Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture
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Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture
Yanbian Prefecture

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Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture
Yanji, the prefectural seat of Yanbian
Yanji, the prefectural seat of Yanbian
Location of Yanbian Prefecture (yellow) in Jilin (light grey) and China
Location of Yanbian Prefecture (yellow) in Jilin (light grey) and China
Coordinates: 43°08?N 129°11?E / 43.133°N 129.183°E / 43.133; 129.183Coordinates: 43°08?N 129°11?E / 43.133°N 129.183°E / 43.133; 129.183
CountryPeople's Republic of China
ProvinceJilin
County-level divisions6 county-level cities
2 counties
Prefectural seatYanji
Government
 o Party SecretaryJiang Zhiying
 o GovernorJin Shouhao
Area
 o Total43,509 km2 (16,799 sq mi)
Population
(2010)
 o Total2,271,600
 o Density52/km2 (140/sq mi)
 o Ethnic composition
Time zoneUTC+8 (China Standard)
Area code(s)0433
ISO 3166 codeCN-JL-24
Licence plate prefixes?H
Websitewww.yanbian.gov.cn
Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture
Yanbian name.svg
"Yanbian", as written in Chinese and Korean
Simplified Chinese
Traditional Chinese
Chinese Korean name
Chos?n'g?l

Yanbian (Chinese: ; Chos?n'g?l: , Y?nby?n) is an autonomous prefecture in the east of Jilin Province, China. Yanbian is bordered to the north by Heilongjiang, on the west by Baishan and Jilin City, on the south by North Korea's North Hamgyong Province, and on the east by Primorsky Krai in Russia. Yanbian is designated as a Korean autonomous prefecture due to the large number of ethnic Koreans living in the region. The prefectural capital is Yanji, and the total area is 42,700 square kilometres (16,500 sq mi).

The prefecture has an important Balhae archaeological site: the Ancient Tombs at Longtou Mountain, which includes the Mausoleum of Princess Jeonghyo.

History

In the Ming dynasty, Yanbian was governed by the Jianzhou Guard (), and in the late Qing dynasty the area was divided into the Yanji () and Hunchun () subprefectures. From 1644 to the 1800s the Manchurian administrators of the Qing state attempted to separate northeast China, politically and ethnographically, into a "Manchuria" to which they could retreat in case an ethnically Han Chinese dynasty regained control over China. However, this effort failed because of the trading and agricultural opportunities available to Han Chinese migrants in the northeast region which made it profitable to evade the rules, as well as later Qing relaxation of the same rules to discourage Russian encroachment.

In the 19th century, Korean immigrants migrated en masse from the Korean peninsula to China. After the foundation of the Republic of China, a second wave arrived. Of the 2 million ethnic Koreans in Manchuria at the time of the communist takeover, 1.2 million remained in the region after the end of World War II. Many participated in the Chinese Civil War, most on the side of the Chinese communists. When the civil war was over, the new Chinese government gave these Koreans their own autonomous region (?) in 1952. Yanbian was upgraded to an ethnic autonomous prefecture in 1955.

Korean (Joseon) migration into northeast China began in significant numbers in the last quarter of the 19th century and was mainly motivated by economic hardship on the Korean side of the border. After the Japanese annexed Korea in 1910, a small but significant number of migrants also came to Manchuria for political reasons.[1]

In 1952, the Korean migrants comprised some 60% of the local population, but by 2000 that was down to 32%. The Chinese authorities subsidize Korean language schools and publications, but also take measures to prevent an emergence of Korean irredentism in the area. From the late 1990s, the Koreans have assimilated into mainstream Chinese culture with increasing speed, often switching to daily use of Chinese and choosing to attend Chinese-language schools.[2]

Geography

  • Geographic coordinates: 41° 59' 47" - 44° 30' 42" N, 127° 27' 43" - 131° 18' 33" E
  • Total border length: 755.2 kilometres (469.3 mi)
    • With North Korea: 522.5 kilometres (324.7 mi)
    • With Russia: 232.7 kilometres (144.6 mi)

Mountains that are in the prefecture are:

  • Changbai Mountains (central range)
  • Zhangguangcai Peak (?)
  • Harba Peak (?)
  • Peony Peak ()
  • Old Master Peak ()
  • Nangang Mountain Range (?)

There have been over 40 types of minerals and 50 kinds of metals - including gold, lead, zinc, copper, silver, manganese and mercury - discovered near or in the mountains.

The average land height is 500 metres above sea level.

Main rivers include:

The rivers sustain 28 running water processing facilities. They created basins, which are suitable for agricultural uses, like rice paddies and bean farms.

Administration

The prefecture is subdivided into eight county-level divisions: six county-level cities and two counties:

Map
Name Chinese Hanyu Pinyin Chinese Korean transliteration Population (2003 est.) Area (km²) Density (/km²)
Chos?n'g?l Revised McCune
Yanji City Yánjí Shì Yeongil-si Y?ngil-si 410,000 1,332 308
Tumen City Túmén Shì Domun-si Tomun-si 130,000 1,142 114
Dunhua City D?nhuà Shì Donhwa-si Tonhwa-si 480,000 11,963 40
Hunchun City Húnch?n Shì Honchun-si Honch'un-si 220,000 4,938 45
Longjing City Lóngj?ng Shì Ryongjeong-si Ryongj?ng-si 250,000 2,592 96
Helong City Hélóng Shì Hwaryong-si Hwaryong-si 210,000 5,069 41
Wangqing County W?ngq?ng Xiàn Wangcheong-hyeon Wangch'?ng-hy?n 250,000 8,994 28
Antu County ?ntú Xiàn Ando-hyeon Ando-hy?n 210,000 7,444 28

The above counties and cities are divided into 642 villages ().

Transportation

Railways include:

  • Chang-Tu Line ()
  • Mu-Tu Line ()
  • Chao-Kai Line ()
  • Yangchuan-Shantun Line ()
  • Tumen-Hunchun Railway: under construction

There are 1,480 kilometres of public roads altogether. There are four airports.

Demographics

Ethnic compositions:

Population density: 51 people per km² (132 per mi2).

As on the Korean peninsula, Yanbian Koreans' most common surname is Kim. Many emigrated from Korea during the 19th century, and again during the Japanese occupation.

Between 1952 and 2002, the Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture had among the highest rates of urbanization () at 55.6%, 20 percentage points greater than the provincial average (31.3%) and 25 more than the national average (26.5%).[3]

Education

Colleges and universities:

International schools:

Culture

Both Mandarin Chinese and Korean are used as official languages in Yanbian. Vice News described the prefecture as both "West Korea" and "The Third Korea" due to the prominence of both North and South Korean culture.[4]

The Museum of Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture was planned in 1960, and constructed in 1982. It contains over 10,000 exhibits, including 11 first-level artifacts.[] The exhibits' labels and explanations are bilingual in Korean and Chinese, and tour guides are also available in both languages.

Tourism

There are seven public parks in Yanbian's green space (18% of whole prefecture), including:

  • Yanji People's Park ()
  • Youth Lake Park ()

Also popular among locals during holidays and festivities.

Nature and environment

Over 70% are originally forest in the prefecture, so there is a rich diversity of life.

Sports

Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture is an important region for Chinese football. Over 50 years more than 40 footballers have been selected by the Chinese national football team.

In 1955, Yanbian Football Club was founded, although it was a semi-professional one.

The first professional football team in this prefecture is Jilin Three Stars Football Club. From 1994 to 2000, this club had played each year in the top Chinese football league. In 2000, they were relegated from the top league. Because of poor economic conditions the club was sold to Lucheng Group in Zhejiang Province.

In 2001, Yanbian Football Club was founded. They are currently playing in the 32,000-seater Hailanjiang Stadium in the Chinese Super League, the top tier of the Chinese football league system.

In 2016, Yanbian Football Club was sponsored by Shenzhen Funde Group when they got the permission of Chinese Super League, since they acquired the 1st place in the Chinese Second League in 2015.

See also

References

  1. ^ Pyong, Gap Min. "A Comparison of the Korean Minorities in China and Japan." International Migration Review, Vol. 26, No. 1. (Spring, 1992), pp. 4-21.
  2. ^ Andrei Lankov (2007-08-16). "The gentle decline of the 'Third Korea'". Asia Times. Retrieved .
  3. ^ Li Yabiao (); Wang Jinghe () (2002-09-02). (in Chinese). Xinhua. Retrieved .
  4. ^ https://www.vice.com/en_us/article/gqwppy/atlas-hoods-the-third-korea

Further reading

  • Cathcart, Adam (2010). "Nationalism and Ethnic Identity in the Sino-Korean Border Region of Yanbian, 1945-1950". Korean Studies. 34: 25-53. JSTOR 23720146.

External links


  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

Yanbian_Korean_Autonomous_Prefecture
 



 



 
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