • Sheng ?: 14,718 speakers; Kuixiu , Nanpo
  • Fu ?: 1,146 speakers; Bameng , Dadao
  • Total: 528,130

Debao County

Zhuang dialects of Debao County are:

  • Lang [4]: 255,000 speakers in all townships
  • Min : 17,000 speakers in Fuping township , near Napo County
  • Nong Zhuang
    • Nong Zhuang (Southern): 17,000 speakers in Ma'ai township , Du'an township , and 4 villages in Dongguan township
    • Nong Zhuang (Northern - Baise): 34,000 speakers in Dongling township and Puxu township
    • Nong Zhuang (Northern - Tiandong): 17,000 speakers in Longsang township
  • Total: 340,000

Napo County

Yang ? dialects of Napo County are:

  • Yangzhou : 41 villages
  • Yangdong : 100 villages
  • Yanggai : 3 villages
  • Yangwu (Yangniao ): 24 villages
  • Yangtai : 22 villages
  • Yangwo
  • Yanglong
  • Yangyin
  • Yangjie
  • Yangnan

Non-Yang dialects and their distributions in Napo County are:

  • Min : all townships
  • Dong
  • Nong
    • Nongshun :[5] Longhe township
    • Nongfu : Chengxiang township
  • Bunong :[6] Baidu township , Baisheng township
  • Rui/Yei ?: Longhe township
  • Ao ?: Chengxiang township
  • Sheng ?: Pingmeng township
  • Jue ?: Chengxiang township
  • Yong ?
  • Long'an : Longhe township , Baidu township , Chengxiang township
  • Zhazhou :[7] Longhe township

Orthography

Initials

  • p/b - [p]
  • ph - [p?]
  • mb - [?b/?]
  • m/mh - [m]
  • f/v - [f]
  • t/d - [t]
  • th - [t?]
  • nd - [?d/?]
  • n/nh - [n]
  • l/lh - [l]
  • r/rh - [?//ð]
  • sl/zl - [?/?]
  • c/j - [t?s/t]
  • s/z - [s/?]
  • k/g - [k]
  • kh - [k?]
  • ng/ngh - [?]
  • x - [?]
  • w/wh - [w]
  • qw - [?w]
  • y/yh - [j]
  • qy - [?j]
  • h - [h]
  • - - [?]
  • kw/gw - [kw]
  • khw - [k?w]
  • ngw/nghw - [?w]
  • py/by - [pj]
  • phy - [p?j]
  • my/mhy - [mj]
  • ky/gy - [kj]
  • khy - [k?j]
  • ngy/nghy - [?j]

Initials for Chinese loanwords

  • ch - [t?s?/t/s/?]
  • ty - [ty]
  • thy - [t?j]
  • sy - [sj/?j]
  • cy - [t?sj/tj]
  • chy - [t?s?j/tj/sj/?j]
  • sly - [?j/?j]
  • ny - [?]
  • ly - [lj]
  • hy - [hj]
  • hw - [?]

Rimes

  • a - [a]
  • aay - [a:j]
  • aaw - [a:w]
  • aam - [a:m]
  • aan - [a:n]
  • aang - [a:?]
  • aap - [a:p]
  • aat - [a:t]
  • aak - [a:k]
  • ay - [?j]
  • aw - [?w]
  • am - [?m]
  • an - [?n]
  • ang - []
  • ap - [?p]
  • at - [?t]
  • ak - [?k]
  • ee - [e:]
  • ey - [ej/?j]
  • ew - [e:w]
  • eem - [e:m]
  • een - [e:n]
  • eeng - [e:?]
  • eep - [e:p]
  • eet - [e:t]
  • eek - [e:k]
  • oe - [ø:]
  • oey - [ø:j]
  • oem - [ø:m]
  • oen - [ø:n]
  • oet - [ø:t]
  • i - [i:]
  • iw - [i:w]
  • im - [i:m]
  • in - [i:n]
  • ing - [i:?]
  • ip - [i:p]
  • it - [i:t]
  • ik - [i:k]
  • e - [?:]
  • em - [?:m]
  • en - [?:n]
  • eng - [?:?]
  • ep - [?:p]
  • et - [?:t]
  • ek - [?:k]
  • iep - [?p]
  • iet - [?t]
  • iek - [?k]
  • oi - [y:]
  • oim - [y:m]
  • oin - [y:n]
  • oing - [y:?]
  • oit - [y:t]
  • oik - [y:k]
  • o - [o:]
  • ooy - [o:j]
  • ow - [o:w]
  • oom - [o:m]
  • oon - [o:n]
  • oong - [o:?]
  • oop - [o:p]
  • oot - [o:t]
  • ook - [o:k]
  • oa/oh - [?:]
  • oy - [?:?/?:j]
  • om - [?:m]
  • on - [?:n]
  • ong - [?:?]
  • op - [?:p]
  • ot - [?:t]
  • ok - [?:k]
  • u - [u:]
  • uy - [u:j]
  • uum - [u:m]
  • uun - [u:n]
  • uung - [u:?]
  • uup - [u:p]
  • uut - [u:t]
  • uuk - [u:k]
  • um - [?m]
  • un - [?n]
  • up - [?p]
  • uk - [?k]
  • oup - [?p]
  • out - [?t]
  • ouk - [?k]
  • ui - [?:][8]

Notes and references

  1. ^ Yang Zhuang at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  2. ^ Nongshun in Napo County
  3. ^ Zhazhou in Napo County
  4. ^ Also referred to as Nong ?,? or Fu ?
  5. ^ Yang ? in Jingxi County
  6. ^ Different from Nong ? (separate character)
  7. ^ Zuozhou in Jingxi County
  8. ^ Yang Zhuang language at Omniglot.

External links


  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

Yang_Zhuang_language
 



 



 
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